Recherche scientifique

Le développement de la recherche sur les effets de la méditation de la pleine conscience sur la santé physique et mentale

Le nombre d’articles scientifiques consacrés à la méditation de la pleine conscience (ou mindfulness ou attention) a connu une croissance très forte ces dernières années comme le montre le graphique ci-dessous.

Tous les jours, un à deux articles scientifiques sont publiés dans des journaux scientifiques spécialisés en anglais.

Ces recherches sont souvent financées dans le cadre de maladies physiques ou de problèmes psychologiques. Les plus courantes sont ainsi les études d’efficacité avant/après, parfois avec suivi et groupe de contrôle randomisé pour exclure la part du hasard dans la recherche de la causalité. On ne compte plus le nombre d’études sur telle ou telle maladie ou trouble psychiatrique. Ces études d’efficacité peuvent étudier des changements observés :

  • psychologiquement, par questionnaires la plupart du temps, entretiens ou observation comportementale
  • biologiquement
  • et de plus en plus spécifiquement sur le plan neuronal grâce au développement de l’IRM fonctionnel ou du PET scanner, instruments permettant des localisations beaucoup plus précises que les EEG très utilisés dès les années 70.

Avec ce mouvement de recherche qui démontre une certaine efficacité thérapeutique, des études essaient de déterminer les processus biologiques et psychologiques à l’oeuvre dans la méditation, comme les changements dans le fonctionnement et la structure du cerveau, l’attention, la régulation des émotions, le sentiment de soi, etc.

En France, le monde de la recherche commence aussi à s’intéresser, plus timidement que dans le monde anglophone, aux bienfaits psychiques et physiques de la méditation qui jusqu’à récemment restaient de l’ordre des récits personnels des méditants, plutôt que d’études statistiques avec groupe de contrôle randomisé.

Son développement en psychiatrie et en médecine en France

C’est principalement grâce à certains psychiatres que la pleine conscience s’est faite connaître dans le monde de la santé en France. Citons par exemple Christophe André qui a préfacé le livre de Mark Williams, John Teasdale, Zindel Segal et Jon Kabat-Zinn « Méditer pour ne plus déprimer. La pleine conscience, une méthode pour vivre mieux » (2009) ainsi que presque tous les livres sur le sujet, ou bien Frédéric Rosenfeld et son livre « Méditer, c’est se soigner » (2007), ou encore Thierry Janssen en Belgique avec « La solution intérieure » (2006). Depuis, la méditation se diffuse de plus en plus dans le grand public.

Actualités de la recherche sur la pleine conscience / mindfulness et la méditation de pleine conscience

Le Centre de Pleine Conscience s’intéresse aux travaux de recherche sur les effets et les mécanismes de la méditation et sur ses applications possibles dans la société. Nous compilons régulièrement les articles de recherches pour nous tenir au courant.

Notre blog d’articles de recherche sur la pleine conscience / mindfulness, principalement en anglais, est consultable ici :

Research on Mindfulness Meditation

Voici quelques documents en pdf :

Sur ce site, notre blog en français (et parfois en anglais) traite régulièrement des effets et de la recherche scientifique sur la pleine conscience.

Quelques effets thérapeutiques scientifiquement constatés de la méditation de pleine conscience

Au-delà d’une meilleure capacité de concentration, de gestion de l’attention et de gestion du stress, des études sur des programmes d’observation attentive du corps et de l’esprit ou « pleine conscience » (zen, vipassana, MBSR, MBCT…) prouvent différents bienfaits (diminution ou meilleure relation aux symptômes, réduction de la progression de la maladie, prévention de rechutes…) pour le corps et le fonctionnement psychologique, notamment dans les cas ci-dessous (adapté de « Méditer, c’est se soigner« , Dr. Frédéric Rosenfeld).

Corps

• Maladies de peau dépendantes du stress, psoriasis
• Douleurs chroniques
• Acouphènes (ou bourdonnements d’oreille)

• Fibromyalgie (douleurs diffuses, invalidantes et inexpliquées)
• Immunité et maladies infectieuses : Augmentation des Immunoglobines A, de l’immunité après vaccination contre la grippe.

• Céphalées, migraines
Réduction des troubles psychiques après greffe d’organe
• Sida : amélioration de l’immunité et du stress dus à la maladie
• Maladies respiratoires
• Troubles du rythme cardiaque
• Vieillissement : – action contre les radicaux libres, épaississement cortical

Cerveau

• Développement de la sensibilité (notamment tactile)
• Epaississement du cortex

Fonctionnement psychologique

• Alcoolisme
• Anxiété, ruminations mentales
• Cancer (amélioration de la qualité de vie et du stress) : sein, prostate
• Colère
• Toxicomanie, Dépendances aux drogues (études sur crack, cocaïne, cannabis), Dépendance au tabac
• Dépression, prévention du suicide
• Hyper-activité et déficit de l’attention chez les enfants (à l’étude)
• Stress
• Troubles alimentaires (boulimie)
• Troubles de la personnalité (borderline syndrome ou état limite)

Résumés de 455 recherches effectuées sur les applications médicales et/ou psychothérapiques de la méditation de la pleine conscience (mindfulness) en anglais (Pubmed)

1. Behav Res Ther. 2010 Oct;48(10):1002-1011. Epub 2010 Jun 23.

Differential effects of mindful breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and
loving-kindness meditation on decentering and negative reactions to repetitive
thoughts.

Feldman G, Greeson J, Senville J.

Simmons College, Department of Psychology, Park Science Center, 300 the Fenway,
Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Decentering has been proposed as a potential mechanism of mindfulness-based
interventions but has received limited empirical examination to date in
experimental studies comparing mindfulness meditation to active comparison
conditions. In the present study, we compared the immediate effects of mindful
breathing (MB) to two alternative stress-management techniques: progressive
muscle relaxation (PMR) and loving-kindness meditation (LKM) to test whether
decentering is unique to mindfulness meditation or common across approaches.
Novice meditators (190 female undergraduates) were randomly assigned to complete
one of three 15-min stress-management exercises (MB, PMR, or LKM) presented by
audio recording. Immediately after the exercise, participants completed measures
of decentering, frequency of repetitive thoughts during the exercise, and degree
of negative reaction to thoughts. As predicted, participants in the MB condition
reported greater decentering relative to the other two conditions. The
association between frequency of repetitive thought and negative reactions to
thoughts was relatively weaker in the MB condition than in the PMR and LKM
conditions, in which these two variables were strongly and positively correlated.
Consistent with the construct of decentering, the relative independence between
these two variables in the MB condition suggests that mindful breathing may help
to reduce reactivity to repetitive thoughts. Taken together, results help to
provide further evidence of decentering as a potential mechanism that
distinguishes mindfulness practice from other credible stress-management
approaches.

PMID: 20633873 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

2. Holist Nurs Pract. 2010 Sep-Oct;24(5):277-83.

The effect of mindfulness meditation on painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in
adults older than 50 years.

Teixeira E.

College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, 245 N 15th Street,
Philadelphia, PA 19102, USA. met42@drexel.edu

This pilot study explored the effect of mindfulness meditation for diabetic
neuropathy. Twenty participants (10 in each group) completed the study. No
significant differences were found between the groups. However, differences
between the means were found on 2 constructs: pain quality of life and
symptom-related quality of life. Further studies may show efficacy.

PMID: 20706089 [PubMed – in process]

3. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;41(3):185-90. Epub 2010 Jan 7.

Exposure and mindfulness based therapy for irritable bowel syndrome–an open
pilot study.

Ljótsson B, Andréewitch S, Hedman E, Rück C, Andersson G, Lindefors N.

Center for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska
Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. brjann.ljotsson@ki.se

We conducted a study of a group therapy based on exposure and mindfulness in the
treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Out of 49 outpatients, most of whom
were referred from gastroenterological clinics, 34 entered into the 10-week
treatment. Patients were assessed before, immediately after and 6 months after
treatment. The assessments consisted of a gastrointestinal symptom diary,
self-report questionnaires covering quality of life, gastrointestinal specific
anxiety, general functioning, and a psychiatric interview. At post-treatment, the
mean reduction in symptoms was 41% and 50% of patients showed clinically
significant improvement in symptom level. Patients also showed marked improvement
on other outcome measures. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. The
results support the use of exposure and mindfulness based strategies in the
treatment of IBS, but further randomised studies are needed to confirm the
efficacy of the treatment.

PMID: 20079485 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

4. Pain. 2010 Sep;150(3):428-38. Epub 2010 May 21.

Meditation experience predicts less negative appraisal of pain:
electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of anticipatory neural
responses.

Brown CA, Jones AK.

Human Pain Research Group, University of Manchester, Clinical Sciences Building,
Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, Salford M6 8HD, UK.
christopher.brown@manchester.ac.uk

Comment in:
Pain. 2010 Sep;150(3):382-3.

The aim of mindfulness meditation is to develop present-focused, non-judgmental,
attention. Therefore, experience in meditation should be associated with less
anticipation and negative appraisal of pain. In this study we compared a group of
individuals with meditation experience to a control group to test whether any
differences in the affective appraisal of pain could be explained by lower
anticipatory neural processing. Anticipatory and pain-evoked ERPs and reported
pain unpleasantness were recorded in response to laser stimuli of matched
subjective intensity between the two groups. ERP data were analysed after source
estimation with LORETA. No group effects were found on the laser energies used to
induce pain. More experienced meditators perceived the pain as less unpleasant
relative to controls, with meditation experience correlating inversely with
unpleasantness ratings. ERP source data for anticipation showed that in
meditators, lower activity in midcingulate cortex relative to controls was
related to the lower unpleasantness ratings, and was predicted by lifetime
meditation experience. Meditators also reversed the normal positive correlation
between medial prefrontal cortical activity and pain unpleasantness during
anticipation. Meditation was also associated with lower activity in S2 and insula
during the pain-evoked response, although the experiment could not disambiguate
this activity from the preceding anticipation response. Our data is consistent
with the hypothesis that meditation reduces the anticipation and negative
appraisal of pain, but effects on pain-evoked activity are less clear and may
originate from preceding anticipatory activity. Further work is required to
directly test the causal relationship between meditation, pain anticipation, and
pain experience.

PMID: 20494517 [PubMed – in process]

5. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Aug;16(8):867-73.

Effects of brief and sham mindfulness meditation on mood and cardiovascular
variables.
Zeidan F, Johnson SK, Gordon NS, Goolkasian P.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of
Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.
fzeidan@wfubmc.edu

OBJECTIVES: Although long-term meditation has been found to reduce negative mood
and cardiovascular variables, the effects of a brief mindfulness meditation
intervention when compared to a sham mindfulness meditation intervention are
relatively unknown. This experiment examined whether a 3-day (1-hour total)
mindfulness or sham mindfulness meditation intervention would improve mood and
cardiovascular variables when compared to a control group. METHODS: Eighty-two
(82) undergraduate students (34 males, 48 females), with no prior meditation
experience, participated in three sessions that involved training in either
mindfulness meditation, sham mindfulness meditation, or a control group. Heart
rate, blood pressure, and psychologic variables (Profile of Mood States, State
Anxiety Inventory) were assessed before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The
meditation intervention was more effective at reducing negative mood, depression,
fatigue, confusion, and heart rate, when compared to the sham and control groups.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that brief meditation training has beneficial
effects on mood and cardiovascular variables that go beyond the demand
characteristics of a sham meditation intervention.

PMID: 20666590 [PubMed – in process]

6. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Aug;16(8):875-82.

Introducing qigong meditation into residential addiction treatment: a pilot study
where gender makes a difference.

Chen KW, Comerford A, Shinnick P, Ziedonis DM.

Center for Integrative Medicine and Department of Psychiatry, University of
Maryland School of Medicine, 520 Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
kchen@compmed.umm.edu

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and
efficacy of adding integrative qigong meditation to residential treatment for
substance abuse. METHODS: Qigong meditation, which blends relaxation, breathing,
guided imagery, inward attention, and mindfulness to elicit a tranquil state, was
introduced into a short-term residential treatment program. At first clients
chose to participate in qigong meditation on a voluntary basis during their
evening break. Later they chose to participate in either meditation or Stress
Management and Relaxation Training (SMART) twice a day as part of the scheduled
treatment. Weekly questionnaires were completed by 248 participants for up to 4
weeks to assess their changes in treatment outcomes. Participants in the
meditation group were also assessed for quality of meditation to evaluate the
association between quality and treatment outcome. RESULTS: Most clients were
amenable to meditation as part of the treatment program, and two thirds chose to
participate in daily meditation. While both groups reported significant
improvement in treatment outcome, the meditation group reported a significantly
higher treatment completion rate (92% versus 78%, p < 01) and more reduction in
craving than did the SMART group. Participants whose meditation was of acceptable
quality reported greater reductions in craving, anxiety, and withdrawal symptoms
than did those whose meditation was of low quality. Female meditation
participants reported significantly more reduction in anxiety and withdrawal
symptoms than did any other group. CONCLUSIONS: Qigong meditation appears to
contribute positively to addiction treatment outcomes, with results at least as
good as those of an established stress management program. Results for those who
meditate adequately are especially encouraging. Meditative therapy may be more
effective or acceptable for female drug abusers than for males. Further study is
needed to assess ways to improve substance abusers’ engagement and proficiency in
meditation.

PMID: 20649456 [PubMed – in process]

7. J Anxiety Disord. 2010 Aug;24(6):590-5. Epub 2010 Apr 3.

Effectiveness of a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy program as an adjunct to
pharmacotherapy in patients with panic disorder.

Kim B, Lee SH, Kim YW, Choi TK, Yook K, Suh SY, Cho SJ, Yook KH.

Department of Psychiatry, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, 351 Yatap,
Bundang, Seongnam-si, Republic of Korea.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) has been studied to treat patients
with depressive or anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to examine
whether MBCT is effective as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of
patients with panic disorder. Twenty-three patients with panic disorder were
included in a MBCT program for a period of 8 weeks. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating
Scale (HAM-A), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI),
Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (ASI-R), Albany Panic and Phobia Questionnaire
(APPQ), and Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) were used to assess the patients
during the MBCT program. Both HAM-A and PDSS scores were significantly decreased
at the 2nd, 4th and 8th weeks compared to baseline in the patients with panic
disorder (HAM-A, p<0.01; PDSS, p<0.01). Also, BAI, APPQ and ASI-R were improved
significantly after MBCT program (BAI, p<0.01; APPQ, p<0.01; ASI-R, p<0.01). In
addition, all subscale scores of ASI-R decreased significantly. MBCT could be
effective as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy in patients with panic disorder.
However, randomized controlled trials are needed.

PMID: 20427148 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

8. Psicothema. 2010 Aug;22(3):369-375.

[Effects of a meditation program (mindfulness) on the measure of alexithymia and
social skills.]

[Article in Spanish]

de la Fuente Arias M, Franco Justo C, Salvador Granados M.

Universidad de Almería.

This study aimed to determine whether training in meditation (mindfulness)
produced effects on measures of alexithymia and social skills in a group of
students. The results indicated that the meditation program produced significant
differences in the variable social skills and in five of its factors at posttest.
In the intra-analysis, the differences were significant both in alexithymia and
in social skills, and in all its factors in the experimental group, and no
significant differences were observed in the control group. The percentages of
change in the experimental group presented reductions in the total score of
alexithymia and its three factors of about 20% and an increase in the variable
social skills and its six factors ranging between 15.96 and 22.60%. In the
control group, the two variables and their factors ranged from -0.14 to 4.43%.
These results should be considered with caution as the study sample was
non-clinical and relatively small; therefore, these results should be confirmed
with larger samples and patients with high alexithymia.

PMID: 20667262 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

9. Psychol Med. 2010 Aug;40(8):1239-52. Epub 2009 Nov 27.

A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness
meditations.

Chiesa A, Serretti A.

Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, 40123 Bologna, Italy.
albertopnl@yahoo.it

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness meditation (MM) practices constitute an important group
of meditative practices that have received growing attention. The aim of the
present paper was to systematically review current evidence on the
neurobiological changes and clinical benefits related to MM practice in
psychiatric disorders, in physical illnesses and in healthy subjects. METHOD: A
literature search was undertaken using Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, the
Cochrane collaboration database and references of retrieved articles. Controlled
and cross-sectional studies with controls published in English up to November
2008 were included. RESULTS: Electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have revealed
a significant increase in alpha and theta activity during meditation.
Neuroimaging studies showed that MM practice activates the prefrontal cortex
(PFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and that long-term meditation
practice is associated with an enhancement of cerebral areas related to
attention. From a clinical viewpoint, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)
has shown efficacy for many psychiatric and physical conditions and also for
healthy subjects, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is mainly
efficacious in reducing relapses of depression in patients with three or more
episodes, Zen meditation significantly reduces blood pressure and Vipassana
meditation shows efficacy in reducing alcohol and substance abuse in prisoners.
However, given the low-quality designs of current studies it is difficult to
establish whether clinical outcomes are due to specific or non-specific effects
of MM. DISCUSSION: Despite encouraging findings, several limitations affect
current studies. Suggestions are given for future research based on better
designed methodology and for future directions of investigation.

PMID: 19941676 [PubMed – in process]

10. Int J Psychophysiol. 2010 Jul 13. [Epub ahead of print]

Mindfulness meditation associated with alterations in bottom-up processing:
Psychophysiological evidence for reduced reactivity.

van den Hurk PA, Janssen BH, Giommi F, Barendregt HP, Gielen SC.

Radboud University Nijmegen, Faculty of Science, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ
Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Mental training by meditation has been related to changes in high-level cognitive
functions that involve top-down processing. The aim of this study was to
investigate whether the practice of meditation is also related to alterations in
low-level, bottom-up processing. Therefore, intersensory facilitation (IF)
effects in a group of mindfulness meditators (MM) were compared to IF effects in
an age- and gender-matched control group. Smaller and even absent IF effects were
found in the MM group, which suggests that changes in bottom-up processing are
associated with MM. Furthermore, reduced interference of a visual warning
stimulus with the IF effects was found, which suggests an improved allocation of
attentional resources in mindfulness meditators, even across modalities.

PMID: 20633581 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

11. Explore (NY). 2010 Jul-Aug;6(4):227-36.

Nonlocality and exceptional experiences: a study of genius, religious epiphany,
and the psychic.

Schwartz SA.

Samueli Institute, Alexandria, VA 22314, USA. saschwartz@earthlink.net

Two hundred years of reductive materialism has failed to explain the
extraordinary experiences we know as moments of genius, religious epiphany, and
psychic insight. This paper proposes that these three experiences are in essence
the same experience, differentiated only by intention and context. It reaches
this conclusion based on well-conducted experimental research across the
continuum of science–work that proposes a new interdependent model of
consciousness that takes into consideration a nonlocal linkage or entanglement,
as an aspect of consciousness not limited by space and time. The paper surveys
some of the most important relevant research from quantum biology, physics,
psychology, medicine, anthropology, and parapsychology. It proposes that more
attention should be paid to the autobiographies, correspondence, and journals of
men and women to whom history unequivocally accords the designation of genius,
saint, or psychic, offering examples from these sources. And it presents
comparisons between ethnohistorical material and spiritual traditions, suggesting
they arrive at a similar worldview. Finally, it proposes that meditation
research, some examples of which are cited, be seen in the context of
psychophysical self-regulation, and that it offers one powerful avenue for
producing these exceptional experiences.

PMID: 20633837 [PubMed – in process]

12. J Marital Fam Ther. 2010 Jul 1;36(3):347-60.

Using mindfulness meditation to teach beginning therapists therapeutic presence:
a qualitative study.

McCollum EE, Gehart DR.

Virginia Tech University, Falls Church, Virginia 22043, USA. ericmccollum@vt.edu

Some of the more difficult to define aspects of the therapeutic process (empathy,
compassion, presence) remain some of the most important. Teaching them presents a
challenge for therapist trainees and educators alike. In this study, we examine
our beginning practicum students’ experience of learning mindfulness meditation
as a way to help them develop therapeutic presence. Through thematic analysis of
their journal entries a variety of themes emerged, including the effects of
meditation practice, the ability to be present, balancing being and doing modes
in therapy, and the development of acceptance and compassion for themselves and
for their clients. Our findings suggest that mindfulness meditation may be a
useful addition to clinical training.

PMID: 20618581 [PubMed – in process]

13. Psychosom Med. 2010 Jul;72(6):539-48. Epub 2010 May 13.

Polysomnographic and subjective profiles of sleep continuity before and after
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in partially remitted depression.

Britton WB, Haynes PL, Fridel KW, Bootzin RR.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School at
Brown University, 185 Brown St, Providence, RI 02906, USA.
Willoughby_Britton@Brown.edu

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether mindfulness meditation (MM) was associated with
changes in objectively measured polysomnographic (PSG) sleep profiles and to
relate changes in PSG sleep to subjectively reported changes in sleep and
depression within the context of a randomized controlled trial. Previous studies
have indicated that mindfulness and other forms of meditation training are
associated with improvements in sleep quality. However, none of these studies
used objective PSG sleep recordings within longitudinal randomized controlled
trials of naïve subjects. METHODS: Twenty-six individuals with partially remitted
depression were randomized into an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy
(MBCT) course or a waitlist control condition. Pre-post measurements included PSG
sleep studies and subjectively reported sleep and depression symptoms. RESULTS:
According to PSG sleep, MM practice was associated with several indices of
increased cortical arousal, including more awakenings and stage 1 sleep and less
slow-wave sleep relative to controls, in proportion to amount of MM practice.
According to sleep diaries, subjectively reported sleep improved post MBCT but
not above and beyond controls. Beck Depression Inventory scores decreased more in
the MBCT group than controls. Improvements in depression were associated with
increased subjective sleep continuity and increased PSG arousal. CONCLUSIONS: MM
is associated with increases in objectively measured arousal during sleep with
simultaneous improvements in subjectively reported sleep quality and mood
disturbance. This pattern is similar to the profiles of positive responders to
common antidepressant medications.

PMID: 20467003 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

14. Eur Psychiatry. 2010 Jun 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder: A feasibility trial.

Weber B, Jermann F, Gex-Fabry M, Nallet A, Bondolfi G, Aubry JM.

Geneva University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Bipolar Program, 6-8, rue
du 31-Décembre, 1207 Geneva, Switzerland.

BACKGROUND: The present open study investigates the feasibility of
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in groups solely composed of bipolar
patients of various subtypes. MBCT has been mostly evaluated with remitted
unipolar depressed patients and little is known about this treatment in bipolar
disorder. METHODS: Bipolar outpatients (type I, II and NOS) were included and
evaluated for depressive and hypomanic symptoms, as well as mindfulness skills
before and after MBCT. Patients’ expectations before the program, perceived
benefit after completion and frequency of mindfulness practice were also
recorded. RESULTS: Of 23 included patients, 15 attended at least four MBCT
sessions. Most participants reported having durably, moderately to very much
benefited from the program, although mindfulness practice decreased over time.
Whereas no significant increase of mindfulness skills was detected during the
trial, change of mindfulness skills was significantly associated with change of
depressive symptoms between pre- and post-MBCT assessments. CONCLUSIONS: MBCT is
feasible and well perceived among bipolar patients. Larger and randomized
controlled studies are required to further evaluate its efficacy, in particular
regarding depressive and (hypo)manic relapse prevention. The mediating role of
mindfulness on clinical outcome needs further examination and efforts should be
provided to enhance the persistence of meditation practice with time.

PMID: 20561769 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

15. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jun 16;6:CD006507.

Meditation therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Krisanaprakornkit T, Ngamjarus C, Witoonchart C, Piyavhatkul N.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, KhonKaen University, KhonKaen,
Thailand, 40002.

BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most
common developmental disorders experienced in childhood and can persist into
adulthood. The disorder has early onset and is characterized by a combination of
overactive, poorly modulated behavior with marked inattention. In the long term
it can impair academic performance, vocational success and social-emotional
development. Meditation is increasingly used for psychological conditions and
could be used as a tool for attentional training in the ADHD population.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of meditation therapies as a treatment
for ADHD. SEARCH STRATEGY: Our extensive search included: CENTRAL, MEDLINE,
EMBASE, CINAHL, ERIC, PsycINFO, C2-SPECTR, dissertation abstracts, LILACS,
Virtual Health Library (VHL) in BIREME, Complementary and Alternative Medicine
specific databases, HSTAT, Informit, JST, Thai Psychiatric databases and ISI
Proceedings, plus grey literature and trial registries from inception to January
2010. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials that investigated the
efficacy of meditation therapy in children or adults diagnosed with ADHD. DATA
COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors extracted data independently using a
pre-designed data extraction form. We contacted study authors for additional
information required. We analyzed data using mean difference (MD) to calculate
the treatment effect. The results are presented in tables, figures and narrative
form. MAIN RESULTS: Four studies, including 83 participants, are included in this
review. Two studies used mantra meditation while the other two used yoga compared
with drugs, relaxation training, non-specific exercises and standard treatment
control. Design limitations caused high risk of bias across the studies. Only one
out of four studies provided data appropriate for analysis. For this study there
was no statistically significant difference between the meditation therapy group
and the drug therapy group on the teacher rating ADHD scale (MD -2.72, 95% CI
-8.49 to 3.05, 15 patients). Likewise, there was no statistically significant
difference between the meditation therapy group and the standard therapy group on
the teacher rating ADHD scale (MD -0.52, 95% CI -5.88 to 4.84, 17 patients).
There was also no statistically significant difference between the meditation
therapy group and the standard therapy group in the distraction test (MD -8.34,
95% CI -107.05 to 90.37, 17 patients). AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: As a result of the
limited number of included studies, the small sample sizes and the high risk of
bias, we are unable to draw any conclusions regarding the effectiveness of
meditation therapy for ADHD. The adverse effects of meditation have not been
reported. More trials are needed.

PMID: 20556767 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

16. Cancer Nurs. 2010 Jun 15. [Epub ahead of print]

Experiences of a Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Intervention Among Patients
With Cancer.

Kvillemo P, Bränström R.

Author Affiliations: Department of Oncology-Pathology and Department of Clinical
Neuroscience (Ms Kvillemo and Dr Bränström) and Osher Center for Integrative
Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden (Dr Bränström).

BACKGROUND:: There is increasing recognition of mindfulness and mindfulness
training as a way to decrease stress and increase psychological functioning.
OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to examine the perceived effects and
experiences of mindfulness stress-reduction training as described by patients
with cancer participating in a mindfulness-based stress-reduction training
program. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:: The study is based on analysis of data collected
in semistructured interviews of the participants (n = 18) after the completion of
a mindfulness-meditation training program. The intervention consisted of an
8-week mindfulness-training course. RESULTS:: Most participants expressed a
number of perceived positive effects of participating in the mindfulness program
including increased calm, enhanced sleep quality, more energy, less physical
pain, and increased well-being. However, a few participants experienced no
effect. Both negative and positive views of the specific meditation and yoga
exercises included in the program were expressed. Components that were described
as of particular importance, regarding the experience of participating in the
program, were the nonjudgmental and accepting approach guiding the program and
the instructors, the influence of the group process and sharing experiences with
patients with similar experiences, and the emphasis on increased awareness of the
present moment. CONCLUSION:: This study gives support for the use of mindfulness
programs in reducing stress-related complaints among some patients with a cancer
diagnosis. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:: The positive experiences of mindfulness
training reported by patients with cancer call for further studies examining the
possibilities and requirements for implementation of mindfulness programs in
clinical practice.

PMID: 20555256 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

17. Int J Cardiol. 2010 Jun 11;141(3):325-8. Epub 2009 Jan 14.

Cardiorespiratory phase synchronization during normal rest and inward-attention
meditation.

Wu SD, Lo PC.

The cardiac and respiratory systems can be viewed as two self-sustained
oscillators with various interactions between them. In this study, the
cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS) quantified by synchrogram was
investigated to explore the phase synchronization between these two systems. The
synchrogram scheme was applied to electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration
signals. Particular focus was the distinct cardiac-respiratory regulation
phenomena intervened by inward-attention meditation and normal relaxation. Four
synchronization parameters were measured: frequency ratio, lasting length, number
of epochs, and total length. The results showed that normal rest resulted in much
weaker CRPS. Statistical analysis reveals that the number of synchronous epochs
and the total synchronization length significantly increase (p=0.024 and 0.034
respectively) during meditation. Furthermore, a predominance of 4:1 and 5:1
rhythm-ratio synchronizations was observed during meditation. Consequently, this
study concludes that CRPS can be enhanced during meditation, compared with normal
relaxation, and reveals a predominance of specific frequency ratios.

PMID: 19144415 [PubMed – in process]

18. Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol. 2010 Jun 9. [Epub ahead of print]

[Reducing psychological discomfort and overload in Alzheimer’s family caregivers
through a mindfulness meditation program.]

[Article in Spanish]

Franco C, Sola MD, Justo E.

Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación, Universidad de Almería,
Almería, España.

INTRODUCTION: This study analyzes the effects that a mindfulness development
meditation program has on psychological discomfort and overload in main family
caregivers of Alzheimer dementia patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A
quasi-experimental (group comparison) design with pretest/post-test/follow-up
measurements was employed in an experimental and a control group. The evaluation
instruments used were the SCL-90-R Questionnaire and the Caregiver Overload
Scale. RESULTS: The statistical analyses done show a significant reduction in the
three general indices and in the various dimensions of psychological discomfort,
as well as in the caregiver overload variable in the experimental group compared
to the control group at the end of the intervention. However, the improvements
found in the experimental group were lower in the follow-up evaluation done four
months after intervention, with significantly higher scores than in post-test in
all the dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: These results are in agreement with other
studies in which it was found that intervention for Alzheimer caregivers is
effective in the short term, but the effect becomes diluted over time, so
measurements and policies for these caregivers have to enable the beneficial
effects of intervention reducing psychological discomfort and overload to be
maintained.

PMID: 20541288 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

19. Conscious Cogn. 2010 Jun 4. [Epub ahead of print]

Cerebral blood flow differences between long-term meditators and non-meditators.

Newberg AB, Wintering N, Waldman MR, Amen D, Khalsa DS, Alavi A.

Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania
Medical Center, United States; Center for Spirituality and the Mind, University
of Pennsylvania, United States.

We have studied a number of long-term meditators in previous studies. The purpose
of this study was to determine if there are differences in baseline brain
function of experienced meditators compared to non-meditators. All subjects were
recruited as part of an ongoing study of different meditation practices. We
evaluated 12 advanced meditators and 14 non-meditators with cerebral blood flow
(CBF) SPECT imaging at rest. Images were analyzed with both region of interest
and statistical parametric mapping. The CBF of long-term meditators was
significantly higher (p<.05) compared to non-meditators in the prefrontal cortex,
parietal cortex, thalamus, putamen, caudate, and midbrain. There was also a
significant difference in the thalamic laterality with long-term meditators
having greater asymmetry. The observed changes associated with long-term
meditation appear in structures that underlie the attention network and also
those that relate to emotion and autonomic function.

PMID: 20570534 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

20. Conscious Cogn. 2010 Jun;19(2):597-605. Epub 2010 Apr 3.

Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: evidence of brief mental training.

Zeidan F, Johnson SK, Diamond BJ, David Z, Goolkasian P.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Wake Forest University School of
Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. fzeidan@wfubmc.edu

Although research has found that long-term mindfulness meditation practice
promotes executive functioning and the ability to sustain attention, the effects
of brief mindfulness meditation training have not been fully explored. We
examined whether brief meditation training affects cognition and mood when
compared to an active control group. After four sessions of either meditation
training or listening to a recorded book, participants with no prior meditation
experience were assessed with measures of mood, verbal fluency, visual coding,
and working memory. Both interventions were effective at improving mood but only
brief meditation training reduced fatigue, anxiety, and increased mindfulness.
Moreover, brief mindfulness training significantly improved visuo-spatial
processing, working memory, and executive functioning. Our findings suggest that
4days of meditation training can enhance the ability to sustain attention;
benefits that have previously been reported with long-term meditators.

PMID: 20363650 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

21. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Jun;71(6):669-81.

Complementary and alternative medicine in major depressive disorder: the American
Psychiatric Association Task Force report.

Freeman MP, Fava M, Lake J, Trivedi MH, Wisner KL, Mischoulon D.

Center for Women’s Mental Health, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA
02114, USA. mfreeman@partners.org

Comment in:
J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Jun;71(6):667-8.

OBJECTIVE: To review selected complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
treatments for major depressive disorder (MDD). PARTICIPANTS: Authors of this
report were invited participants in the American Psychiatric Association’s Task
Force on Complementary and Alternative Medicine. EVIDENCE: The group reviewed the
literature on individual CAM treatments for MDD, methodological considerations,
and future directions for CAM in psychiatry. Individual CAM treatments were
reviewed with regard to efficacy in MDD, as well as risks and benefits.
Literature searches included MEDLINE and PsycINFO reviews and manual reference
searches; electronic searches were limited to English-language publications from
1965 to January 2010 (but manual searches were not restricted by language).
Treatments were selected for this review on the basis of (1) published randomized
controlled trials in MDD and (2) widespread use with important clinical safety or
public health significance relevant to psychiatric practice. An action plan is
presented based on needs pertaining to CAM and psychiatry. CONSENSUS PROCESS:
Consensus was reached by group conferences. Written iterations were drafted and
sent out among group members prior to discussion, resolution of any differences
of interpretation of evidence, and final approval. CONCLUSIONS: A review of
randomized controlled trials for commonly used CAM treatments such as omega-3
fatty acids, St John’s wort (Hypericum), folate, S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe),
acupuncture, light therapy, exercise, and mindfulness psychotherapies revealed
promising results. More rigorous and larger studies are recommended. Each CAM
treatment must be evaluated separately in adequately powered controlled trials.
At this time, several CAM treatments appear promising and deserve further study.
The greatest risk of pursuing a CAM therapy is the possible delay of other
well-established treatments. Clinical, research, and educational initiatives
designed to focus on CAM in psychiatry are clearly warranted due to the
widespread use of CAM therapies.

PMID: 20573326 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

22. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2010 Jun;42(2):177-92.

Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms
implicated in alcohol dependence: results of a randomized controlled pilot trial.

Garland EL, Gaylord SA, Boettiger CA, Howard MO.

College of Social Work, Florida State University, University Center, Building C,
Tallahassee, FL 32306-2570, USA. elgarlan@gmail.com

Mindfulness training may disrupt the risk chain of stress-precipitated alcohol
relapse. In 2008, 53 alcohol-dependent adults (mean age = 40.3) recruited from a
therapeutic community located in the urban southeastern U.S. were randomized to
mindfulness training or a support group. Most participants were male (79.2%),
African American (60.4%), and earned less than $20,000 annually (52.8%).
Self-report measures, psychophysiological cue-reactivity, and alcohol attentional
bias were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. Thirty-seven participants
completed the interventions. Mindfulness training significantly reduced stress
and thought suppression, increased physiological recovery from alcohol cues, and
modulated alcohol attentional bias. Hence, mindfulness training appears to target
key mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence, and therefore may hold promise
as an alternative treatment for stress-precipitated relapse among vulnerable
members of society.

PMCID: PMC2921532 [Available on 2010/12/1]
PMID: 20648913 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

23. Percept Mot Skills. 2010 Jun;110(3 Pt 1):840-8.

Effect of progressive self-focus meditation on attention, anxiety, and depression
scores.

Leite JR, Ornellas FL, Amemiya TM, de Almeida AA, Dias AA, Afonso R, Little S,
Kozasa EH.

Behavioral Medicine Unit, Department of Psychobiology, Universidade Federal de
São Paulo, Brazil.

This study evaluated the effects of Progressive Self-focus Meditation with 42
volunteers (M age = 46.0 yr., SD = 14.1) allocated to two groups: one that had
weekly 1-hr. training sessions in the practice for 5 wk. and one waiting-list
group. Participants were evaluated before and after 5 wk. on the Beck Anxiety
Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, the Digit Symbol subtest of the Wechsler
Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale. After 5
wk., a significant reduction in scores on depression was found in the Meditation
group as well as an increase in attention in comparison with the waiting-list
Control group.

PMID: 20681336 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

24. Psychol Psychother. 2010 Jun;83(Pt 2):179-92. Epub 2009 Oct 19.

A qualitative analysis of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in
Parkinson’s disease.

Fitzpatrick L, Simpson J, Smith A.

Institute for Health Research, Lancaster University, UK. lee.fitz@sky.com

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the experiences of participants with Parkinson’s disease
(PD), who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT)
course. DESIGN AND METHOD: Interpretative phenomenological analysis guided the
design and method used in this study. A total of twelve participants (seven men
and five women) with PD were recruited prior to and following participation in an
MBCT course and interviewed with a semi-structured interview schedule. One
participant who opted out of the course was also interviewed. The researcher also
participated in another MBCT course to enhance their understanding of the
participants’ experience, keeping a detailed diary as a means of acknowledging
bias in the analysis process. Themes were summarized from transcripts and later
classified into superordinate themes, which were compared across all cases.
Transcripts were also read and analysed by a second author and participants were
given the opportunity to comment upon emerging themes. RESULTS: Major themes
included (1) changing patterns of coping; (2) the role of mindfulness in
consolidating existing coping skills in the context of loss; (3) group support in
the context of loss and society that stigmatizes difference; and (4) the dualism
of experience between Parkinson’s and mindful meditation. CONCLUSIONS: This study
has indicated that MBCT could benefit people with PD and was an acceptable form
of group intervention.

PMID: 19843353 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

25. Psychol Sci. 2010 Jun;21(6):829-39. Epub 2010 May 11.

Intensive meditation training improves perceptual discrimination and sustained
attention.

MacLean KA, Ferrer E, Aichele SR, Bridwell DA, Zanesco AP, Jacobs TL, King BG,
Rosenberg EL, Sahdra BK, Shaver PR, Wallace BA, Mangun GR, Saron CD.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Davis, USA.
katherine.a.maclean@gmail.com

The ability to focus one’s attention underlies success in many everyday tasks,
but voluntary attention cannot be sustained for extended periods of time. In the
laboratory, sustained-attention failure is manifest as a decline in perceptual
sensitivity with increasing time on task, known as the vigilance decrement. We
investigated improvements in sustained attention with training (approximately 5
hr/day for 3 months), which consisted of meditation practice that involved
sustained selective attention on a chosen stimulus (e.g., the participant’s
breath). Participants were randomly assigned either to receive training first (n
= 30) or to serve as waiting-list controls and receive training second (n = 30).
Training produced improvements in visual discrimination that were linked to
increases in perceptual sensitivity and improved vigilance during sustained
visual attention. Consistent with the resource model of vigilance, these results
suggest that perceptual improvements can reduce the resource demand imposed by
target discrimination and thus make it easier to sustain voluntary attention.

PMID: 20483826 [PubMed – in process]

26. Q J Exp Psychol (Colchester). 2010 Jun;63(6):1168-80.

Greater efficiency in attentional processing related to mindfulness meditation.

van den Hurk PA, Giommi F, Gielen SC, Speckens AE, Barendregt HP.

Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior-Center for Cognitive
Neuroimaging, and Faculty of Science, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The
Netherlands. p.vandenhurk@donders.ru.nl

In this study, attentional processing in relation to mindfulness meditation was
investigated. Since recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation may
induce improvements in attentional processing, we have tested 20 expert
mindfulness meditators in the attention network test. Their performance was
compared to that of 20 age- and gender-matched controls. In addition to
attentional network analyses, overall attentional processing was analysed by
means of efficiency scores (i.e., accuracy controlled for reaction time). Better
orienting and executive attention (reflected by smaller differences in either
reaction time or error score, respectively) were observed in the mindfulness
meditation group. Furthermore, extensive mindfulness meditation appeared to be
related to a reduction of the fraction of errors for responses with the same
reaction time. These results provide new insights into differences in attentional
processing related to mindfulness meditation and suggest the possibility of
increasing the efficiency in attentional processing by extensive mental training.

PMID: 20509209 [PubMed – in process]

27. Qual Health Res. 2010 Jun;20(6):859-67. Epub 2010 Mar 10.

Experience-based, body-anchored qualitative research interviewing.

Stelter R.

Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Nørre Allé
51, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. rstelter@ifi.ku.dk

Two theoretical constructs that lay the foundation for experience-based,
body-anchored interviewing are presented: the first-person perspective and the
concept of meaning. These theoretical concepts are concretized, first, by means
of a methodological framework for experience-based, body-anchored interviewing,
and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant’s personal
experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed
to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a
methodological instrument for qualitative research in areas such as traditional
and holistic medicine, Western alternative and complementary medicine, nursing,
psychotherapy, coaching, physiotherapy, movement arts, and physical education.

PMID: 20220152 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

28. Support Care Cancer. 2010 May 16. [Epub ahead of print]

A qualitative study of mindfulness-based meditation therapy in Japanese cancer
patients.

Ando M, Morita T, Akechi T, Ifuku Y.

Faculty of Nursing, St. Mary’s College, Tsubukuhonmachi 422, Kurume City,
Fukuoka, Japan, andou@st-mary.ac.jp.

PURPOSE: The primary objective of the study was to examine mindfulness-based
meditation therapy qualitatively. A secondary goal was to examine the differences
in themes selected by Japanese and Western patients receiving this therapy.
METHODS: The subjects were 28 patients who were undergoing anti-cancer treatment.
The subjects participated in two sessions of mindfulness-based meditation
therapy, including breathing, yoga movement, and meditation. Each patient was
taught the program in the first session, then exercised at home with a CD, and
subsequently met the interviewer in a second session after 2 weeks. Primary
physicians recruited the patients and interviews were conducted individually by
nurses or psychologists with training in the program. Patients provided answers
to pre- and post-intervention interviews about the meaning of their illness.
RESULTS: Narrative data from the semi-structured interview were analyzed
qualitatively. Pre-intervention, themes such as « Effort to cope, » « Looking back, »
« Spirituality, » « Personal growth, » and « Suffering » were often chosen.
Post-intervention, themes such as « Adapted coping, » « Personal growth, » « Positive
meaning, » « Spirituality, » and « Negative recognition » were more commonly chosen.
CONCLUSIONS: Mindfulness-based meditation therapy may be effective for producing
adapted coping, including positive recognition and changes for an adapted
lifestyle. There were some common aspects and some differences in the themes
selected by patients in this study and Western patients received mindfulness
therapy in other studies.

PMID: 20473691 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

29. J Relig Health. 2010 May 11. [Epub ahead of print]

Teaching Council in Sri Lanka: A Post Disaster, Culturally Sensitive and
Spiritual Model of Group Process.

Hoeberichts JH.

Heart Circle Sangha, 451 Hillcrest Road, Ridgewood, NJ, 07450, USA,
joanhoeberichts@gmail.com.

In response to the December 26, 2004 tsunami in Southeast Asia, a method of
treating trauma with group therapy, called Council, was introduced to Sri Lankan
para-professionals working for Sarvodaya, a local non-governmental organization,
by American psychotherapists associated with Heart Circle Sangha, a Zen Buddhist
temple in New Jersey. Working together, Americans and Sri Lankans incorporated
meditation, mindfulness and culturally congruent spiritual ritual that made the
group process acceptable and healing to the survivors who were Buddhist, Muslim,
Hindu and Christian.

PMID: 20458541 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

30. Altern Ther Health Med. 2010 May-Jun;16(3):30-7.

The effect of a contemplative self-healing program on quality of life in women
with breast and gynecologic cancers.

Loizzo JJ, Peterson JC, Charlson ME, Wolf EJ, Altemus M, Briggs WM, Vahdat LT,
Caputo TA.

Center for Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College,
New York, New York, USA.

Stress-related symptoms-intense fear, avoidance, intrusive thoughts–are common
among breast and gynecologic cancer patients after chemotherapy and radiation.
The objective of this pilot study was to determine the impact of a 20-week
contemplative self-healing program among breast and gynecologic cancer survivors
on self-reported quality of life (QOL), the main outcome. Assessments were
performed at the first session and at 20 weeks, including QOL (FACIT-G, FACIT
subscales, SF-36), anxiety, and depression (HADS). Biologic markers of immune
function were obtained. A 20-week program was implemented: the initial 8 weeks
addressed open-mindfulness, social-emotional self-care, visualization, and deep
breathing followed by 12 weeks of exposing stress-reactive habits and developing
self-healing insights. Daily practice involved CD-guided meditation and manual
contemplations. Sixty-eight women were enrolled, and 46 (68%) completed the
program. Participants had significant within-patient changes on FACIT-G,
improving by a mean of 6.4 points. In addition, they reported clinically
important improvement in emotional and functional domains and social,
role-emotional, and mental health status domains on SF-36. Biologic data revealed
significant improvement in maximum AM cortisol and a reduction in resting heart
rate at 20 weeks. These findings suggest a contemplative self-healing program can
be effective in significantly improving QOL and reducing distress and disability
among female breast and gynecologic cancer survivors.

PMID: 20486622 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

31. Ann Behav Med. 2010 May;39(2):151-61.

Self-report mindfulness as a mediator of psychological well-being in a stress
reduction intervention for cancer patients–a randomized study.

Bränström R, Kvillemo P, Brandberg Y, Moskowitz JT.

Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Radiumhemmet, 171 76,
Stockholm, Sweden. richard.branstrom@ki.se

BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of mindfulness and mindfulness
training as a way to decrease stress and increase psychological functioning.
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to examine the effects of mindfulness stress
reduction training on perceived stress and psychological well-being and to
examine if changes in mindfulness mediate intervention effects on these outcomes.
METHODS: Seventy women and one man with a previous cancer diagnosis (mean age
51.8 years, standard deviation = 9.86) were randomized into an intervention group
or a wait-list control group. The intervention consisted of an 8-week mindfulness
training course. RESULTS: Compared to participants in the control group,
participants in the mindfulness training group had significantly decreased
perceived stress and posttraumatic avoidance symptoms and increased positive
states of mind. Those who participated in the intervention reported a significant
increase in scores on the five-facet mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ) when
compared to controls. The increase in FFMQ score mediated the effects of the
intervention on perceived stress, posttraumatic avoidance symptoms, and positive
states of mind. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the improvements in
psychological well-being resulting from mindfulness stress reduction training can
potentially be explained by increased levels of mindfulness as measured with the
FFMQ. The importance of these findings for future research in the field of
mindfulness is discussed.

PMID: 20177843 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

32. Genet Med. 2010 May;12(5):289-97.

What keeps you up at night? Genetics professionals’ distressing experiences in
patient care.

Bernhardt BA, Silver R, Rushton CH, Micco E, Geller G.

Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
19104, USA. Barbara.bernhardt@uphs.upenn.edu

PURPOSE: To explore specific patient care experiences that genetics professionals
associate with distress and the emotions engendered by those experiences.
METHODS: We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with clinical
geneticists, genetic counselors, and genetic nurses that focused on a single
distressing experience. RESULTS: Fourteen clinical geneticists, 25 genetic
counselors, and 14 nurses were interviewed. We categorized the situations that
interviewees associated with distressing patient care experiences into seven
major types: patient/family decisions (27% of total situations), giving bad news
(17%), colleague behavior (15%), end-of-life issues (12%), unintended outcomes
(12%), difficult patients (8%), and injustice/inhumanity (8%). Interviewees
reported experiencing a variety of negative emotions during these situations,
including anger, guilt, helplessness, and inadequacy. CONCLUSIONS: The distress
and resulting emotions experienced by genetic service providers must be
acknowledged. Interventions are needed to assist the clinician in becoming
self-aware by reflecting on experienced emotions, examining belief systems and
values, and understanding the connection between their emotions and behavior.
Involvement in mindfulness meditation, reflective writing, peer support groups or
additional communication skill-based training could address this need. In
addition, clinicians should seek ways to increase personal meaning derived from
providing patient care.

PMID: 20386316 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

33. J Affect Disord. 2010 May;122(3):224-31. Epub 2009 Aug 8.

Depression relapse prophylaxis with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy:
replication and extension in the Swiss health care system.

Bondolfi G, Jermann F, der Linden MV, Gex-Fabry M, Bizzini L, Rouget BW,
Myers-Arrazola L, Gonzalez C, Segal Z, Aubry JM, Bertschy G.

Department of Psychiatry, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland.
guido.bondolfi@hcuge.ch

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a group intervention
that integrates elements of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with components
of mindfulness training to prevent depressive relapse. The efficacy of MBCT
compared to Treatment As Usual (TAU), shown in two randomized controlled trials
indicates a significant decrease in 1-year relapse rates for patients with at
least three past depressive episodes. The present study is the first independent
replication trial comparing MBCT+TAU to TAU alone across both language and
culture (Swiss health care system). METHODS: Sixty unmedicated patients in
remission from recurrent depression (>or=3 episodes) were randomly assigned to
MBCT+TAU or TAU. Relapse rate and time to relapse were measured over a 60 week
observation period. The frequency of mindfulness practices during the study was
also evaluated. RESULTS: Over a 14-month prospective follow-up period, time to
relapse was significantly longer with MBCT+TAU than TAU alone (median 204 and 69
days, respectively), although both groups relapsed at similar rates. Analyses of
homework adherence revealed that following treatment termination, the frequency
of brief and informal mindfulness practice remained unchanged over 14 months,
whereas the use of longer formal meditation decreased over time. LIMITATIONS:
Relapse monitoring was 14months in duration and prospective reporting of
mindfulness practice would have yielded more precise frequency estimates compared
to the retrospective methods we utilized. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are
required to determine which patient characteristics, beyond the number of past
depressive episodes, may predict differential benefits from this therapeutic
approach.

PMCID: PMC2866251
PMID: 19666195 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

34. Brain Res Bull. 2010 Apr 29;82(1-2):46-56. Epub 2010 Mar 16.

Neural correlates of focused attention and cognitive monitoring in meditation.
Manna A, Raffone A, Perrucci MG, Nardo D, Ferretti A, Tartaro A, Londei A, Del
Gratta C, Belardinelli MO, Romani GL.

ITAB, Institute for Advanced Biomedical Technologies, G. D’Annunzio University
Foundation, Chieti, Italy. amanna@unich.it

Meditation refers to a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory
practices, which can be classified into two main styles – focused attention (FA)
and open monitoring (OM) – involving different attentional, cognitive monitoring
and awareness processes. In a functional magnetic resonance study we originally
characterized and contrasted FA and OM meditation forms within the same
experiment, by an integrated FA-OM design. Theravada Buddhist monks, expert in
both FA and OM meditation forms, and lay novices with 10 days of meditation
practice, participated in the experiment. Our evidence suggests that expert
meditators control cognitive engagement in conscious processing of
sensory-related, thought and emotion contents, by massive self-regulation of
fronto-parietal and insular areas in the left hemisphere, in a meditation
state-dependent fashion. We also found that anterior cingulate and dorsolateral
prefrontal cortices play antagonist roles in the executive control of the
attention setting in meditation tasks. Our findings resolve the controversy
between the hypothesis that meditative states are associated to transient
hypofrontality or deactivation of executive brain areas, and evidence about the
activation of executive brain areas in meditation. Finally, our study suggests
that a functional reorganization of brain activity patterns for focused attention
and cognitive monitoring takes place with mental practice, and that
meditation-related neuroplasticity is crucially associated to a functional
reorganization of activity patterns in prefrontal cortex and in the insula.

PMID: 20223285 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

35. Conscious Cogn. 2010 Apr 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Attentional processes and meditation.

Hodgins HS, Adair KC.

Skidmore College, United States.

Visual attentional processing was examined in adult meditators and non-meditators
on behavioral measures of change blindness, concentration, perspective-shifting,
selective attention, and sustained inattentional blindness. Results showed that
meditators (1) noticed more changes in flickering scenes and noticed them more
quickly, (2) counted more accurately in a challenging concentration task, (3)
identified a greater number of alternative perspectives in multiple perspectives
images, and (4) showed less interference from invalid cues in a visual selective
attention task, but (5) did not differ on a measure of sustained inattentional
blindness. Together, results show that regular meditation is associated with more
accurate, efficient, and flexible visual attentional processing across diverse
tasks that have high face validity outside of the laboratory. Furthermore,
effects were assessed in a context separate from actual meditation practice,
suggesting that meditators’ better visual attention is not just immediate, but
extends to contexts separate from meditation practice.

PMID: 20430650 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

36. Conscious Cogn. 2010 Apr 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Duality and nonduality in meditation research.

Josipovic Z.

Psychology Dept. and Center for Neural Science, New York University, 6 Washington
Pl, Rm 957, New York, NY 10003, United States.

The great variety of meditation techniques found in different contemplative
traditions presents a challenge when attempting to create taxonomies based on the
constructs of contemporary cognitive sciences. In the current issue of
Consciousness and Cognition, Travis and Shear add ‘automatic self-transcending’
to the previously proposed categories of ‘focused attention’ and ‘open
monitoring’, and suggest characteristic EEG bands as the defining criteria for
each of the three categories. Accuracy of current taxonomies and potential
limitations of EEG measurements as classifying criteria are discussed.

PMID: 20385506 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

37. Biol Res Nurs. 2010 Apr;11(4):363-70.

Effects of mindful yoga on sleep in pregnant women: a pilot study.

Beddoe AE, Lee KA, Weiss SJ, Kennedy HP, Yang CP.

School of Nursing, San Jose State University, CA, USA. abeddoe@baymoon.com

PURPOSE: The purpose of this experimental pilot study was to measure the effects
of a mindfulness-based yoga intervention on sleep in pregnant women. METHODS:
Fifteen healthy, nulliparous women in their second or third trimesters with
singleton pregnancies attended weekly mindfulness meditation and prenatal Hatha
yoga classes in the community for 7 weeks. Sleep variables, as estimated by 72 hr
of continuous wrist actigraphy and the General Sleep Disturbance Scale (GSDS),
were recorded at baseline (Time 1) and postintervention (Time 2). Control data
were obtained by evaluating sleep in the third-trimester group at Time 1. Due to
small sample size, data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric
statistics. RESULTS: Women who began the intervention in the second trimester had
significantly fewer awakenings, less wake time during the night, and less
perceived sleep disturbance at Time 2 than at baseline. Those who began during
the third trimester had poorer sleep over time in spite of the intervention.
Women who began the intervention in their second trimester had less awake time at
Time 2 compared to third-trimester controls at Time 1. CONCLUSIONS: Mindful yoga
shows promise for women in their second trimester of pregnancy to diminish total
number of awakenings at night and improve sleep efficiency and merits further
exploration. Results from this pilot study provide the data to estimate sample
size and design and implement powered and more controlled studies in the future.

PMID: 20338897 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

38. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2010 Apr;58(2):202-21.

Hypnosis, rumination, and depression: catalyzing attention and mindfulness-based
treatments.

Lynn SJ, Barnes S, Deming A, Accardi M.

Psychology Department, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13905, USA.
slynn@binghamton.edu

Over the past 30 years, mental health practitioners, encouraged by rigorous
empirical studies and literature and meta-analytic reviews, have increasingly
appreciated the ability of hypnosis to modulate attention, imagination, and
motivation in the service of therapeutic goals. This article describes how
hypnosis can be used as an adjunctive procedure in the treatment of depression
and rumination symptoms, in particular. The focus is on attention-based
treatments that include rumination-focused cognitive behavioral therapy,
cognitive control training, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. The authors
provide numerous examples of techniques and approaches that can potentially
enhance treatment gains, including a hypnotic induction to facilitate mindfulness
and to motivate mindfulness practice. Although hypnosis appears to be a promising
catalyst of attention and mindfulness, research is required to document the
incremental value of adding hypnosis to the treatments reviewed.

PMID: 20390691 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

39. Psychol Rep. 2010 Apr;106(2):455-66.

The value of mindfulness-based methods in teaching at a clinical field placement.

Gökhan N, Meehan EF, Peters K.

Social Science Department, LaGuardia Community College of the City University of
New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, NY 11101, USA.
ngokhan@lagcc.cuny.edu

The value of mindfulness-based methods in an undergraduate field placement was
investigated in relation to the acquisition of self-care and other basic clinical
competencies. The participants were 22 students in an applied behavioral analysis
course, which included a mindfulness-based training module, and 20 students
enrolled in an experimental psychology course without mindfulness training. The
Mindfulness Attention and Awareness Scale, the Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory,
and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills were used as measurements before
and after intervention. Mindfulness-trained participants kept records and were
asked to share their personal experiences during supervision and an exit
interview. Results demonstrated that training significantly increased
mindfulness. Qualitative data indicated enhanced self-care, attention to
well-being, self-awareness, active involvement acquiring skills, and empathy and
compassion. The need to expand the utility of mindfulness to the realm of
education and the importance of including comparison groups with other self-care
modules for future studies were discussed.

PMID: 20524546 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

40. Subst Abus. 2010 Apr;31(2):117-25.

Addiction treatment intervention: an uncontrolled prospective pilot study of
Spiritual Self-Schema therapy with Latina women.

Amaro H, Magno-Gatmaytan C, Meléndez M, Cortés DE, Arevalo S, Margolin A.

Institute on Urban Health Research, Bouvé College of Health Sciences,
Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. h.amaro@neu.edu

Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) is a weekly 8-session, mindfulness-based,
manual-guided, individual intervention targeting addiction and human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors that integrates cognitive behavioral
strategies with Buddhist principles and clients’ religious/spiritual beliefs. 3-S
is efficacious for reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors among mixed-gender,
methadone-maintained outpatients. The study goal was to conduct a preliminary
evaluation of 3-S therapy among urban, low-income Latinas (n = 13) in residential
addiction treatment. Data gathered via in-person interviews (baseline, 8 and 20
weeks postentry) showed high rates of 3-S acceptability and positive changes in a
number of outcomes relevant to recovery from addiction and to HIV prevention,
including impulsivity, spirituality, motivation for change, and HIV prevention
knowledge. The study findings are promising; however, a controlled study with
longer follow-up is needed to rigorously assess the efficacy of 3-S therapy with
Latinas in substance abuse treatment.

PMID: 20408063 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

41. Subst Abus. 2010 Apr;31(2):108-16.

Development of an acceptance-based coping intervention for alcohol dependence
relapse prevention.

Vieten C, Astin JA, Buscemi R, Galloway GP.

California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, California
94115, USA. vietenc@sutterhealth.org

Both psychological and neurobiological findings lend support to the long-standing
clinical observation that negative affect is involved in the development and
maintenance of alcohol dependence, and difficulty coping with negative affect is
a common precipitant of relapse after treatment. Although many current approaches
to relapse prevention emphasize change-based strategies for managing negative
cognitions and affect, acceptance-based strategies for preventing relapse to
alcohol use are intended to provide methods for coping with distress that are
fundamentally different from, though in theory complementary to, approaches that
emphasize control and change. This paper describes the development of
Acceptance-Based Coping for Relapse Prevention (ABCRP), a new intervention for
alcohol-dependent individuals who are within 6 months of having quit drinking.
Results of preliminary testing indicate that the intervention is feasible with
this population; and a small uncontrolled pilot study (N = 23) showed significant
(P < .01) improvements in self-reported negative affect, emotional reactivity,
perceived stress, positive affect, psychological well-being, and mindfulness
level, as well as a trend (P = .06) toward reduction in craving severity between
pre- and postintervention assessments. The authors conclude that this
acceptance-based intervention seems feasible and holds promise for improving
affect and reducing relapse in alcohol-dependent individuals, warranting further
research.

PMID: 20408062 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

42. Subst Abus. 2010 Apr;31(2):86-97.

The contribution of mindfulness practice to a multicomponent behavioral sleep
intervention following substance abuse treatment in adolescents: a
treatment-development study.

Britton WB, Bootzin RR, Cousins JC, Hasler BP, Peck T, Shapiro SL.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Brown University Medical School,
Providence, Rhode Island 02906, USA. Willoughby_Britton@Brown.edu

Poor sleep is common in substance use disorders (SUDs) and is a risk factor for
relapse. Within the context of a multicomponent, mindfulness-based sleep
intervention that included mindfulness meditation (MM) for adolescent outpatients
with SUDs (n = 55), this analysis assessed the contributions of MM practice
intensity to gains in sleep quality and self-efficacy related to SUDs. Eighteen
adolescents completed a 6-session study intervention and questionnaires on
psychological distress, sleep quality, mindfulness practice, and substance use at
baseline, 8, 20, and 60 weeks postentry. Program participation was associated
with improvements in sleep and emotional distress, and reduced substance use. MM
practice frequency correlated with increased sleep duration and improvement in
self-efficacy about substance use. Increased sleep duration was associated with
improvements in psychological distress, relapse resistance, and substance
use-related problems. These findings suggest that sleep is an important
therapeutic target in substance abusing adolescents and that MM may be a useful
component to promote improved sleep.

PMID: 20408060 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

43. Subst Abus. 2010 Apr;31(2):79-85.

Linguistic analysis to assess the effect of a mindfulness intervention on
self-change for adults in substance use recovery.

Liehr P, Marcus MT, Carroll D, Granmayeh LK, Cron SG, Pennebaker JW.

Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton,
Florida 33431, USA. pliehr@fau.edu

Substance use is a pervasive health problem. Therapeutic community (TC) is an
established substance abuse treatment but TC environments are stressful and
dropout rates are high. Mindfulness-based TC (MBTC) intervention was developed to
address TC stress and support self-change that could impact treatment retention.
Self-change was assessed through feeling and thinking word-use in written stories
of stress from 140 TC residents in a historical control group and 253 TC
residents in a MBTC intervention group. Data were collected 5 times over a
9-month period. Linguistic analysis showed no differences between the groups over
time; however, over all time points, the MBTC intervention group used fewer
negative emotion words than the TC control group. Also, negative emotion (P <
.01) and anxiety (P < .01) word-use decreased whereas positive emotion word-use
increased (P < .05) over time in both groups. Descriptive data from linguistic
analyses indicated that sustained self-change demands participation in
mindfulness behaviors beyond the instructor-guided MBTC intervention.

PMCID: PMC2873789 [Available on 2011/4/1]
PMID: 20408059 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

44. Subst Abus. 2010 Apr;31(2):77-8.

Mindfulness-based therapies for substance use disorders: part 2.

Zgierska A, Marcus MT.

PMCID: PMC2888107 [Available on 2011/4/1]
PMID: 20408058 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

45. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol. 2010 Mar 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Meditation Research: The State of the Art in Correctional Settings.

Himelstein S.

There is research that serves as evidence in favor of meditation-based programs
as rehabilitative for incarcerated populations. This article reviews empirical
research regarding the effects of meditation-based programs in correctional
populations. Three meditation-based interventions have been shown to represent
the majority of empirical research and are reviewed in this article:
Transcendental Meditation, mindfulness-based stress reduction, and 10-day
Vipassana retreats. Selected dissertation research is reviewed as well. Overall,
research suggests three areas in which meditation-based programs provide
sufficient treatment to criminal offenders: the enhancement of psychological
well-being, a decrease in substance use, and a decrease in recidivism. This
suggests that meditation-based programs may be proper treatment programs and
support rehabilitation for correctional populations.

PMID: 20332328 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

46. BMC Psychiatry. 2010 Mar 19;10(1):23.

Staying well after depression: trial design and protocol.

Williams JM, Russell IT, Crane C, Russell D, Whitaker CJ, Duggan DS, Barnhofer T,
Fennell MJ, Crane R, Silverton S.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK.
mark.williams@psych.ox.ac.uk

BACKGROUND: Depression is often a chronic relapsing condition, with relapse rates
of 50-80% in those who have been depressed before. This is particularly
problematic for those who become suicidal when depressed since habitual
recurrence of suicidal thoughts increases likelihood of further acute suicidal
episodes. Therefore the question how to prevent relapse is of particular urgency
in this group. METHODS/DESIGN: This trial compares Mindfulness-Based Cognitive
Therapy (MBCT), a novel form of treatment combining mindfulness meditation and
cognitive therapy for depression, with both Cognitive Psycho-Education (CPE), an
equally plausible cognitive treatment but without meditation, and treatment as
usual (TAU). It will test whether MBCT reduces the risk of relapse in recurrently
depressed patients and the incidence of suicidal symptoms in those with a history
of suicidality who do relapse. It recruits participants, screens them by
telephone for main inclusion and exclusion criteria and, if they are eligible,
invites them to a pre-treatment session to assess eligibility in more detail.
This trial allocates eligible participants at random between MBCT and TAU, CPE
and TAU, and TAU alone in a ratio of 2:2:1, stratified by presence of suicidal
ideation or behaviour and current anti-depressant use. We aim to recruit
sufficient participants to allow for retention of 300 following attrition. We
deliver both active treatments in groups meeting for two hours every week for
eight weeks. We shall estimate effects on rates of relapse and suicidal symptoms
over 12 months following treatment and assess clinical status immediately after
treatment, and three, six, nine and twelve months thereafter. DISCUSSION: This
will be the first trial of MBCT to investigate whether MCBT is effective in
preventing relapse to depression when compared with a control psychological
treatment of equal plausibility; and to explore the use of MBCT for the most
severe recurrent depression–that in people who become suicidal when depressed.

PMCID: PMC2859374
PMID: 20302615 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

47. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010 Mar 12. [Epub ahead of print]

Upward spirals of positive emotions counter downward spirals of negativity:
Insights from the broaden-and-build theory and affective neuroscience on the
treatment of emotion dysfunctions and deficits in psychopathology.

Garland EL, Fredrickson B, Kring AM, Johnson DP, Meyer PS, Penn DL.

College of Social Work, Florida State University, University Center, Building C,
Tallahassee, Fl 32306-2570, United States.

This review integrates Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory of positive
emotions with advances in affective neuroscience regarding plasticity in the
neural circuitry of emotions to inform the treatment of emotion deficits within
psychopathology. We first present a body of research showing that positive
emotions broaden cognition and behavioral repertoires, and in so doing, build
durable biopsychosocial resources that support coping and flourishing mental
health. Next, by explicating the processes through which momentary experiences of
emotions may accrue into self-perpetuating emotional systems, the current review
proposes an underlying architecture of state-trait interactions that engenders
lasting affective dispositions. This theoretical framework is then used to
elucidate the cognitive-emotional mechanisms underpinning three disorders of
affect regulation: depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. In turn, two mind
training interventions, mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation, are
highlighted as means of generating positive emotions that may counter the
negative affective processes implicated in these disorders. We conclude with the
proposition that positive emotions may exert a countervailing force on the
dysphoric, fearful, or anhedonic states characteristic of psychopathologies
typified by emotional dysfunctions.

PMCID: PMC2908186 [Available on 2011/9/1]
PMID: 20363063 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

48. Explore (NY). 2010 Mar-Apr;6(2):64-6.

William Segal: attending artist-attending physician?

Kielczynska BB.

PMID: 20362260 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

49. J Pain. 2010 Mar;11(3):199-209. Epub 2009 Oct 22.

The effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on experimentally induced
pain.

Zeidan F, Gordon NS, Merchant J, Goolkasian P.

Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC, USA.
fzeidan@uncc.edu

This study investigated the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training on
ratings of painful electrical stimulation. In Experiment 1, we used a 3-day (20
min/d) mindfulness meditation intervention and measured pain ratings before and
after the intervention. Participants’ numerical ratings of pain to « low » and
« high » electrical stimulation significantly decreased after meditation training.
Pain sensitivity, measured by change in stimulus intensity thresholds, also
decreased after training. We investigated, in Experiment 2, how well relaxation
and a math distraction task attenuated experimental pain. Math distraction but
not relaxation reduced high pain ratings. There was no reduction in pain
sensitivity in these participants. In Experiment 3, we directly compared the
effects of meditation with math distraction and relaxation conditions. Our
findings indicated significant effects of both meditation and math distraction.
Consistent with what was observed in Experiment 1, these participants also
demonstrated a decrease in pain sensitivity after meditation training. Changes in
the mindfulness and anxiety assessments suggest that meditation’s analgesic
effects are related to reduced anxiety and the enhanced ability to focus on the
present moment. PERSPECTIVE: Our findings indicate that a brief 3-day mindfulness
meditation intervention was effective at reducing pain ratings and anxiety scores
when compared with baseline testing and other cognitive manipulations. The brief
meditation training was also effective at increasing mindfulness skills.

PMID: 19853530 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

50. J Relig Health. 2010 Mar;49(1):18-31. Epub 2008 Dec 20.

A web-based survey of the relationship between buddhist religious practices,
health, and psychological characteristics: research methods and preliminary
results.

Wiist WH, Sullivan BM, Wayment HA, Warren M.

Department of Health Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ
86001-5095, USA. Bill.Wiist@nau.edu

A Web-based survey was conducted to study the religious and health practices,
medical history and psychological characteristics among Buddhist practitioners.
This report describes the development, advertisement, administration and
preliminary results of the survey. Over 1200 Buddhist practitioners responded.
Electronic advertisements were the most effective means of recruiting
participants. Survey participants were mostly well educated with high incomes and
white. Participants engaged in Buddhist practices such as meditation, attending
meetings and obtaining instruction from a monk or nun, and practiced healthful
behaviors such as regular physical activity and not smoking. Buddhist meditative
practice was related to psychological mindfulness and general health.

PMID: 19107601 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

51. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2010 Mar;5(1):11-7. Epub 2009 Sep 23.

Stress reduction correlates with structural changes in the amygdala.

Hölzel BK, Carmody J, Evans KC, Hoge EA, Dusek JA, Morgan L, Pitman RK, Lazar SW.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.
britta@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu

Stress has significant adverse effects on health and is a risk factor for many
illnesses. Neurobiological studies have implicated the amygdala as a brain
structure crucial in stress responses. Whereas hyperactive amygdala function is
often observed during stress conditions, cross-sectional reports of differences
in gray matter structure have been less consistent. We conducted a longitudinal
MRI study to investigate the relationship between changes in perceived stress
with changes in amygdala gray matter density following a stress-reduction
intervention. Stressed but otherwise healthy individuals (N = 26) participated in
an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention. Perceived stress was
rated on the perceived stress scale (PSS) and anatomical MR images were acquired
pre- and post-intervention. PSS change was used as the predictive regressor for
changes in gray matter density within the bilateral amygdalae. Following the
intervention, participants reported significantly reduced perceived stress.
Reductions in perceived stress correlated positively with decreases in right
basolateral amygdala gray matter density. Whereas prior studies found gray matter
modifications resulting from acquisition of abstract information, motor and
language skills, this study demonstrates that neuroplastic changes are associated
with improvements in a psychological state variable.

PMCID: PMC2840837 [Available on 2011/3/1]
PMID: 19776221 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

52. Conscious Cogn. 2010 Feb 16. [Epub ahead of print]

Focused attention, open monitoring and automatic self-transcending: Categories to
organize meditations from Vedic, Buddhist and Chinese traditions.

Travis F, Shear J.

Center for the Brain, Consciousness, and Cognition, Maharishi University of
Management, 1000 North 4th Street, Fairfield, IA 52557, United States; Maharishi
University of Management Research Institute, Maharishi Vedic City, IA 52557,
United States.

This paper proposes a third meditation-category-automatic self-transcending- to
extend the dichotomy of focused attention and open monitoring proposed by Lutz.
Automaticself-transcending includes techniques designed to transcend their own
activity. This contrasts with focused attention, which keeps attention focused on
an object; and open monitoring, which keeps attention involved in the monitoring
process. Each category was assigned EEG bands, based on reported brain patterns
during mental tasks, and meditations were categorized based on their reported
EEG. Focused attention, characterized by beta/gamma activity, included
meditations from Tibetan Buddhist, Buddhist, and Chinese traditions. Open
monitoring, characterized by theta activity, included meditations from Buddhist,
Chinese, and Vedic traditions. Automaticself-transcending, characterized by
alpha1 activity, included meditations from Vedic and Chinese traditions. Between
categories, the included meditations differed in focus, subject/object relation,
and procedures. These findings shed light on the common mistake of averaging
meditations together to determine mechanisms or clinical effects.

PMID: 20167507 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

53. Aten Primaria. 2010 Feb 1. [Epub ahead of print]

[Reducing stress levels and anxiety in primary-care physicians through training
and practice of a mindfulness meditation technique.]

[Article in Spanish]

Franco Justo C.

Departamento de Psicología Evolutiva y de la Educación, Universidad de Almería,
Almería, España.

PURPOSE: To check the effectiveness of a mindfulness development meditation
technique on stress and anxiety in a group of primary-care physicians. DESIGN:
Quasi-experimental with pretest/posttest/follow-up measurements in a control
group and an experimental group. SITE: University of Almeria. PARTICIPANTS: 38
primary-care physicians enrolled in a Teaching Aptitude Course (CAP).
INTERVENTION: An experimental group and a control group were formed with 19
participants in each. The experimental group took a psycho-educational meditation
program for training and practice in mindfulness. MEASUREMENT: The Perceived
Stress Scale (PSS), the Strain Questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety
Questionnaire were used to measure stress and anxiety levels. RESULTS: A
comparative statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney
non-parametric U test, finding a significant reduction in all the primary-care
physician stress and anxiety variables in the experimental group compared to the
control group in pretest-posttest and follow-up tests. CONCLUSIONS: The results
of this study support the effectiveness of mindfulness development meditation
techniques in decreasing stress and anxiety in primary-care physicians.
Nevertheless, the study shows various limitations that would have to be corrected
in successive studies to bring more validity to the results.

PMID: 20129713 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

54. Br J Psychol. 2010 Feb;101(Pt 1):95-107. Epub 2009 Mar 26.

Is learning mindfulness associated with improved affect after mindfulness-based
cognitive therapy?

Schroevers MJ, Brandsma R.

Department of Health Psychology, University Medical Center Groningen, University
of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. m.j.schroevers@med.umcg.nl

The increased popularity of mindfulness-based interventions and the growing body
of empirical evidence confirming the positive effects of these interventions on
well-being warrant more research to determine if the effects are indeed related
to learning mindfulness. The present study extends previous studies, by examining
whether and how changes in five core aspects of mindfulness are related to
changes in the report of negative and positive affect during an 8-week course of
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. The study was performed in 64 individuals
from the community with mild to moderate psychological problems. Data were
collected by self-report questionnaires before and directly after the training.
Results showed significant decreases in negative affect and increases in positive
affect. We also found significant increases in four of the five aspects of
mindfulness. Importantly, changes in mindfulness were significantly associated
with improved affect, with a distinct pattern found for positive and negative
affect. Hereby, our findings extend previous research by showing that learning
distinct aspects of mindfulness is differently related to an improved positive
affect and a decreased negative affect. Future randomized controlled trials with
a larger sample and longer follow-up period are needed to replicate these
findings.

PMID: 19327220 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

55. Cogn Process. 2010 Feb;11(1):1-7. Epub 2009 Dec 30.

The exploration of meditation in the neuroscience of attention and consciousness.

Raffone A, Srinivasan N.

Many recent behavioral and neuroscientific studies have revealed the importance
of investigating meditation states and traits to achieve an increased
understanding of cognitive and affective neuroplasticity, attention and
self-awareness, as well as for their increasingly recognized clinical relevance.
The investigation of states and traits related to meditation has especially
pronounced implications for the neuroscience of attention, consciousness,
self-awareness, empathy and theory of mind. In this article we present the main
features of meditation-based mental training and characterize the current
scientific approach to meditation states and traits with special reference to
attention and consciousness, in light of the articles contributed to this issue.

PMID: 20041276 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

56. Cogn Process. 2010 Feb;11(1):9-20. Epub 2009 Sep 11.

The ‘I’ and the ‘Me’ in self-referential awareness: a neurocognitive hypothesis.
Tagini A, Raffone A.

Department of Psychology, University of Milan-Bicocca, Piazza dell’Ateneo Nuovo,
1, 20126 Milan, Italy. angela.tagini@unimib.it

The nature of the ‘self’ and self-referential awareness has been one of the most
debated issues in philosophy, psychology and cognitive neuroscience.
Understanding the neurocognitive bases of self-related representation and
processing is also crucial to research on the neural correlates of consciousness.
The distinction between an ‘I’, corresponding to a subjective sense of the self
as a thinker and causal agent, and a ‘Me’, as the objective sense of the self
with the unique and identifiable features constituting one’s self-image or
self-concept, suggested by William James, has been re-elaborated by authors from
different theoretical perspectives. In this article, empirical studies and
theories about the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’ in cognition and self-related awareness are
reviewed, including the relationships between self and perception, self and
memory, the development of the self, self-referential stimulus processing, as
well as related neuroimaging studies. Subsequently, the relations between self
and different aspects of consciousness are considered. On the basis of the
reviewed literature and with reference to Block’s distinction between phenomenal
and access consciousness, a neurocognitive hypothesis is formulated about
‘I’-related and ‘Me’-related self-referential awareness. This hypothesis is
extended to metacognitive awareness and a form of non-transitive consciousness,
characteristic of meditation experiences and studies, with particular reference
to the notion of mindfulness and other Buddhist constructs.

PMID: 19763648 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

57. Cogn Process. 2010 Feb;11(1):31-8. Epub 2009 Jul 22.

Theta activity and meditative states: spectral changes during concentrative
meditation.

Baijal S, Srinivasan N.

Centre of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences, University of Allahabad, Allahabad
211002, India.

Brain oscillatory activity is associated with different cognitive processes and
plays a critical role in meditation. In this study, we investigated the temporal
dynamics of oscillatory changes during Sahaj Samadhi meditation (a concentrative
form of meditation that is part of Sudarshan Kriya yoga). EEG was recorded during
Sudarshan Kriya yoga meditation for meditators and relaxation for controls.
Spectral and coherence analysis was performed for the whole duration as well as
specific blocks extracted from the initial, middle, and end portions of Sahaj
Samadhi meditation or relaxation. The generation of distinct meditative states of
consciousness was marked by distinct changes in spectral powers especially
enhanced theta band activity during deep meditation in the frontal areas.
Meditators also exhibited increased theta coherence compared to controls. The
emergence of the slow frequency waves in the attention-related frontal regions
provides strong support to the existing claims of frontal theta in producing
meditative states along with trait effects in attentional processing.
Interestingly, increased frontal theta activity was accompanied reduced activity
(deactivation) in parietal-occipital areas signifying reduction in processing
associated with self, space and, time.

PMID: 19626355 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

58. Emotion. 2010 Feb;10(1):83-91.

Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in
social anxiety disorder.

Goldin PR, Gross JJ.

Department of Psychology, Jordan Hall, Building 420, Stanford, CA 94305-2130,
USA. pgoldin@stanford.edu

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is an established program shown to
reduce symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. MBSR is believed to alter
emotional responding by modifying cognitive-affective processes. Given that
social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by emotional and attentional
biases as well as distorted negative self-beliefs, we examined MBSR-related
changes in the brain-behavior indices of emotional reactivity and regulation of
negative self-beliefs in patients with SAD. Sixteen patients underwent functional
MRI while reacting to negative self-beliefs and while regulating negative
emotions using 2 types of attention deployment emotion regulation-breath-focused
attention and distraction-focused attention. Post-MBSR, 14 patients completed
neuroimaging assessments. Compared with baseline, MBSR completers showed
improvement in anxiety and depression symptoms and self-esteem. During the
breath-focused attention task (but not the distraction-focused attention task),
they also showed (a) decreased negative emotion experience, (b) reduced amygdala
activity, and (c) increased activity in brain regions implicated in attentional
deployment. MBSR training in patients with SAD may reduce emotional reactivity
while enhancing emotion regulation. These changes might facilitate reduction in
SAD-related avoidance behaviors, clinical symptoms, and automatic emotional
reactivity to negative self-beliefs in adults with SAD.

PMID: 20141305 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

59. Emotion. 2010 Feb;10(1):72-82.

A preliminary investigation of the effects of experimentally induced mindfulness
on emotional responding to film clips.

Erisman SM, Roemer L.

Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts Boston, MA 02125, USA.
shannon.erisman@gmail.com

Despite encouraging preliminary findings regarding the efficacy of mindfulness
and acceptance-based treatments for a range of psychological presentations, we
have yet to elucidate mechanisms of action within these treatments. One mechanism
through which mindfulness may reduce psychological symptoms and promote
functioning is enhancing emotional responding and regulation. In this study, we
used multimodal assessment to examine the effects of a brief mindfulness
intervention in a laboratory setting on emotional experiences and regulation in
response to distressing, positive, and affectively mixed film clips. Although
there were no condition (mindfulness vs. control) effects on reports of emotional
response or difficulties in regulation after the distressing film clip,
participants in the mindfulness condition reported significantly greater positive
affect in response to the positive film. Additionally, participants in the
mindfulness condition reported more adaptive regulation (approaching
significance, medium to large effect size) in response to the affectively mixed
clip and significantly less negative affect immediately after this clip, although
not after a recovery period. No significant differences emerged between
conditions on physiological measures (skin conductance and heart rate) throughout
the study.

PMCID: PMC2868364 [Available on 2011/2/1]
PMID: 20141304 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

60. Emotion. 2010 Feb;10(1):65-71.

Differential effects on pain intensity and unpleasantness of two meditation
practices.

Perlman DM, Salomons TV, Davidson RJ, Lutz A.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705, USA.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that can be regulated by
many different cognitive mechanisms. We compared the regulatory qualities of two
different meditation practices during noxious thermal stimuli: Focused Attention,
directed at a fixation cross away from the stimulation, which could regulate
negative affect through a sensory gating mechanism; and Open Monitoring, which
could regulate negative affect through a mechanism of nonjudgmental, nonreactive
awareness of sensory experience. Here, we report behavioral data from a
comparison between novice and long-term meditation practitioners (long-term
meditators, LTMs) using these techniques. LTMs, compared to novices, had a
significant reduction of self-reported unpleasantness, but not intensity, of
painful stimuli while practicing Open Monitoring. No significant effects were
found for FA. This finding illuminates the possible regulatory mechanism of
meditation-based clinical interventions like Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
(MBSR). Implications are discussed in the broader context of training-induced
changes in trait emotion regulation.

PMCID: PMC2859822 [Available on 2011/2/1]
PMID: 20141303 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

61. Emotion. 2010 Feb;10(1):54-64.

Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory
capacity and affective experience.

Jha AP, Stanley EA, Kiyonaga A, Wong L, Gelfand L.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, 3401 Walnut Street, Suite
302C, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. apjha@psych.upenn.edu

We investigated the impact of mindfulness training (MT) on working memory
capacity (WMC) and affective experience. WMC is used in managing cognitive
demands and regulating emotions. Yet, persistent and intensive demands, such as
those experienced during high-stress intervals, may deplete WMC and lead to
cognitive failures and emotional disturbances. We hypothesized that MT may
mitigate these deleterious effects by bolstering WMC. We recruited 2 military
cohorts during the high-stress predeployment interval and provided MT to 1 (MT, n
= 31) but not the other group (military control group, MC, n = 17). The MT group
attended an 8-week MT course and logged the amount of out-of-class time spent
practicing formal MT exercises. The operation span task was used to index WMC at
2 testing sessions before and after the MT course. Although WMC remained stable
over time in civilians (n = 12), it degraded in the MC group. In the MT group,
WMC decreased over time in those with low MT practice time, but increased in
those with high practice time. Higher MT practice time also corresponded to lower
levels of negative affect and higher levels of positive affect (indexed by the
Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). The relationship between practice time
and negative, but not positive, affect was mediated by WMC, indicating that
MT-related improvements in WMC may support some but not all of MT’s salutary
effects. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that sufficient MT practice may
protect against functional impairments associated with high-stress contexts.

PMID: 20141302 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

62. Emotion. 2010 Feb;10(1):25-33.

Minding one’s emotions: mindfulness training alters the neural expression of
sadness.

Farb NA, Anderson AK, Mayberg H, Bean J, McKeon D, Segal ZV.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Erratum in:
Emotion. 2010 Apr;10(2):215.

Recovery from emotional challenge and increased tolerance of negative affect are
both hallmarks of mental health. Mindfulness training (MT) has been shown to
facilitate these outcomes, yet little is known about its mechanisms of action.
The present study employed functional MRI (fMRI) to compare neural reactivity to
sadness provocation in participants completing 8 weeks of MT and waitlisted
controls. Sadness resulted in widespread recruitment of regions associated with
self-referential processes along the cortical midline. Despite equivalent
self-reported sadness, MT participants demonstrated a distinct neural response,
with greater right-lateralized recruitment, including visceral and somatosensory
areas associated with body sensation. The greater somatic recruitment observed in
the MT group during evoked sadness was associated with decreased depression
scores. Restoring balance between affective and sensory neural
networks-supporting conceptual and body based representations of emotion-could be
one path through which mindfulness reduces vulnerability to dysphoric reactivity.

PMID: 20141299 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

63. Emotion. 2010 Feb;10(1):8-11.

Empirical explorations of mindfulness: conceptual and methodological conundrums.

Davidson RJ.

Center for Investigating Healthy Minds.

This commentary reflects on the articles in this Special Issue. The appearance of
this group of articles underscores the important idea that a major target of
mindfulness practice is on emotion. Transformation in trait affect is a key goal
of all contemplative traditions. This commentary addresses several key
methodological and conceptual issues in the empirical study of mindfulness. The
many ways in which the term « mindfulness » is used in the articles in this Special
Issue are noted, and they include its reference to states, traits, and
independent variables that are manipulated in an experimental context. How the
term « mindfulness » is conceptualized and operationalized is crucial, and for
progress to be made it is essential that we qualify the use of this term by
reference to how it is being operationalized in each context. Other
methodological issues are considered, such as the duration of training and how it
should be measured, and the nature of control and comparison groups in studies of
mindfulness-based interventions. Finally, the commentary ends with a
consideration of the targets within emotion processing that are likely to be
impacted by mindfulness. This collection of articles underscores the substantial
progress that has occurred in the empirical study of mindfulness and it is a
harbinger of a very promising future in this area.

PMID: 20141297 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

64. Emotion. 2010 Feb;10(1):1-7.

Mindfulness and psychological process.

Williams JM.

University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK.
mark.williams@psych.ox.ac.uk

The author reviews the articles in the Special Section on Mindfulness, starting
from the assumption that emotions evolved as signaling systems that need to be
sensitive to environmental contingencies. Failure to switch off emotion is due to
the activation of mental representations of present, past, and future that are
created independently of external contingencies. Mindfulness training can be seen
as one way to teach people to discriminate such « simulations » from objects and
contingencies as they actually are. The articles in this Special Section show how
even brief laboratory training can have effects on processing affective stimuli;
that long-term meditation practitioners show distinct reactions to pain; that
longer meditation training is associated with differences in brain structure;
that 8 weeks’ mindfulness practice brings about changes in the way emotion is
processed showing that participants can learn to uncouple the sensory, directly
experienced self from the « narrative » self; that mindfulness training can affect
working memory capacity, and enhance the ability of participants to talk about
past crises in a way that enables them to remain specific and yet not be
overwhelmed. The implications of these findings for understanding emotion and for
further research is discussed.

PMID: 20141295 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

65. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010 Feb;78(1):72-9.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for individuals whose lives have been
affected by cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

Foley E, Baillie A, Huxter M, Price M, Sinclair E.

Cancer Institute NSW and Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney,
New South Wales, Australia. elizabeth@mindpotential.com.au

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive
therapy (MBCT) for individuals with a diagnosis of cancer. METHOD: Participants
(N = 115) diagnosed with cancer, across site and stage, were randomly allocated
to either the treatment or the wait-list condition. Treatment was conducted at 1
site, by a single therapist, and involved participation in 8 weekly 2-hr sessions
that focused on mindfulness. Participants meditated for up to 1 hr daily and
attended an additional full-day session during the course. Participants were
assessed before treatment and 10 weeks later; this second assessment occurred
immediately after completion of the program for the treatment condition. The
treatment condition was also assessed at 3 months postintervention. All
postinitial assessments were completed by assessors who were blind to treatment
allocation. RESULTS: There were large and significant improvements in mindfulness
(effect size [ES] = 0.55), depression (ES = 0.83), anxiety (ES = 0.59), and
distress (ES = 0.53) as well as a trend for quality of life (ES = 0.30) for MBCT
participants compared to those who had not received the training. The wait-list
group was assessed before and after receiving the intervention and demonstrated
similar change. CONCLUSIONS: These improvements represent clinically meaningful
change and provide evidence for the provision of MBCT within oncology settings.

PMID: 20099952 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

66. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD007502.

Massage therapy for people with HIV/AIDS.

Hillier SL, Louw Q, Morris L, Uwimana J, Statham S.

Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia (City East),
North Terrace, Adelaide, SA, Australia, 5000.

BACKGROUND: Infection with human immunodeficency virus (HIV) and acquired
immunodeficency syndrome (AIDS) is a pandemic that has affected millions of
people globally. Although major research and clinical initiatives are addressing
prevention and cure strategies, issues of quality of life for survivors have
received less attention. Massage therapy is proposed to have a positive effect on
quality of life and may also have a positive effect on immune function through
stress mediation. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review was to
examine the safety and effectiveness of massage therapy on quality of life, pain
and immune system parameters in people living with HIV/AIDS. SEARCH STRATEGY: A
comprehensive search strategy was devised incorporating appropriate terms for
HIV/AIDS, randomised controlled trials (RCTs), massage therapy and the pertinent
measures of benefit. All electronic databases identified were searched in
November 2008, including Cochrane Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central
Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCIENCE CITATION INDEX,
AIDSLINE, AIDSearch, CINAHL, HEALTHSTAR, PsycLIT, AMED, Current Contents, AMI,
NLM GATEWAY, LILACS, IndMed, SOCIOFILE, SCI, SSCI, ERIC and DAI. We also reviewed
relevant published and unpublished conference abstracts and proceedings and
scrutinised reference lists from pertinent journals. There were no language or
date restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies were identified by two reviewers
based on trial design (RCTs) and participants (ie, people of any age with
HIV/AIDS, at any stage of the disease) who had undergone an intervention that
included massage therapy for the identified aims of improving quality of life and
activity and participation levels, improving immune function, reducing pain and
improving other physiological or psychological impairments. DATA COLLECTION AND
ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently identified included studies and extracted
relevant data. Two other reviewers independently reviewed the included studies
for risk of bias. All data and risk of bias judgements were entered into Revman
(v5) and meta-analyses were conducted where appropriate. MAIN RESULTS: Twelve
papers were identified, from which four were included. The remaining eight papers
were excluded predominantly due to inappropriate methodology. The four included
studies were highly clinically heterogenous, investigating a range of age groups
(ie, children, adolescents and adults) across the disease spectrum from early HIV
through late-stage AIDS. The settings were either community or palliative care,
and the outcome measures were a combination of quality of life and immunological
function. The trials were judged to be at moderate risk of bias mostly because of
incomplete reporting. For quality of life measures, the studies reported that
massage therapy in combination with other modalities, such as meditation and
stress reduction, are superior to massage therapy alone or to the other
modalities alone. The quality of life domains with significant effect sizes
included self-reported reduced use of health care resources, improvement in
self-perceived spiritual quality of life and improvement in total quality of life
scores. One study also reported positive changes in immune function, in
particular CD4+ cell count and natural killer cell counts, due to massage
therapy, and one study reported no difference between people given massage
therapy and controls in immune parameters. Adverse or harmful effects were not
well reported. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence to support the use of
massage therapy to improve quality of life for people living with HIV/AIDS
(PLWHA), particularly in combination with other stress-management modalities, and
that massage therapy may have a positive effect on immunological function. The
trials are small, however, and at moderate risk of bias. Further studies are
needed using larger sample sizes and rigorous design/reporting before massage
therapy can be strongly recommended for PLWHA.

PMID: 20091636 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

67. Duodecim. 2010;126(12):1477-85.

[The clinical picture of gout is changing]

[Article in Finnish]

Julkunen H, Konttinen YT.

HYKA, medisiininen tulosyksikkoö, Vantaa.

The prevalence of gout in the western countries is 1-2%. The disease has become
more common during the last two decades, and the same time its clinical picture
has changed. The disease is often polyarticular, the patients are older than
before and they have more often associated cardiovascular diseases and renal
insufficiency. Effective treatment of acute gout is nonsteroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs with intra-articular or systematic corticosteroids. The
goal for the treatment of intermittent and chronic gout is to maintain serum
urate concentration velow 360 micromol/l by diet and by antihyperuricemic
meditation, primarly allopurinole and probenecid. Febuxostat is a new xanthine
oxidase inhibitor, which will be available for the treatment of refractory gout
in the near future. Special attention should be paid on detecting and treating
cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in patients with gout.

PMID: 20617751 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

68. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Jan;16(1):37-46.

Vipassana meditation: systematic review of current evidence.

Chiesa A.

Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

OBJECTIVES: Vipassana meditation (VM) is one of the most ancient and diffused
types of meditative practices belonging to the pole of mindfulness. Despite the
growing interest toward the neurobiological and clinical correlates of many
meditative practices, no review has specifically focused on current evidence on
neuro-imaging and clinical evidence about VM. METHODS: A literature search was
undertaken using MEDLINE,((R)) ISI web of knowledge, the Cochrane database, and
references of retrieved articles. Controlled and cross-sectional studies with
controls published in English up to March 2009 were included. RESULTS: Seven (7)
mainly poor-quality studies were identified. Three (3) neuro-imaging studies
suggested that VM practice could be associated with the activation of the
prefrontal and the anterior cingulate cortex during meditative periods, and with
increased thickness in cortical areas related to attention as well as increased
subcortical gray matter in right insula and hippocampus in long-term meditators.
Three (3) clinical studies in incarcerated populations suggested that VM could
reduce alcohol and substance abuse but not post-traumatic stress disorder
symptoms in prisoners. One (1) clinical study in healthy subjects suggested that
VM could enhance more mature defenses and copying styles. DISCUSSION: Current
studies provided preliminary results about neurobiological and clinical changes
related to VM practice. Nonetheless, few and mainly low-quality data are
available especially for clinical studies and current results have to be
considered with caution. Further research is needed to answer critical questions
about replications, self-selection, placebo, and long-term effects of VM.

PMID: 20055558 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

69. J Clin Psychol. 2010 Jan;66(1):17-33.

Mindfulness intervention for child abuse survivors.

Kimbrough E, Magyari T, Langenberg P, Chesney M, Berman B.

Center for Integrative Medicine, Department of Family and Community Medicine,
University of Maryland School of Medicine, Kernan Hospital Mansion, 2200 Kernan
Drive, Baltimore, MD 21207-6665, USA. ekimbrough@compmed.umm.edu

Twenty-seven adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse participated in a pilot
study comprising an 8-week mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction (MBSR)
program and daily home practice of mindfulness skills. Three refresher classes
were provided through final follow-up at 24 weeks. Assessments of depressive
symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and mindfulness, were
conducted at baseline, 4, 8, and 24 weeks. At 8 weeks, depressive symptoms were
reduced by 65%. Statistically significant improvements were observed in all
outcomes post-MBSR, with effect sizes above 1.0. Improvements were largely
sustained until 24 weeks. Of three PTSD symptom criteria, symptoms of
avoidance/numbing were most greatly reduced. Compliance to class attendance and
home practice was high, with the intervention proving safe and acceptable to
participants. These results warrant further investigation of the MBSR approach in
a randomized, controlled trial in this patient population.

PMID: 19998425 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

70. J Psychosom Res. 2010 Jan;68(1):29-36.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction for chronic pain conditions: variation in
treatment outcomes and role of home meditation practice.

Rosenzweig S, Greeson JM, Reibel DK, Green JS, Jasser SA, Beasley D.

Office of Educational Affairs, Drexel University College of Medicine,
Philadelphia, PA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: This study compared changes in bodily pain, health-related quality of
life (HRQoL), and psychological symptoms during an 8-week mindfulness-based
stress reduction (MBSR) program among groups of participants with different
chronic pain conditions. METHODS: From 1997-2003, a longitudinal investigation of
chronic pain patients (n=133) was nested within a larger prospective cohort study
of heterogeneous patients participating in MBSR at a university-based Integrative
Medicine center. Measures included the Short-Form 36 Health Survey and Symptom
Checklist-90-Revised. Paired t tests were used to compare pre-post changes on
outcome measures. Differences in treatment effect sizes were compared as a
function of chronic pain condition. Correlations were examined between outcome
parameters and home meditation practice. RESULTS: Outcomes differed in
significance and magnitude across common chronic pain conditions. Diagnostic
subgroups of patients with arthritis, back/neck pain, or two or more comorbid
pain conditions demonstrated a significant change in pain intensity and
functional limitations due to pain following MBSR. Participants with arthritis
showed the largest treatment effects for HRQoL and psychological distress.
Patients with chronic headache/migraine experienced the smallest improvement in
pain and HRQoL. Patients with fibromyalgia had the smallest improvement in
psychological distress. Greater home meditation practice was associated with
improvement on several outcome measures, including overall psychological
distress, somatization symptoms, and self-rated health, but not pain and other
quality of life scales. CONCLUSION: MBSR treatment effects on pain, HRQoL and
psychological well-being vary as a function of chronic pain condition and
compliance with home meditation practice.

PMID: 20004298 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

71. J Palliat Med. 2009 Dec;12(12):1091-4.

The efficacy of mindfulness-based meditation therapy on anxiety, depression, and
spirituality in Japanese patients with cancer.

Ando M, Morita T, Akechi T, Ito S, Tanaka M, Ifuku Y, Nakayama T.

Faculty of Nursing, St Mary’s College, Fukuoka, Japan.

OBJECTIVE: The primary goal of the study was to assess the efficacy of
mindfulness-based meditation therapy on anxiety, depression, and spiritual
well-being of Japanese patients undergoing anticancer treatment. A secondary goal
was to assess the relationships among anxiety, depression, spiritual well-being,
growth, appreciation, pain, and symptoms. METHODS: The subjects were 28 patients
who were receiving anticancer treatment. The subjects participated in two
sessions of mindfulness-based meditation therapy, including breathing, yoga
movement and meditation. Each patient was taught the program in the first
session, then exercised at home with a CD, and subsequently met the interviewer
in a second session after 2 weeks. Primary physicians recruited the patients and
interviews were conducted individually by nurses or psychologists with training
in the program. Patients completed preintervention and postintervention
questionnaires on anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
[HADS]), spiritual well-being (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness
Therapy-Spiritual [FACIT-Sp]), and appreciation, growth, pain, and symptoms.
RESULTS: HADS scores significantly decreased from 12 +/- 5.3 to 8.6 +/- 6.3 (p =
0.004) after the intervention, and FACIT-Sp increased from 32 +/- 6.5 to 33 +/-
6.9 (p = 0.69), but the change was not significant. There were significant
associations between FACIT-Sp and HADS (r = -0.78, p = 000), FACIT-Sp and growth
(r = -0.35, p = 0.04), FACIT-Sp and pain (r = -0.41, p = 0.02), and growth and
appreciation (r = 0.45, p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Mindfulness-based meditation
therapy may be effective for anxiety and depression in Japanese cancer patients,
and spiritual well-being is related to anxiety and depression, growth, and pain.
The negative correlation of spirituality with growth differs from the results of
previous studies and the mechanism of this effect needs to be investigated
further.

PMID: 19715397 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

72. Palliat Support Care. 2009 Dec;7(4):393-404.

Seriously ill patients’ discussions of preparation and life completion: an
intervention to assist with transition at the end of life.

Steinhauser KE, Alexander SC, Byock IR, George LK, Tulsky JA.

Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham VA Medical Center,
Durham, North Carolina, USA. karen.steinhauser@duke.edu

OBJECTIVE:Patients approaching the end of life not only face challenges to
physical well-being but also threats to emotional and spiritual integrity. Yet,
identifying appropriate, effective, and brief interventions to address those
concerns has proven elusive. We developed an intervention based on life review
and emotional disclosure literatures and conducted a pilot study to determine
feasibility and acceptability. This article presents qualitative intervention
responses.METHOD:We conducted a three-armed randomized control trial to evaluate
the effects of preparation and life completion discussion on health outcomes in
patients with advanced serious illness. Hospice-eligible subjects were randomly
assigned to one of three groups: (1) intervention (life completion discussion
intervention), (2) attention control (relaxation meditation), and control (no
intervention). Subjects in the intervention arm met with a facilitator three
times. Session 1 focused on life story, Session 2 on forgiveness, and Session 3,
on heritage and legacy.RESULTS:Eighteen subjects participated in the pilot
intervention interviews. Subjects from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds
completed the intervention with equal facility. Results from Session 1
demonstrate narrative responses participants gave as they reconnected with
previous life roles, values, and accomplishments. The second session illustrated
reflections of choices one might have made differently and exploration of
forgiveness offered and sought. Content from the first and second sessions laid
the foundation for discussing Session 3’s lessons learned and heritage and
legacy. Responses are summarized to assist clinicians in anticipating life review
content that may improve overall quality of life at the end of life.SIGNIFICANCE
OF RESULTS:Discussions of life completion may improve important health outcomes
for patients at the end of life. This intervention may provide a brief,
standardized, and transportable means for improving the quality of life of
patients with advanced serious illness.

PMID: 19939302 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

73. Percept Mot Skills. 2009 Dec;109(3):679-89.

Meditative states based on yoga texts and their effects on performance of a
letter-cancellation task.

Kumar S, Telles S.

Indian Council of Medical Research, Centre for Advanced Research in Yoga and
Neurophysiology, SVYASA, Bangalore, India.

Performance in a six-letter cancellation task was studied in 35 male experienced
meditators with experience ranging from 6 to 12 months. Each participant was
studied in four sessions, two Meditation and two Control sessions. The Control
sessions were (i) Cancalata or nontargeted thinking and (ii) Ekagrata or focusing
on a single topic, in this case, meditation. The Meditation sessions were (i)
Dharana or focusing on the symbol « OM » and (ii) Dhyana or an effortless
single-thought (of OM) state. Ekagrata and dharana differ in that the former
involves focusing with multiple thoughts whereas the latter involves focusing
with a single thought, i.e., the significance of OM. The net scores on the
six-letter cancellation task were significantly higher after a session of Dharana
and lower after the Cancalata session, while there was no significant change
after Ekagrata and Dhyana sessions. Focusing on the symbol OM in Dharana may
favorably influence selective attention, concentration, visual scanning
abilities, and a repetitive motor response compared to other sessions.

PMID: 20178266 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

74. Psychooncology. 2009 Dec;18(12):1261-72.

Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) for
survivors of breast cancer.

Lengacher CA, Johnson-Mallard V, Post-White J, Moscoso MS, Jacobsen PB, Klein TW,
Widen RH, Fitzgerald SG, Shelton MM, Barta M, Goodman M, Cox CE, Kip KE.

University of South Florida College of Nursing, Tampa, FL 33612-447, USA.

OBJECTIVES: Considerable morbidity persists among survivors of breast cancer (BC)
including high levels of psychological stress, anxiety, depression, fear of
recurrence, and physical symptoms including pain, fatigue, and sleep
disturbances, and impaired quality of life. Effective interventions are needed
during this difficult transitional period. METHODS: We conducted a randomized
controlled trial of 84 female BC survivors (Stages 0-III) recruited from the H.
Lee Moffitt Cancer and Research Institute. All subjects were within 18 months of
treatment completion with surgery and adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy.
Subjects were randomly assigned to a 6-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
(MBSR) program designed to self-regulate arousal to stressful circumstances or
symptoms (n=41) or to usual care (n=43). Outcome measures compared at 6 weeks by
random assignment included validated measures of psychological status
(depression, anxiety, perceived stress, fear of recurrence, optimism, social
support) and psychological and physical subscales of quality of life (SF-36).
RESULTS: Compared with usual care, subjects assigned to MBSR(BC) had
significantly lower (two-sided p<0.05) adjusted mean levels of depression (6.3 vs
9.6), anxiety (28.3 vs 33.0), and fear of recurrence (9.3 vs 11.6) at 6 weeks,
along with higher energy (53.5 vs 49.2), physical functioning (50.1 vs 47.0), and
physical role functioning (49.1 vs 42.8). In stratified analyses, subjects more
compliant with MBSR tended to experience greater improvements in measures of
energy and physical functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Among BC survivors within 18 months
of treatment completion, a 6-week MBSR(BC) program resulted in significant
improvements in psychological status and quality of life compared with usual
care.

PMID: 19235193 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

75. Brain Topogr. 2009 Nov;22(3):158-65. Epub 2009 Aug 4.

Meditators and non-meditators: EEG source imaging during resting.

Tei S, Faber PL, Lehmann D, Tsujiuchi T, Kumano H, Pascual-Marqui RD, Gianotti
LR, Kochi K.

Department of Stress Science and Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of
Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Many meditation exercises aim at increased awareness of ongoing experiences
through sustained attention and at detachment, i.e., non-engaging observation of
these ongoing experiences by the intent not to analyze, judge or expect anything.
Long-term meditation practice is believed to generalize the ability of increased
awareness and greater detachment into everyday life. We hypothesized that
neuroplasticity effects of meditation (correlates of increased awareness and
detachment) would be detectable in a no-task resting state. EEG recorded during
resting was compared between Qigong meditators and controls. Using LORETA (low
resolution electromagnetic tomography) to compute the intracerebral source
locations, differences in brain activations between groups were found in the
inhibitory delta EEG frequency band. In the meditators, appraisal systems were
inhibited, while brain areas involved in the detection and integration of
internal and external sensory information showed increased activation. This
suggests that neuroplasticity effects of long-term meditation practice,
subjectively described as increased awareness and greater detachment, are carried
over into non-meditating states.

PMID: 19653090 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

76. Explore (NY). 2009 Nov-Dec;5(6):313-23.

The role of mindfulness in healthcare reform: a policy paper.

McCabe Ruff K, Mackenzie ER.

PMID: 19913756 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

77. Holist Nurs Pract. 2009 Nov-Dec;23(6):315-34.

The science of energy therapies and contemplative practice: a conceptual review
and the application of zero balancing.

Denner SS.

Department of Anesthesia, St Joseph Medical Center, Towson, Maryland, USA.
sd372@drexel.edu

The topic of energy therapies is prompted by the increasing attention of
healthcare practitioners and consumers to Eastern philosophies and ancient
healing practices. This article includes a conceptual framework of quantum
physics principles providing the basis of interpretation of energetic phenomena,
along with the exploration of theoretical concepts involving energy as a
communicational network. An overview of the contemplative tradition of meditation
indicates its necessity as a requisite element of energy therapies, the practice
combining a knowledge base of the core scientific precepts with the experience of
restorative strategies. The relevance of energy therapies as a path to
self-transcendence along with the application of a specific touch technique, Zero
Balancing, is highlighted.

PMID: 19901607 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

78. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Nov;15(11):1187-92.

Increased theta and alpha EEG activity during nondirective meditation.

Lagopoulos J, Xu J, Rasmussen I, Vik A, Malhi GS, Eliassen CF, Arntsen IE,
Saether JG, Hollup S, Holen A, Davanger S, Ellingsen Ø.

Discipline of Psychological Medicine and Northern Clinical School, University of
Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. jlagopoulos@med.usyd.edu.au

OBJECTIVES: In recent years, there has been significant uptake of meditation and
related relaxation techniques, as a means of alleviating stress and maintaining
good health. Despite its popularity, little is known about the neural mechanisms
by which meditation works, and there is a need for more rigorous investigations
of the underlying neurobiology. Several electroencephalogram (EEG) studies have
reported changes in spectral band frequencies during meditation inspired by
techniques that focus on concentration, and in comparison much less has been
reported on mindfulness and nondirective techniques that are proving to be just
as popular. DESIGN: The present study examined EEG changes during nondirective
meditation. The investigational paradigm involved 20 minutes of acem meditation,
where the subjects were asked to close their eyes and adopt their normal
meditation technique, as well as a separate 20-minute quiet rest condition where
the subjects were asked to close their eyes and sit quietly in a state of rest.
Both conditions were completed in the same experimental session with a 15-minute
break in between. RESULTS: Significantly increased theta power was found for the
meditation condition when averaged across all brain regions. On closer
examination, it was found that theta was significantly greater in the frontal and
temporal-central regions as compared to the posterior region. There was also a
significant increase in alpha power in the meditation condition compared to the
rest condition, when averaged across all brain regions, and it was found that
alpha was significantly greater in the posterior region as compared to the
frontal region. CONCLUSIONS: These findings from this study suggest that
nondirective meditation techniques alter theta and alpha EEG patterns
significantly more than regular relaxation, in a manner that is perhaps similar
to methods based on mindfulness or concentration.

PMID: 19922249 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

79. Pain Med. 2009 Nov;10(8):1395-407.

A mind-body program for older adults with chronic low back pain: results of a
pilot study.

Morone NE, Rollman BL, Moore CG, Li Q, Weiner DK.

Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, USA.

OBJECTIVES: Determine the impact of an 8-week mindfulness meditation program on
disability, psychological function, and pain severity in community-dwelling older
adults with chronic low back pain, and to test the education control program for
feasibility. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. Participants. Forty
community-dwelling older adults with moderate low back pain or greater for at
least the previous 3 months. Intervention. Participants were randomized to an
8-week meditation program or an 8-week education control program. OUTCOME
MEASURES: Disability, psychological function, and pain severity were assessed.
The same measures were obtained for both groups at baseline, at the end of the
program, and 4 months after program completion. RESULTS: Sixteen participants
(80%) completed the meditation program and 19 (95%) completed the education
program. Both the meditation and control group improved on measures of
disability, pain, and psychological function, both at program completion and
4-month follow-up. The differences between the two groups did not reach
statistical significance. The meditation group practiced mindfulness meditation a
mean of 5 days/week (range 1-7) and mean of 31 minutes/session (range 22-48). At
4 months follow-up 14/16 (88%) participants continued to meditate. CONCLUSION:
Both the intervention group and the education control group improved on outcome
measures suggesting both programs had a beneficial effect. Participants continued
to meditate on 4-month follow-up. The control program was feasible but not inert.
Piloting the control program in mind-body research can inform the design of
larger clinical trials.

PMCID: PMC2849802 [Available on 2010/11/1]
PMID: 20021599 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

80. Rheumatol Int. 2009 Nov;30(1):1-21. Epub 2009 Aug 12.

Qualitative systemic review of randomized controlled trials on complementary and
alternative medicine treatments in fibromyalgia.

Baranowsky J, Klose P, Musial F, Haeuser W, Dobos G, Langhorst J.

Department of Internal Medicine, Complementary and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken
Essen-Mitte, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

The objectives of the study were identification, quality evaluation and summary
of RCTs on complementary and alternative medicine as defined by the National
Institute of Health with the exception of dietary and nutritional supplements. A
computerized search of databases from 1990 (year of publication of the ACR
criteria for fibromyalgia) to July 2007 was performed. The RCTs were assessed by
a methodological quality score. A total of 23 RCTs issued from 1992 to 2007 on
acupuncture, balneotherapy, thermotherapy, magnetic therapy, homeopathy, manual
manipulation, mind-body medicine, diet therapy and music therapy were identified.
The RCTs had an average group size of 25 with the number of groups ranging from
two to four. The quality score assessment of the RCTs yielded a mean score of 51
out of 100. The average methodological quality of the identified studies was
fairly low. Best evidence was found for balneotherapy/hydrotherapy in multiple
studies. Positive results were also noted for homeopathy and mild infrared
hyperthermia in 1 RCT in each field. Mindfulness meditation showed mostly
positive results in two trials and acupuncture mixed results in multiple trials
with a tendency toward positive results. Tendencies for improvement were
furthermore noted in single trials of the Mesendieck system, connective tissue
massage and to some degree for osteopathy and magnet therapy. No positive
evidence could be identified for Qi Gong, biofeedback, and body awareness
therapy.

PMID: 19672601 [PubMed – in process]

81. Thorax. 2009 Nov;64(11):993-8. Epub 2009 Aug 12.

The effect of mindfulness meditation on cough reflex sensitivity.

Young EC, Brammer C, Owen E, Brown N, Lowe J, Johnson C, Calam R, Jones S,
Woodcock A, Smith JA.

Respiratory Research Group, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
emma.young@manchester.ac.uk

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough is common, and medical treatment can be ineffective.
Mindfulness is a psychological intervention that aims to teach moment-to-moment
non-judgemental awareness of thoughts, feelings and sensations. METHOD: 30
healthy subjects and 30 patients with chronic cough were studied in two
sequential trials. For both studies, cough reflex sensitivity to citric acid (C5)
was measured on two occasions, with urge to cough rated following each
inhalation; between challenges subjects were randomised to (1) no intervention,
(2) mindfulness or (3) no intervention but modified cough challenge (subjects
suppress coughing). For the healthy volunteers, measures were 1 h apart and
mindfulness was practised for 15 min. For the patients with chronic cough
measures were 1 week apart and mindfulness was practised daily for 30 min.
RESULTS: In healthy volunteers, median change (interquartile range (IQR)) in
cough reflex sensitivity (logC5) for no intervention, mindfulness and suppression
was +1.0 (0.0 to +1.3), +2.0 (+1.0 to +3.0) and +3.0 (+2.8 to +3.0) doubling
concentrations (p = 0.003); there were significant reductions for both
mindfulness (p = 0.043) and suppression (p = 0.002) over no intervention. In
patients with cough, median change (IQR) in logC5 for no intervention,
mindfulness training and voluntary suppression was 0.0 (-1.0 to +1.0), +1.0 (-0.3
to +1.0) and +1.0 (+1.0 to +2.0) doubling concentrations (p = 0.046); there was a
significant reduction for suppression (p = 0.02) but not mindfulness (p = 0.35).
Urge to cough did not change after mindfulness compared with control in either
healthy subjects (p = 0.33) or those with chronic cough (p = 0.47). CONCLUSION:
Compared with control, mindfulness decreased cough reflex sensitivity in healthy
volunteers, but did not alter cough threshold in patients with chronic cough.
Both groups were able to suppress cough responses to citric acid inhalation.

PMID: 19679578 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

82. J Neurosci. 2009 Oct 21;29(42):13418-27.

Mental training enhances attentional stability: neural and behavioral evidence.

Lutz A, Slagter HA, Rawlings NB, Francis AD, Greischar LL, Davidson RJ.

Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, University of
Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705, USA.

The capacity to stabilize the content of attention over time varies among
individuals, and its impairment is a hallmark of several mental illnesses.
Impairments in sustained attention in patients with attention disorders have been
associated with increased trial-to-trial variability in reaction time and
event-related potential deficits during attention tasks. At present, it is
unclear whether the ability to sustain attention and its underlying brain
circuitry are transformable through training. Here, we show, with dichotic
listening task performance and electroencephalography, that training attention,
as cultivated by meditation, can improve the ability to sustain attention. Three
months of intensive meditation training reduced variability in attentional
processing of target tones, as indicated by both enhanced theta-band phase
consistency of oscillatory neural responses over anterior brain areas and reduced
reaction time variability. Furthermore, those individuals who showed the greatest
increase in neural response consistency showed the largest decrease in behavioral
response variability. Notably, we also observed reduced variability in neural
processing, in particular in low-frequency bands, regardless of whether the
deviant tone was attended or unattended. Focused attention meditation may thus
affect both distracter and target processing, perhaps by enhancing entrainment of
neuronal oscillations to sensory input rhythms, a mechanism important for
controlling the content of attention. These novel findings highlight the
mechanisms underlying focused attention meditation and support the notion that
mental training can significantly affect attention and brain function.

PMCID: PMC2789281
PMID: 19846729 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

83. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Oct;15(10):1083-90.

Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based therapy for dyspnea in chronic
obstructive lung disease.

Mularski RA, Munjas BA, Lorenz KA, Sun S, Robertson SJ, Schmelzer W, Kim AC,
Shekelle PG.

The Center for Health Research , Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR 97227,
USA. Richard.A.Mularski@kpchr.org

OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) suffer from
significant dyspnea and may benefit from complementary and alternative medicine
(CAM) therapies aimed at mitigating symptoms. The objective of this study was to
test the efficacy of a mindfulness-based breathing therapy (MBBT) on improving
symptoms and health-related quality of life in those with COPD. DESIGN: We
conducted a randomized controlled trial of 8-week mindfulness-based breathing
therapy (MBBT) compared to support groups to test efficacy on improving symptoms
and health-related quality of life in those with COPD. Setting: The setting for
this study was an academic-affiliated veterans healthcare system. SUBJECTS: The
subjects consisted of 86 patients with COPD. INTERVENTIONS: MBBT included weekly
meetings practicing mindfulness mediation and relaxation response. Outcome
measures: The main outcome measure was a post 6-minute-walk test (6MWT) Borg
dyspnea assessment. Other outcome measures included health-related quality of
life measures, 6MWT distance, symptom scores, exacerbation rates, and measures of
stress and mindfulness. Analysis of covariance compared differences in outcomes
between groups; paired t test evaluated changes within groups. RESULTS:
Participants were predominantly elderly men with moderate to severe COPD. We
found no improvements in dyspnea (post 6MWT Borg difference between the MBBT and
support group was 0.3 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.1, 1.7). We found no
differences between groups in almost all other outcome measures by either
intention-to-treat analysis or within the subset that completed assigned group
sessions. For the physical summary scale of the generic Short Form-36 for
Veterans, the difference between outcomes favored the support group (4.3, 95% CI:
0.4, 8.1). Participant retention was low compared to mind-body trials that
randomize from CAM wait lists. CONCLUSIONS: This trial found no measurable
improvements in patients with COPD receiving a mindfulness-based breathing CAM
therapy compared to a support group, suggesting that this intervention is
unlikely to be an important therapeutic option for those with moderate-to-severe
COPD.

PMID: 19848546 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

84. Mayo Clin Health Lett. 2009 Oct;27(10):1-3.

Meditation. Calming a restless mind.
[No authors listed]

PMID: 19911456 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

85. Percept Mot Skills. 2009 Oct;109(2):563-76.

Performance on psychomotor tasks following two yoga-based relaxation techniques.

Subramanya P, Telles S.

Indian Council of Medical Research, Centre for Advanced Research inYoga and
Neurophysiology, SVYASA, Bangalore, India.

Previously cyclic meditation and supine rest have been shown to improve
performance in a letter cancellation task requiring attention, visual scanning,
and motor speed. The present study assessed the performance in 57 volunteers (all
male, M age = 26.5 yr., SD = 4.6) in three tasks, viz., a digit-letter
substitution task (DLST), a letter-copying task, and a circle-dotting task. The
DLST assessed attention and speed of information processing, while the other 2
tests assessed motor speed. Each participant was assessed before and after three
types of sessions: Cyclic Meditation, Supine Rest, and Control (no intervention).
DLST scores and scores for letter-copying and circle-dotting tasks improved
significantly after cyclic meditation; the same scores also improved after supine
rest. There was no change after the no-intervention/Control session. From the
results it was difficult to conclude whether improved DLST scores after cyclic
meditation were due to better information processing speed or improved motor
speed.

PMID: 20038010 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

86. Subst Abus. 2009 Oct-Dec;30(4):328-37.

Associations between mindfulness and implicit cognition and self-reported affect.

Waters AJ, Reitzel LR, Cinciripini P, Li Y, Marcus MT, Vidrine JI, Wetter DW.

Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services University of
the Health Sciences, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA.
andrew.waters@usuhs.mil

Theory suggests that mindful individuals exhibit enhanced attentional processing
(e.g., attentional control) and that they maintain a detached perspective to
problematic stimuli. For smokers, smoking and affective stimuli are problematic
stimuli when they try to quit. In this cross-sectional study, smokers (n = 158)
completed 3 modified Stroop tasks (to assess attentional control), 3 Implicit
Association Tests (IATs; to assess detached perspective), and a battery of
self-report assessments. Degree of mindfulness was negatively associated (P <
.05) with self-reported negative affect, perceived stress, and depressive symptom
severity, and positively associated (P < .05) with positive affect. Degree of
mindfulness was not associated with the ability to disengage attention from
smoking or affective stimuli. On the depression IAT, more mindful participants
exhibited a more negative IAT effect, suggesting that they may have developed a
detached perspective to depression-related stimuli. Theoretical and clinical
implications of the data are discussed.

PMID: 19904668 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

87. Subst Abus. 2009 Oct-Dec;30(4):318-27.

Associations of mindfulness with nicotine dependence, withdrawal, and agency.

Vidrine JI, Businelle MS, Cinciripini P, Li Y, Marcus MT, Waters AJ, Reitzel LR,
Wetter DW.

Department of Health Disparities Research-Unit 1440, The University of Texas M.
D. Anderson Cancer Center, P.O. Box 301402, Houston, TX 77230-1402, USA.
jirvinvidrine@mdanderson.org

Quitting smoking is a major life stressor that results in numerous aversive
consequences, including persistently increased level of post-cessation negative
affect and relapse. The identification of factors that may enhance behavioral and
emotional regulation after quitting may be useful in enhancing quit rates and
preventing relapse. One factor broadly linked with behavioral and emotional
regulation is mindfulness. This study examined baseline associations of
mindfulness with demographic variables, smoking history, dependence, withdrawal
severity, and agency among 158 smokers enrolled in a cessation trial. Results
indicated that mindfulness was negatively associated with level of nicotine
dependence and withdrawal severity, and positively associated with a sense of
agency regarding cessation. Moreover, mindfulness remained significantly
associated with these measures even after controlling for key demographic
variables. Results suggest that low level of mindfulness may be an important
predictor of vulnerability to relapse among adult smokers preparing to quit;
thus, mindfulness-based interventions may enhance cessation.

PMID: 19904667 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

88. Subst Abus. 2009 Oct-Dec;30(4):306-17.

Mindfulness training and stress reactivity in substance abuse: results from a
randomized, controlled stage I pilot study.

Brewer JA, Sinha R, Chen JA, Michalsen RN, Babuscio TA, Nich C, Grier A,
Bergquist KL, Reis DL, Potenza MN, Carroll KM, Rounsaville BJ.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven,
Connecticut, USA. judson.brewer@yale.edu

Stress is important in substance use disorders (SUDs). Mindfulness training (MT)
has shown promise for stress-related maladies. No studies have compared MT to
empirically validated treatments for SUDs. The goals of this study were to assess
MT compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in substance use and treatment
acceptability, and specificity of MT compared to CBT in targeting stress
reactivity. Thirty-six individuals with alcohol and/or cocaine use disorders were
randomly assigned to receive group MT or CBT in an outpatient setting. Drug use
was assessed weekly. After treatment, responses to personalized stress
provocation were measured. Fourteen individuals completed treatment. There were
no differences in treatment satisfaction or drug use between groups. The
laboratory paradigm suggested reduced psychological and physiological indices of
stress during provocation in MT compared to CBT. This pilot study provides
evidence of the feasibility of MT in treating SUDs and suggests that MT may be
efficacious in targeting stress.

PMID: 19904666 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

89. Subst Abus. 2009 Oct-Dec;30(4):295-305.

Mindfulness-based relapse prevention for substance use disorders: a pilot
efficacy trial.

Bowen S, Chawla N, Collins SE, Witkiewitz K, Hsu S, Grow J, Clifasefi S, Garner
M, Douglass A, Larimer ME, Marlatt A.

Addictive Behaviors Research Center, Department of Psychology, University of
Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. swbowen@u.washington.edu

The current study is the first randomized-controlled trial evaluating the
feasibility and initial efficacy of an 8-week outpatient Mindfulness-Based
Relapse Prevention (MBRP) program as compared to treatment as usual (TAU).
Participants were 168 adults with substance use disorders who had recently
completed intensive inpatient or outpatient treatment. Assessments were
administered pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2 and 4 months
post-intervention. Feasibility of MBRP was demonstrated by consistent homework
compliance, attendance, and participant satisfaction. Initial efficacy was
supported by significantly lower rates of substance use in those who received
MBRP as compared to those in TAU over the 4-month post-intervention period.
Additionally, MBRP participants demonstrated greater decreases in craving, and
increases in acceptance and acting with awareness as compared to TAU. Results
from this initial trial support the feasibility and initial efficacy of MBRP as
an aftercare approach for individuals who have recently completed an intensive
treatment for substance use disorders.

PMID: 19904665 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

90. Subst Abus. 2009 Oct-Dec;30(4):266-94.

Mindfulness meditation for substance use disorders: a systematic review.

Zgierska A, Rabago D, Chawla N, Kushner K, Koehler R, Marlatt A.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and
Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. Aleksandra.Zgierska@fammed.wisc.edu

Relapse is common in substance use disorders (SUDs), even among treated
individuals. The goal of this article was to systematically review the existing
evidence on mindfulness meditation-based interventions (MM) for SUDs. The
comprehensive search for and review of literature found over 2000 abstracts and
resulted in 25 eligible manuscripts (22 published, 3 unpublished: 8 randomized
controlled trials, 7 controlled nonrandomized, 6 noncontrolled prospective, and 2
qualitative studies, and 1 case report). When appropriate, methodological
quality, absolute risk reduction, number needed to treat, and effect size were
assessed. Overall, although preliminary evidence suggests MM efficacy and safety,
conclusive data for MM as a treatment of SUDs are lacking. Significant
methodological limitations exist in most studies. Further, it is unclear which
persons with SUDs might benefit most from MM. Future trials must be of sufficient
sample size to answer a specific clinical question and should target both
assessment of effect size and mechanisms of action.

PMCID: PMC2800788 [Available on 2010/10/1]
PMID: 19904664 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

91. Subst Abus. 2009 Oct-Dec;30(4):263-5.

Mindfulness-based therapies for substance use disorders: part 1.

Marcus MT, Zgierska A.

PMCID: PMC2818765
PMID: 19904663 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

92. JAMA. 2009 Sep 23;302(12):1284-93.

Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout,
empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians.

Krasner MS, Epstein RM, Beckman H, Suchman AL, Chapman B, Mooney CJ, Quill TE.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center,
Rochester, New York, USA. michael_krasner@urmc.rochester.edu

Comment in:
JAMA. 2010 Jan 27;303(4):330-1; author reply 331.
JAMA. 2009 Sep 23;302(12):1338-40.

CONTEXT: Primary care physicians report high levels of distress, which is linked
to burnout, attrition, and poorer quality of care. Programs to reduce burnout
before it results in impairment are rare; data on these programs are scarce.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether an intensive educational program in mindfulness,
communication, and self-awareness is associated with improvement in primary care
physicians’ well-being, psychological distress, burnout, and capacity for
relating to patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Before-and-after study
of 70 primary care physicians in Rochester, New York, in a continuing medical
education (CME) course in 2007-2008. The course included mindfulness meditation,
self-awareness exercises, narratives about meaningful clinical experiences,
appreciative interviews, didactic material, and discussion. An 8-week intensive
phase (2.5 h/wk, 7-hour retreat) was followed by a 10-month maintenance phase
(2.5 h/mo). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mindfulness (2 subscales), burnout (3
subscales), empathy (3 subscales), psychosocial orientation, personality (5
factors), and mood (6 subscales) measured at baseline and at 2, 12, and 15
months. RESULTS: Over the course of the program and follow-up, participants
demonstrated improvements in mindfulness (raw score, 45.2 to 54.1; raw score
change [Delta], 8.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0 to 10.8); burnout
(emotional exhaustion, 26.8 to 20.0; Delta = -6.8; 95% CI, -4.8 to -8.8;
depersonalization, 8.4 to 5.9; Delta = -2.5; 95% CI, -1.4 to -3.6; and personal
accomplishment, 40.2 to 42.6; Delta = 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.6); empathy (116.6 to
121.2; Delta = 4.6; 95% CI, 2.2 to 7.0); physician belief scale (76.7 to 72.6;
Delta = -4.1; 95% CI, -1.8 to -6.4); total mood disturbance (33.2 to 16.1; Delta
= -17.1; 95% CI, -11 to -23.2), and personality (conscientiousness, 6.5 to 6.8;
Delta = 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5 and emotional stability, 6.1 to 6.6; Delta = 0.5;
95% CI, 0.3 to 0.7). Improvements in mindfulness were correlated with
improvements in total mood disturbance (r = -0.39, P < .001), perspective taking
subscale of physician empathy (r = 0.31, P < .001), burnout (emotional exhaustion
and personal accomplishment subscales, r = -0.32 and 0.33, respectively; P <
.001), and personality factors (conscientiousness and emotional stability, r =
0.29 and 0.25, respectively; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Participation in a mindful
communication program was associated with short-term and sustained improvements
in well-being and attitudes associated with patient-centered care. Because
before-and-after designs limit inferences about intervention effects, these
findings warrant randomized trials involving a variety of practicing physicians.

PMID: 19773563 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

93. Biol Psychol. 2009 Sep;82(1):1-11. Epub 2009 Apr 23.

The neurobiology of Meditation and its clinical effectiveness in psychiatric
disorders.

Rubia K.

Institute of Psychiatry, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, King’s
College University London, UK. k.rubia@iop.kcl.ac.uk

This paper reviews the evidence for changes of Meditation on body and brain
physiology and for clinical effectiveness in disorders of psychiatry. The aim of
Meditation is to reduce or eliminate irrelevant thought processes through
training of internalised attention, thought to lead to physical and mental
relaxation, stress reduction, psycho-emotional stability and enhanced
concentration. Physiological evidence shows a reduction with Meditation of
stress-related autonomic and endocrine measures, while neuroimaging studies
demonstrate the functional up-regulation of brain regions of affect regulation
and attention control. Clinical studies show some evidence for the effectiveness
of Meditation in disorders of affect, anxiety and attention. The combined
evidence from neurobiological and clinical studies seems promising. However, a
more thorough understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms of action and
clinical effectiveness of the different Meditative practices is needed before
Meditative practices can be leveraged in the prevention and intervention of
mental illness.

PMID: 19393712 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

94. Conscious Cogn. 2009 Sep;18(3):593-9. Epub 2009 Jun 9.

Age effects on attentional blink performance in meditation.
van Leeuwen S, Müller NG, Melloni L.

Cognitive Neurology Unit, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University & Brain Imaging
Center, Schleusenweg 2-16, 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
sara_vanleeuwen@yahoo.com

Here we explore whether mental training in the form of meditation can help to
overcome age-related attentional decline. We compared performance on the
attentional blink task between three populations: A group of long-term meditation
practitioners within an older population, a control group of age-matched
participants and a control group of young participants. Members of both control
groups had never practiced meditation. Our results show that long-term meditation
practice leads to a reduction of the attentional blink. Meditation practitioners
taken from an older population showed a reduction in blink as compared to a
control group taken from a younger population, whereas, the control group
age-matched to the meditators’ group revealed a blink that was comparatively
larger and broader. Our results support the hypothesis that meditation practice
can: (i) alter the efficiency with which attentional resources are distributed
and (ii) help to overcome age-related attentional deficits in the temporal
domain.

PMID: 19515578 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

95. Explore (NY). 2009 Sep-Oct;5(5):265-71.

Mindfulness and rumination: does mindfulness training lead to reductions in the
ruminative thinking associated with depression?

Deyo M, Wilson KA, Ong J, Koopman C.

Pacific Graduate School of Psychology-Stanford Consortium, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
drmarydeyo@gmail.com

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of mindfulness-based
stress reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1982, 1990) training on a self-selected adult
community sample in the areas of mindfulness, rumination, depressive
symptomatology and overall well-being. Targeting rumination was considered
particularly important because a tendency toward rumination in nondepressed
populations has been found to be predictive of subsequent onset of depression. As
hypothesized, completers of the MBSR class showed increases in mindfulness and
overall wellbeing, and decreases in rumination and symptoms of depression.
Limitations of the study are discussed, as are the implications of these
findings.

PMID: 19733812 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

96. Int J Qual Stud Health Well-being. 2009 Sep 1;4:145-58.

Experiencing mindfulness meditation-a client narrative perspective.

Stelter R.

Research Group on Body, Learning and Identity, Department of Exercise and Sport
Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

The study was based on the non-participant involvement of the researcher in four
six-to-eight weeks’ mindfulness meditation training courses led by chartered
psychologists. The participants suffered from stress/sleeplessness, depression or
agoraphobia in the presented cases. They were selected on the basis of
recommendations by the psychologist who was the course instructor, who described
them as positive and suitable. The participants wrote diaries on a weekly basis,
and they were interviewed at the beginning, middle and end of the course. An
in-depth analysis of three individual cases will be presented in the form of
narratives constructed from their own words. The narratives demonstrate the
unique and embodied changes of the individual participant’s experiences during
the training course. The purpose was to illustrate richly what happens and how
changes happen during these weeks of learning and practicing mindfulness
meditation. It is not the intention to give evidence about the effectiveness of
mindfulness meditation in general, but to present the whats and hows of cases
where mindfulness meditation appears to improve quality of life, health and
well-being.

PMCID: PMC2879966
PMID: 20523884 [PubMed – in process]

97. J Prim Prev. 2009 Sep;30(5):605-18. Epub 2009 Aug 13.

Pilot study to gauge acceptability of a mindfulness-based, family-focused
preventive intervention.

Duncan LG, Coatsworth JD, Greenberg MT.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
duncanla@ocim.ucsf.edu

The purpose of the present study was to conduct a test of acceptability of a new
model for family-focused drug prevention programs for families of early
adolescents. An existing evidence-based behavioral intervention, the
Strengthening Families Program: For Parents and Youth 10-14 (SFP), was adapted to
include concepts and activities related to mindfulness and mindful parenting (an
extension of mindfulness to the interpersonal domain of parent-child
relationships). The foundation for this innovative intervention approach stems
from research on the effects of mind-body treatments involving mindfulness
meditation and the function of stress and coping in relation to parenting and
parent well-being. One group of families participated in a seven-week pilot of
this mindfulness-enhanced version of SFP. Results of a mixed-method
implementation evaluation suggest that the new intervention activities were
generally feasible to deliver, acceptable to participants, and perceived to yield
positive benefits for family functioning and parent psychological well-being. The
next phase of this research will involve curriculum refinement based upon results
of this initial study, and a larger pilot efficacy trial will be conducted.

PMCID: PMC2730448
PMID: 19680815 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

98. Pediatrics. 2009 Sep;124(3):e532-41. Epub 2009 Aug 24.

Sitting-meditation interventions among youth: a review of treatment efficacy.

Black DS, Milam J, Sussman S.

University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Institute for Health
Promotion and Disease Prevention Research, Alhambra, CA 91803-4737, USA.
davidbla@usc.edu

OBJECTIVE: Although the efficacy of meditation interventions has been examined
among adult samples, meditation treatment effects among youth are relatively
unknown. We systematically reviewed empirical studies for the health-related
effects of sitting-meditative practices implemented among youth aged 6 to 18
years in school, clinic, and community settings. METHODS: A systematic review of
electronic databases (PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, Cochrane Reviews Database,
Google Scholar) was conducted from 1982 to 2008, obtaining a sample of 16
empirical studies related to sitting-meditation interventions among youth.
RESULTS: Meditation modalities included mindfulness meditation, transcendental
meditation, mindfulness-based stress reduction, and mindfulness-based cognitive
therapy. Study samples primarily consisted of youth with preexisting conditions
such as high-normal blood pressure, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and
learning disabilities. Studies that examined physiologic outcomes were composed
almost entirely of African American/black participants. Median effect sizes were
slightly smaller than those obtained from adult samples and ranged from 0.16 to
0.29 for physiologic outcomes and 0.27 to 0.70 for psychosocial/behavioral
outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Sitting meditation seems to be an effective intervention
in the treatment of physiologic, psychosocial, and behavioral conditions among
youth. Because of current limitations, carefully constructed research is needed
to advance our understanding of sitting meditation and its future use as an
effective treatment modality among younger populations.

PMID: 19706568 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

99. Resuscitation. 2009 Sep;80(9):1006-10. Epub 2009 Jul 1.

Brain activity in near-death experiencers during a meditative state.

Beauregard M, Courtemanche J, Paquette V.

Unité de Neuroimagerie Fonctionnelle, Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de
Montréal, Canada. mario.beauregard@umontreal.ca

AIM: To measure brain activity in near-death experiencers during a meditative
state. METHODS: In two separate experiments, brain activity was measured with
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG)
during a Meditation condition and a Control condition. In the Meditation
condition, participants were asked to mentally visualize and emotionally connect
with the « being of light » allegedly encountered during their « near-death
experience ». In the Control condition, participants were instructed to mentally
visualize the light emitted by a lamp. RESULTS: In the fMRI experiment,
significant loci of activation were found during the Meditation condition
(compared to the Control condition) in the right brainstem, right lateral
orbitofrontal cortex, right medial prefrontal cortex, right superior parietal
lobule, left superior occipital gyrus, left anterior temporal pole, left inferior
temporal gyrus, left anterior insula, left parahippocampal gyrus and left
substantia nigra. In the EEG experiment, electrode sites showed greater theta
power in the Meditation condition relative to the Control condition at FP1, F7,
F3, T5, P3, O1, FP2, F4, F8, P4, Fz, Cz and Pz. In addition, higher alpha power
was detected at FP1, F7, T3 and FP2, whereas higher gamma power was found at FP2,
F7, T4 and T5. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the meditative state was
associated with marked hemodynamic and neuroelectric changes in brain regions
known to be involved either in positive emotions, visual mental imagery,
attention or spiritual experiences.

PMID: 19573975 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

100. Schizophr Bull. 2009 Sep;35(5):865-73. Epub 2009 Aug 6.

The evolution of cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: current practice
and recent developments.

Tai S, Turkington D.

School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, Coupland Building,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK. sara.tai@manchester.ac.uk

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) evolved from behavioral theory and developed to
focus more on cognitive models that incorporated reappraisal of thinking errors
and schema change strategies. This article will describe the key elements of CBT
for schizophrenia and the current evidence of its efficacy and effectiveness. We
conclude with a description of recent concepts that extend the theoretical basis
of practice and expand the range of CBT strategies for use in schizophrenia.
Mindfulness, meta-cognitive approaches, compassionate mind training, and method
of levels are postulated as useful adjuncts for CBT with psychotic patients.

PMCID: PMC2728828
PMID: 19661198 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

101. Biopsychosoc Med. 2009 Aug 13;3:8.

Effect of two yoga-based relaxation techniques on memory scores and state
anxiety.

Subramanya P, Telles S.

Indian Council of Medical Research Center for Advanced Research in Yoga and
Neurophysiology, SVYASA, Bangalore, India.

BACKGROUND: A yoga practice involving cycles of yoga postures and supine rest
(called cyclic meditation) was previously shown to improve performance in
attention tasks more than relaxation in the corpse posture (shavasana). This was
ascribed to reduced anxiety, though this was not assessed. METHODS: In
fifty-seven male volunteers (group average age +/- S.D., 26.6 +/- 4.5 years) the
immediate effect of two yoga relaxation techniques was studied on memory and
state anxiety. All participants were assessed before and after (i) Cyclic
meditation (CM) practiced for 22:30 minutes on one day and (ii) an equal duration
of Supine rest (SR) or the corpse posture (shavasana), on another day. Sections
of the Wechsler memory scale (WMS) were used to assess; (i) attention and
concentration (digit span forward and backward), and (ii) associate learning.
State anxiety was assessed using Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
(STAI). RESULTS: There was a significant improvement in the scores of all
sections of the WMS studied after both CM and SR, but, the magnitude of change
was more after CM compared to after SR. The state anxiety scores decreased after
both CM and SR, with a greater magnitude of decrease after CM. There was no
correlation between percentage change in memory scores and state anxiety for
either session. CONCLUSION: A cyclical combination of yoga postures and supine
rest in CM improved memory scores immediately after the practice and decreased
state anxiety more than rest in a classical yoga relaxation posture (shavasana).

PMCID: PMC2734564
PMID: 19674483 [PubMed]

102. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug;1172:348-61.

New beginnings: evidence that the meditational regimen can lead to optimization
of perception, attention, cognition, and other functions.

Bushell WC.

Anthropology Program, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,
Massachusetts, USA. wbushell@mit.edu

A « framework » is presented for understanding empirically confirmed and
unconfirmed phenomena in the Indo-Tibetan meditation system, from an integrative
perspective, and providing evidence that certain meditative practices enable
meditators to realize the innate human potential to perceive light « at the limits
imposed by quantum mechanics, » on the level of individual photons. This is part
of a larger Buddhist agenda to meditatitively develop perceptual/attentional
capacities to achieve penetrating insight into the nature of phenomena. Such
capacities may also allow advanced meditators to perceive changes in natural
scenes that are « hidden » from persons with « normal » attentional capacities,
according to research on « change blindness, » and to enhance their visual system
functioning akin to high-speed and time-lapse photography, in toto allowing for
the perception, as well as sophisticated understanding, of the « moment to moment
change or impermanence » universally characteristic of the phenomenal world but
normally outside untrained attention and perception according to Buddhist
doctrine.

PMID: 19735255 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

103. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug;1172:34-53.

Can meditation slow rate of cellular aging? Cognitive stress, mindfulness, and
telomeres.

Epel E, Daubenmier J, Moskowitz JT, Folkman S, Blackburn E.

University of California San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry, San Francisco,
California 94143, USA. eepel@lppi.ucsf.edu

Understanding the malleable determinants of cellular aging is critical to
understanding human longevity. Telomeres may provide a pathway for exploring this
question. Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes. The
length of telomeres offers insight into mitotic cell and possibly organismal
longevity. Telomere length has now been linked to chronic stress exposure and
depression. This raises the question of mechanism: How might cellular aging be
modulated by psychological functioning? We consider two psychological processes
or states that are in opposition to one another-threat cognition and
mindfulness-and their effects on cellular aging. Psychological stress cognitions,
particularly appraisals of threat and ruminative thoughts, can lead to prolonged
states of reactivity. In contrast, mindfulness meditation techniques appear to
shift cognitive appraisals from threat to challenge, decrease ruminative thought,
and reduce stress arousal. Mindfulness may also directly increase positive
arousal states. We review data linking telomere length to cognitive stress and
stress arousal and present new data linking cognitive appraisal to telomere
length. Given the pattern of associations revealed so far, we propose that some
forms of meditation may have salutary effects on telomere length by reducing
cognitive stress and stress arousal and increasing positive states of mind and
hormonal factors that may promote telomere maintenance. Aspects of this model are
currently being tested in ongoing trials of mindfulness meditation.

PMID: 19735238 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

104. Int J Cardiol. 2009 Jul 23. [Epub ahead of print]

Heart rate dynamics in different levels of Zen meditation.

Peressutti C, Martín-González JM, M García-Manso J, Mesa D.

Departamento de Educación Física, Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y
el Deporte, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Canary Islands,
Spain.

The dynamic interactions among physiological rhythms imbedded in the heart rate
signal can give valuable insights into autonomic modulation in conditions of
reduced outward attention. Therefore, in this study we analyzed the heart rate
variability (HRV) in different levels of practice in Zen meditation (Zazen).
Nineteen subjects with variable experience took part in this study. In four
special cases we collected both HRV and respiration data. The time series were
analyzed in frequency domain and also using the Continuous Wavelet Transform,
which detects changes in the time domain and in the frequency domain
simultaneously. The shifts in the respiratory modulation of heart rate, or
respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), reflect the different levels of practice
among practitioners with variable experience in Zazen; in turn the modulation of
the RSA may reflect changes in the breathing pattern as in the parasympathetic
outflow related to the quality and focus of attention in each stage.

PMID: 19631997 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

105. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2009 Jul;37(4):403-12. Epub 2009 Jun 23.

Mindfulness groups for distressing voices and paranoia: a replication and
randomized feasibility trial.

Chadwick P, Hughes S, Russell D, Russell I, Dagnan D.

Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, UK. paul.chadwick@kcl.ac.uk

BACKGROUND: The clinical literature cautions against use of meditation by people
with psychosis. There is, however, evidence for acceptance-based therapy reducing
relapse, and some evidence for clinical benefits of mindfulness groups for people
with distressing psychosis, though no data on whether participants became more
mindful. AIMS: To assess feasibility of randomized evaluation of group
mindfulness therapy for psychosis, to replicate clinical gains observed in one
small uncontrolled study, and to assess for changes in mindfulness. METHOD:
Twenty-two participants with current distressing psychotic experiences were
allocated at random between group-based mindfulness training and a waiting list
for this therapy. Mindfulness training comprised twice-weekly sessions for 5
weeks, plus home practice (meditation CDs were supplied), followed by 5 weeks of
home practice. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between
intervention and waiting-list participants. Secondary analyses combining both
groups and comparing scores before and after mindfulness training revealed
significant improvement in clinical functioning (p = .013) and mindfulness of
distressing thoughts and images (p = .037). CONCLUSIONS: Findings on feasibility
are encouraging and secondary analyses replicated earlier clinical benefits and
showed improved mindfulness of thoughts and images, but not voices.

PMID: 19545481 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

106. Nurse Educ Today. 2009 Jul;29(5):538-43. Epub 2009 Jan 13.

The effectiveness of a stress coping program based on mindfulness meditation on
the stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by nursing students in Korea.

Kang YS, Choi SY, Ryu E.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Institute of Health Science, School of
Medicine, Gyeong-Sang National University, 92 Chilam-dong, Chinju 660-751,
Republic of Korea.

This study examined the effectiveness of a stress coping program based on
mindfulness meditation on the stress, anxiety, and depression experienced by
nursing students in Korea. A nonequivalent, control group, pre-posttest design
was used. A convenience sample of 41 nursing students were randomly assigned to
experimental (n=21) and control groups (n=20). Stress was measured with the
PWI-SF (5-point) developed by Chang. Anxiety was measured with Spieberger’s state
anxiety inventory. Depression was measured with the Beck depression inventory.
The experimental group attended 90-min sessions for eight weeks. No intervention
was administered to the control group. Nine participants were excluded from the
analysis because they did not complete the study due to personal circumstances,
resulting in 16 participants in each group for the final analysis. Results for
the two groups showed (1) a significant difference in stress scores (F=6.145,
p=0.020), (2) a significant difference in anxiety scores (F=6.985, p=0.013), and
(3) no significant difference in depression scores (t=1.986, p=0.056). A stress
coping program based on mindfulness meditation was an effective intervention for
nursing students to decrease their stress and anxiety, and could be used to
manage stress in student nurses. In the future, long-term studies should be
pursued to standardize and detail the program, with particular emphasis on
studies to confirm the effects of the program in patients with diseases, such as
cancer.

PMID: 19141364 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

107. Sociol Health Illn. 2009 Jul;31(5):719-33. Epub 2009 Apr 9.

Derivative benefits: exploring the body through complementary and alternative
medicine.

Baarts C, Pedersen IK.

Department of Sociology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
cba@soc.ku.dk

Since the 1960s, in Western societies, there has been a striking growth of
consumer interest in complementary or alternative medicine (CAM). In order to
make this increased popularity intelligible this paper challenges stereotypical
images of users’ motives and the results of clinical studies of CAM by exploring
bodily experiences of acupuncture, reflexology treatments, and mindfulness
training. The study draws on 138 in-depth interviews with 46 clients, client
diaries and observations of 92 clinical treatments in order to identify bodily
experiences of health and care: experiences that are contested between forces of
mastery, control and resistance. We discuss why clients continue to use CAM even
when the treatments do not help or even after they have been relieved of their
physiological or mental problems. The encounter between the client and CAM
produces derivative benefits such as a fresh and sustained sense of bodily
responsibility that induces new health practices.

PMID: 19392940 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

108. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 2;106(22):8865-70. Epub 2009 May 18.

Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term
meditation.

Tang YY, Ma Y, Fan Y, Feng H, Wang J, Feng S, Lu Q, Hu B, Lin Y, Li J, Zhang Y,
Wang Y, Zhou L, Fan M.

Institute of Neuroinformatics and Laboratory for Body and Mind, Dalian University
of Technology, Dalian 116024, China. yiyuan@uoregon.edu

Five days of integrative body-mind training (IBMT) improves attention and
self-regulation in comparison with the same amount of relaxation training. This
paper explores the underlying mechanisms of this finding. We measured the
physiological and brain changes at rest before, during, and after 5 days of IBMT
and relaxation training. During and after training, the IBMT group showed
significantly better physiological reactions in heart rate, respiratory amplitude
and rate, and skin conductance response (SCR) than the relaxation control.
Differences in heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG power suggested greater
involvement of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the IBMT group during and
after training. Imaging data demonstrated stronger subgenual and adjacent ventral
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity in the IBMT group. Frontal midline ACC
theta was correlated with high-frequency HRV, suggesting control by the ACC over
parasympathetic activity. These results indicate that after 5 days of training,
the IBMT group shows better regulation of the ANS by a ventral midfrontal brain
system than does the relaxation group. This changed state probably reflects
training in the coordination of body and mind given in the IBMT but not in the
control group. These results could be useful in the design of further specific
interventions.

PMCID: PMC2690030
PMID: 19451642 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

109. Am J Psychoanal. 2009 Jun;69(2):93-105.

Deepening psychoanalytic listening: the marriage of Buddha and Freud.

Rubin JB.

Westchester Institute for Training in Psychoanalysis, USA.
jeffreyrubin@optonline.net

Freud (1912) delineated the ideal state of mind for therapists to listen, what he
called « evenly hovering » or « evenly suspended attention. » No one has ever offered
positive recommendations for how to cultivate this elusive yet eminently
trainable state of mind. This leaves an important gap in training and technique.
What Buddhism terms meditation-non-judgmental attention to what is happening
moment-to-moment-cultivates exactly the extraordinary, yet accessible, state of
mind Freud was depicting. But genuine analytic listening requires one other
quality: the capacity to decode or translate what we hear on the latent and
metaphoric level-which meditation does not do. This is a crucial weakness of
meditation. In this chapter I will draw on the best of the Western psychoanalytic
and Eastern meditative traditions to illuminate how therapists could use
meditation to cultivate « evenly hovering attention » and how a psychoanalytic
understanding of the language and logic of the unconscious complements and
enriches meditative attention.

PMID: 19536176 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

110. Br J Clin Psychol. 2009 Jun;48(Pt 2):209-15. Epub 2009 Feb 27.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy may reduce thought suppression in previously
suicidal participants: findings from a preliminary study.

Hepburn SR, Crane C, Barnhofer T, Duggan DS, Fennell MJ, Williams JM.

University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. silvia.hepburn@iop.kcl.ac.uk

OBJECTIVES: Thought suppression is a strategy aimed at mental control that may
paradoxically increase the frequency of unwanted thoughts. This preliminary study
examined effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on thought
suppression and depression in individuals with past depression and suicidality.
METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial design, 68 participants were allocated
to an MBCT group or a treatment-as-usual waitlist control. Measures of thought
suppression and depression were taken pre- and post-treatment. RESULTS: MBCT did
not reduce thought suppression as measured by the White Bear Suppression
Inventory, but significantly reduced self-reported attempts to suppress in the
previous week. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence suggests that MBCT for
suicidality may reduce thought suppression, but differential effects on thought
suppression measures warrant further studies.

PMID: 19254446 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

111. Health Educ Behav. 2009 Jun;36(3):601-14. Epub 2008 May 9.

Effects of low-dose mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR-ld) on working
adults.

Klatt MD, Buckworth J, Malarkey WB.

College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
klatt.8@osu.edu

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has produced behavioral, psychological,
and physiological benefits, but these programs typically require a substantial
time commitment from the participants. This study assessed the effects of a
shortened (low-dose [ld]) work-site MBSR intervention (MBSR-ld) on indicators of
stress in healthy working adults to determine if results similar to those
obtained in traditional MBSR could be demonstrated. Participants were randomized
into MBSR-ld and wait-list control groups. Self-reported perceived stress, sleep
quality, and mindfulness were measured at the beginning and end of the 6-week
intervention. Salivary cortisol was assessed weekly. Significant reductions in
perceived stress (p = .0025) and increases in mindfulness (p = .0149) were
obtained for only the MBSR-ld group (n = 22). Scores on the global measure of
sleep improved for the MBSR-ld group (p = .0018) as well as for the control group
(p = .0072; n = 20). Implications and future research are discussed.

PMID: 18469160 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

112. J Clin Psychol. 2009 Jun;65(6):590-612.

Mindfulness in Thailand and the United States: a case of apples versus oranges?

Christopher MS, Charoensuk S, Gilbert BD, Neary TJ, Pearce KL.

Pacific University, Portland, OR 97205, USA. mchristopher@pacificu.edu

The study and practice of mindfulness is rapidly expanding in Western psychology.
Recently developed self-report measures of mindfulness were derived from Western
operationalizations and cross-cultural validation of many of these measures is
lacking, particularly in Buddhist cultures. Therefore, this study examined the
measurement equivalence of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS)
and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) among Thai (n=385) and American
(n=365) college students. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis models fit to
the data revealed that the KIMS lacked configural invariance across groups, which
precluded subsequent invariance tests, and although the MAAS demonstrated
configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance, there was no significant
latent mean MAAS difference between Thais and Americans. These findings suggest
that Eastern and Western conceptualizations of mindfulness may have important
differences.

PMID: 19358288 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

113. J Clin Psychol. 2009 Jun;65(6):613-26.

An empirical study of the mechanisms of mindfulness in a mindfulness-based stress
reduction program.

Carmody J, Baer RA, L B Lykins E, Olendzki N.

University of Massachusetts Medical School, 55 Lake Avenue North, Worcester, MA
01655, USA. james.carmody@umassmed.edu

S. L. Shapiro and colleagues (2006) have described a testable theory of the
mechanisms of mindfulness and how it affects positive change. They describe a
model in which mindfulness training leads to a fundamental change in relationship
to experience (reperceiving), which leads to changes in self-regulation, values
clarification, cognitive and behavioral flexibility, and exposure. These four
variables, in turn, result in salutogenic outcomes. Analyses of responses from
participants in a mindfulness-based stress-reduction program did not support the
mediating effect of changes in reperceiving on the relationship of mindfulness
with those four variables. However, when mindfulness and reperceiving scores were
combined, partial support was found for the mediating effect of the four
variables on measures of psychological distress. Issues arising in attempts to
test the proposed theory are discussed, including the description of the model
variables and the challenges to their assessment.

PMID: 19267330 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

114. J Clin Psychol. 2009 Jun;65(6):574-89.

The effects of the transcendental meditation program on mindfulness.

Tanner MA, Travis F, Gaylord-King C, Haaga DA, Grosswald S, Schneider RH.

American University, Washington, DC 20016-8062, USA.

Mindfulness is associated with low levels of neuroticism, anxiety, and depressive
symptoms, as well as high levels of self-esteem and satisfaction with life (Brown
& Ryan, 2003). As part of a 3-month randomized waitlist-controlled trial of the
effects of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program on university students
(N=295), we examined the impact of TM practice on mindfulness as measured by the
Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004). A
repeated measures ANOVA on total KIMS scores showed a significant timextreatment
interaction, with the TM participants reporting greater increases in mindfulness
than the waitlist participants. All KIMS subscales were positively
intercorrelated at pretreatment, and there were no differences over time or as a
function of treatment condition in subscale intercorrelations. Therefore,
previously published findings of a positive correlation between subscales
measuring the skills of observing and accepting-without-judgment one’s inner
experiences only among those with meditation experience may have reflected a
self-selection effect rather than a change in the relation of these mindfulness
components resulting directly from meditation practice.

PMID: 19241401 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

115. J Clin Psychol. 2009 Jun;65(6):561-73.

I think therefore I om: cognitive distortions and coping style as mediators for
the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, positive and negative affect,
and hope.

Sears S, Kraus S.

Fort Lewis College, CO. USA. Sears_s@fortlewis.edu

This study examined cognitive distortions and coping styles as potential
mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, negative affect,
positive affect, and hope in college students. Our pre- and postintervention
design had four conditions: control, brief meditation focused on attention, brief
meditation focused on loving kindness, and longer meditation combining both
attentional and loving kindness aspects of mindfulness. Each group met weekly
over the course of a semester. Longer combined meditation significantly reduced
anxiety and negative affect and increased hope. Changes in cognitive distortions
mediated intervention effects for anxiety, negative affect, and hope. Further
research is needed to determine differential effects of types of meditation.

PMID: 19241400 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

116. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2009 Jun;16(2):200-7. Epub 2009 Mar 10.

Mindfulness meditation for symptom reduction in fibromyalgia: psychophysiological
correlates.

Lush E, Salmon P, Floyd A, Studts JL, Weissbecker I, Sephton SE.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Louisville, 2301
South Third Street, Life Sciences Building, Suite 317, Louisville, KY, 40202,
USA.

OBJECTIVES: Fibromyalgia, a chronic pain syndrome, is often accompanied by
psychological distress and increased basal sympathetic tone. In a previous report
it was shown that mindfulness-based stress-reduction (MBSR) reduced depressive
symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia with gains maintained at two months
follow-up (Sephton et al., Arthr Rheum 57:77-85, 2007). This second study
explores the effects of MBSR on basal sympathetic (SNS) activation among women
with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Participants (n = 24) responded to a television news
appearance, newspaper, and radio advertisements. Effects on anxiety, depressive
symptoms, and SNS activation measures were tested before and after MBSR using a
within-subjects design. RESULTS: The MBSR treatment significantly reduced basal
electrodermal (skin conductance level; SCL) activity (t = 3.298, p = .005) and
SCL activity during meditation (t = 4.389, p = .001), consistent with reduced SNS
activation. CONCLUSIONS: In this small sample, basal SNS activity was reduced
following MBSR treatment. Future studies should assess how MBSR may help reduce
negative psychological symptoms and attenuate SNS activation in fibromyalgia.
Further clarification of psychological and physiological responses associated
with fibromyalgia may lead to more beneficial treatment.

PMID: 19277851 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

117. J Holist Nurs. 2009 Jun;27(2):103-14.

Tai chi and meditation: A conceptual (re)synthesis?

Posadzki P, Jacques S.

University of East Anglia, School of Medicine, Health Policy.

The aim of this article is to review the literature on Tai Chi and meditation. A
coherent construct is developed that includes a comparative analysis and
conceptual synthesis of existing theories. The authors discuss a set of
assumptions that justify this synthesis; they also argue that this construct
would facilitate greater understanding of Tai Chi from the perspective of
meditation. Such synthesis may bring « additional » benefits to Tai Chi
practitioners as they could recognize that this mind-body technique holds the
essence of meditation. Within the scope of this article, the evidence shows a
majority of common features when concerning Tai Chi and meditation. These mutual
similarities should be taken into account when performing this type of mind-body
medicine by patients and/or therapists. Finally, the authors suggest that this
inspiring compilation of movements and mindfulness can be used for practical
purposes.

PMID: 19443697 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

118. Psychooncology. 2009 Jun;18(6):571-9.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cancer: a meta-analysis.

Ledesma D, Kumano H.

Department of Stress Science and Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate School of
Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of
mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on the mental and physical health
status of various cancer patients. METHODS: Ten studies (randomized-controlled
trials and observational studies) were found to be eligible for meta-analysis.
Individual study results were categorized into mental and physical variables and
Cohen’s effect size d was computed for each category. RESULTS: MBSR may indeed be
helpful for the mental health of cancer patients (Cohen’s effect size d=0.48);
however, more research is needed to show convincing evidence of the effect on
physical health (Cohen’s effect size d=0.18). CONCLUSION: The results suggest
that MBSR may improve cancer patients’ psychosocial adjustment to their disease.

PMID: 19023879 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

119. Aging Ment Health. 2009 May;13(3):328-35.

Do improvements in emotional distress correlate with becoming more mindful? A
study of older adults.

Splevins K, Smith A, Simpson J.

Lancaster University, Institute of Health Research, Lancaster LA1 4YT, UK.
ksplevins@yahoo.co.uk

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed (1) to investigate changes in older adults’ emotional
wellbeing (specifically depression, anxiety and stress levels) and mindful
ability following a mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) course; (2) to
explore correlations between mindfulness (measured as an overall ability and as
individual components; observe, describe, act with awareness and accept without
judgement) and changes in depression, anxiety and stress levels. METHOD:
Twenty-two participants took an eight-week MBCT course. Levels of depression,
anxiety and stress were recorded pre- and post-intervention, as was mindfulness
ability (measured both as an overall ability and as individual components).
RESULTS: Significant improvements in emotional wellbeing and mindfulness were
reported post-MBCT, with large to moderate effect sizes. Increased mindfulness
was moderately and significantly associated with improved emotional wellbeing.
Increases on all four components of mindfulness were positively associated with
greater emotional wellbeing, however only act with awareness and accept without
judgement were significantly correlated (with reduced depression). Older adults
in our sample reported higher scores on observe and act with awareness than other
populations. CONCLUSION: This study adds to a growing evidence-base indicating
the efficacy of MBCT for depression, anxiety and stress, and extends these
finding to older adults. This study found older adults to have elevated levels of
certain facets of mindfulness and recommendations are made for researching the
possibility that mindfulness may be an extension of the developmental process.

PMID: 19484596 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

120. Behav Res Ther. 2009 May;47(5):366-73. Epub 2009 Feb 5.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a treatment for chronic depression: A
preliminary study.

Barnhofer T, Crane C, Hargus E, Amarasinghe M, Winder R, Williams JM.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford OX3
7JX, UK. thorsten.barnhofer@psych.ox.ac.uk

This pilot study investigated the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive
Therapy (MBCT), a treatment combining mindfulness meditation and interventions
taken from cognitive therapy, in patients suffering from chronic-recurrent
depression. Currently symptomatic patients with at least three previous episodes
of depression and a history of suicidal ideation were randomly allocated to
receive either MBCT delivered in addition to treatment-as-usual (TAU; N=14
completers) or TAU alone (N=14 completers). Depressive symptoms and diagnostic
status were assessed before and after treatment phase. Self-reported symptoms of
depression decreased from severe to mild levels in the MBCT group while there was
no significant change in the TAU group. Similarly, numbers of patients meeting
full criteria for depression decreased significantly more in the MBCT group than
in the TAU group. Results are consistent with previous uncontrolled studies.
Although based on a small sample and, therefore, limited in their
generalizability, they provide further preliminary evidence that MBCT can be used
to successfully reduce current symptoms in patients suffering from a protracted
course of the disorder.

PMCID: PMC2866254
PMID: 19249017 [PubMed – in process]

121. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2009 May;15(2):61-6. Epub 2009 Feb 28.

Cultivating mindfulness in health care professionals: a review of empirical
studies of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR).

Irving JA, Dobkin PL, Park J.

Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, McGill University, Quebec,
Canada. Julie.irving@mail.mcgill.ca

Demands faced by health care professionals include heavy caseloads, limited
control over the work environment, long hours, as well as organizational
structures and systems in transition. Such conditions have been directly linked
to increased stress and symptoms of burnout, which in turn, have adverse
consequences for clinicians and the quality of care that is provided to patients.
Consequently, there exists an impetus for the development of curriculum aimed at
fostering wellness and the necessary self-care skills for clinicians. This review
will examine the potential benefits of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)
programs aimed at enhancing well-being and coping with stress in this population.
Empirical evidence indicates that participation in MBSR yields benefits for
clinicians in the domains of physical and mental health. Conceptual and
methodological limitations of the existing studies and suggestions for future
research are discussed.

PMID: 19341981 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

122. Harv Heart Lett. 2009 May;19(9):7.

Mindfulness helps ease heart failure.

[No authors listed]

PMID: 19691166 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

123. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 May;15(5):593-600.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a
review and meta-analysis.

Chiesa A, Serretti A.

Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
albertopnl@yahoo.it

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a clinically
standardized meditation that has shown consistent efficacy for many mental and
physical disorders. Less attention has been given to the possible benefits that
it may have in healthy subjects. The aim of the present review and meta-analysis
is to better investigate current evidence about the efficacy of MBSR in healthy
subjects, with a particular focus on its benefits for stress reduction. MATERIALS
AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), the ISI
Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane database, and the references of retrieved
articles. The search included articles written in English published prior to
September 2008, and identified ten, mainly low-quality, studies. Cohen’s d effect
size between meditators and controls on stress reduction and spirituality
enhancement values were calculated. RESULTS: MBSR showed a nonspecific effect on
stress reduction in comparison to an inactive control, both in reducing stress
and in enhancing spirituality values, and a possible specific effect compared to
an intervention designed to be structurally equivalent to the meditation program.
A direct comparison study between MBSR and standard relaxation training found
that both treatments were equally able to reduce stress. Furthermore, MBSR was
able to reduce ruminative thinking and trait anxiety, as well as to increase
empathy and self-compassion. CONCLUSIONS: MBSR is able to reduce stress levels in
healthy people. However, important limitations of the included studies as well as
the paucity of evidence about possible specific effects of MBSR in comparison to
other nonspecific treatments underline the necessity of further research.

PMID: 19432513 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

124. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 May;15(5):585-92.

Zen meditation: an integration of current evidence.

Chiesa A.

Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
albertopnl@yahoo.it

OBJECTIVE: Despite the growing interest in the neurobiological and clinical
correlates of many meditative practices, in particular mindfulness meditations,
no review has specifically focused on current evidence on
electroencephalographic, neuroimaging, biological, and clinical evidence about an
important traditional practice, Zen meditation. METHODS: A literature search was
conducted using MEDLINE, the ISI Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane collaboration
database, and references of selected articles. Randomized controlled and
cross-sectional studies with controls published in English prior to May 2008 were
included. RESULTS: Electroencephalographic studies on Zen meditation found
increased alpha and theta activity, generally related to relaxation, in many
brain regions, including the frontal cortex. Theta activity in particular seemed
to be related to the degree of experience, being greater in expert practitioners
and advanced masters. Moreover, Zen meditation practice could protect from
cognitive decline usually associated with age and enhance antioxidant activity.
From a clinical point of view, Zen meditation was found to reduce stress and
blood pressure, and be efficacious for a variety of conditions, as suggested by
positive findings in therapists and musicians. CONCLUSION: To date, actual
evidence about Zen meditation is scarce and highlights the necessity of further
investigations. Comparison with further active treatments, explanation of
possible mechanisms of action, and the limitations of current evidence are
discussed.

PMID: 19422285 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

125. Psychol Sci. 2009 May;20(5):645-53.

The enhancement of visuospatial processing efficiency through Buddhist Deity
meditation.

Kozhevnikov M, Louchakova O, Josipovic Z, Motes MA.

Psychology Department, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030, USA.
mkozhevn@gmu.edu

This study examined the effects of meditation on mental imagery, evaluating
Buddhist monks’ reports concerning their extraordinary imagery skills.
Practitioners of Buddhist meditation were divided into two groups according to
their preferred meditation style: Deity Yoga (focused attention on an internal
visual image) or Open Presence (evenly distributed attention, not directed to any
particular object). Both groups of meditators completed computerized
mental-imagery tasks before and after meditation. Their performance was compared
with that of control groups, who either rested or performed other visuospatial
tasks between testing sessions. The results indicate that all the groups
performed at the same baseline level, but after meditation, Deity Yoga
practitioners demonstrated a dramatic increase in performance on imagery tasks
compared with the other groups. The results suggest that Deity meditation
specifically trains one’s capacity to access heightened visuospatial processing
resources, rather than generally improving visuospatial imagery abilities.

PMID: 19476594 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

126. Soc Work Health Care. 2009 May-Jun;48(4):462-70.

Zen practice: a training method to enhance the skills of clinical social workers.

Brenner MJ.

Department of Social Work, Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, Massachusetts,
USA. mark.brenner@bridgew.edu

The use of Zen Buddhist meditation in clinical practice has received specific
attention from mental health disciplines in the West. A study was undertaken to
examine the influence of a personal practice of Zen on the professional work of
clinical social workers. Ten experienced clinical social workers who were
long-term Zen practitioners were interviewed. Findings from this qualitative
study suggest that Zen meditation has direct application to clinical social work
in three areas: (1) cultivating Awareness, (2) enhancing Acceptance, and (3)
nurturing Responsibility. This article reports on the findings in the area of
Awareness. Awareness increases a social worker’s focus on the present moment with
the client, providing for a suspension of preconceived ideas about the client.
Building on the view that social work is both art and science, the author
proposes the use of Zen in the training of clinical social workers.

PMID: 19396713 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

127. Adv Mind Body Med. 2009 Spring;24(1):20-30.

Mindfulness meditation research: issues of participant screening, safety
procedures, and researcher training.

Lustyk MK, Chawla N, Nolan RS, Marlatt GA.

M. Kathleen B. Lustyk, PhD, is a professor of psychology, in the School of
Psychology, Seattle Pacific University, Washington, and an affiliate associate
professor, in Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems, University of Washington
School of Nursing, Seattle.

Increasing interest in mindfulness meditation (MM) warrants discussion of
research safety. Side effects of meditation with possible adverse reactions are
reported in the literature. Yet participant screening procedures, research safety
guidelines, and standards for researcher training have not been developed and
disseminated in the MM field of study. The goal of this paper is to summarize
safety concerns of MM practice and offer scholars some practical tools to use in
their research. For example, we offer screener schematics aimed at determining
the contraindication status of potential research participants. Moreover, we
provide information on numerous MM training options. Ours is the first
presentation of this type aimed at helping researchers think through the safety
and training issues presented herein. Support for our recommendations comes from
consulting 17 primary publications and 5 secondary reports/literature reviews of
meditation side effects. Mental health consequences were the most frequently
reported side effects, followed by physical health then spiritual health
consequences. For each of these categories of potential adverse effects, we offer
MM researchers methods to assess the relative risks of each as it pertains to
their particular research programs.

PMID: 20671334 [PubMed – in process]

128. Indian J Anaesth. 2009 Apr;53(2):158-63.

Effectiveness of mindfulness meditation (Vipassana) in the management of chronic
low back pain.

Patil SG.

Specialist Registrar in Anesthetics and ICM.

SUMMARY: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is challenging to treat with its
significant psychological and cognitive behavioural element involved. Mindfulness
meditation helps alter the behavioural response in chronic pain situations.
Significant body of research in the filed of mindfulness meditation comes from
the work of Dr Kabat-Zinn. The current evidence in the field, though not grade
one, shows that there is a place for mindfulness meditation in managing chronic
pain conditions including CLBP. Further research to test the usefulness of
mindfulness in CLBP should involve good quality randomized controlled trials of
pure mindfulness based technique in matched subjects.

PMCID: PMC2900099
PMID: 20640116 [PubMed – in process]

129. Int J Psychophysiol. 2009 Apr;72(1):51-60. Epub 2008 Sep 23.

Meditation (Vipassana) and the P3a event-related brain potential.

Cahn BR, Polich J.

Medical School, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla,
CA 92093, USA. rael.cahn@gmail.com

A three-stimulus auditory oddball series was presented to experienced Vipassana
meditators during meditation and a control thought period to elicit event-related
brain potentials (ERPs) in the two different mental states. The stimuli consisted
of a frequent standard tone (500 Hz), an infrequent oddball tone (1000 Hz), and
an infrequent distracter (white noise), with all stimuli passively presented
through headphones and no task imposed. The strongest meditation compared to
control state effects occurred for the distracter stimuli: N1 amplitude from the
distracter was reduced frontally during meditation; P2 amplitude from both the
distracter and oddball stimuli were somewhat reduced during meditation; P3a
amplitude from the distracter was reduced during meditation. The
meditation-induced reduction in P3a amplitude was strongest in participants
reporting more hours of daily meditation practice and was not evident in
participants reporting drowsiness during their experimental meditative session.
The findings suggest that meditation state can decrease the amplitude of
neurophysiologic processes that subserve attentional engagement elicited by
unexpected and distracting stimuli. Consistent with the aim of Vipassana
meditation to reduce cognitive and emotional reactivity, the state effect of
reduced P3a amplitude to distracting stimuli reflects decreased automated
reactivity and evaluative processing of task irrelevant attention-demanding
stimuli.

PMCID: PMC2715145
PMID: 18845193 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

130. Conscious Cogn. 2009 Mar;18(1):176-86. Epub 2009 Jan 31.

Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility.

Moore A, Malinowski P.

Liverpool John Moores University, School of Psychology, Liverpool, United
Kingdom.

This study investigated the link between meditation, self-reported mindfulness
and cognitive flexibility as well as other attentional functions. It compared a
group of meditators experienced in mindfulness meditation with a meditation-naïve
control group on measures of Stroop interference and the « d2-concentration and
endurance test ». Overall the results suggest that attentional performance and
cognitive flexibility are positively related to meditation practice and levels of
mindfulness. Meditators performed significantly better than non-meditators on all
measures of attention. Furthermore, self-reported mindfulness was higher in
meditators than non-meditators and correlations with all attention measures were
of moderate to high strength. This pattern of results suggests that mindfulness
is intimately linked to improvements of attentional functions and cognitive
flexibility. The relevance of these findings for mental balance and well-being
are discussed.

PMID: 19181542 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

131. Explore (NY). 2009 Mar-Apr;5(2):104-9.

Comparing brief stress management courses in a community sample: mindfulness
skills and progressive muscle relaxation.
Agee JD, Danoff-Burg S, Grant CA.

Mental Health Service, Togus VA Medical Center, Augusta, ME, USA.
john.agee@med.va.gov

This study sought to compare a five-week mindfulness meditation (MM) course to a
five-week course that taught progressive muscle relaxation (PMR). Forty-three
adults from the community were randomly assigned to either MM (n = 19) or PMR (n
= 24) courses after responding to flyers and other advertisements for a free
stress management course. Mindfulness meditation participants practiced
meditation significantly more often than PMR participants practiced relaxation
during the intervention period (F[1, 43] = 7.42; P < .05). Interestingly, the two
conditions did not differ significantly in their posttreatment levels of
relaxation or mindfulness. Although there were no differences between groups on
any of the primary outcome measures, across both treatment conditions there were
statistically significant reductions from pretreatment to posttreatment in
general psychological distress. Thus, although MM did not emerge as clearly
superior to PMR, results of this study suggest that a brief mindfulness skills
course may be effective for stress management.

PMID: 19272581 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

132. J Nurs Adm. 2009 Mar;39(3):130-7.

Nurse leader mindfulness meditation program for stress management: a randomized
controlled trial.

Pipe TB, Bortz JJ, Dueck A, Pendergast D, Buchda V, Summers J.

Department of Psychiatry/Psychology, Section of Biostatistics, Division of
Nursing, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Mayo Clinic Hospital, 5777 E Mayo Blvd., Phoenix,
AZ 85054, USA. pipe.teri@mayo.edu

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to rigorously evaluate a brief stress
management intervention for nurse leaders. BACKGROUND: Despite the nursing
shortage, evidence-based workplace approaches addressing nurse stress have not
been well studied. METHODS: Nurse leaders (n = 33) were randomly assigned to
brief mindfulness meditation course (MMC) or leadership course (control).
Self-report measures of stress were administered at baseline and within 1 week of
course completion. RESULTS: Among MMC participants, change scores (from baseline
to postintervention) on several subscales of the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised
showed significantly more improvement in self-reported stress symptoms relative
to controls. Mindfulness meditation course participants had significantly more
improvement in Positive Symptom Distress Index (P = 0.010; confidence interval
[CI] = -0.483 to -0.073) and Global Severity Index (P = 0.019; CI = -0.475 to
-0.046) and nearly significantly more improvement in Positive Symptom Total (P =
0.066; CI = -16.66 to 0.581) compared with controls. CONCLUSION: Results support
preliminary effectiveness of a 4-week MMC in reducing self-reported stress
symptoms among nursing leaders.

PMID: 19590469 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

133. MMW Fortschr Med. 2009 Feb 12;151(7):16.

[Therapy of ADHD. British institute recommends: drugs only in severe cases]

[Article in German]

Matthis M.

PMID: 19432257 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

134. Brain Behav Immun. 2009 Feb;23(2):184-8. Epub 2008 Jul 19.

Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected
adults: a small randomized controlled trial.

Creswell JD, Myers HF, Cole SW, Irwin MR.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Cousins Center for
Psychoneuroimmunology, University of California, Los Angeles, 300 Medical Plaza,
Suite 3109, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. creswell@cmu.edu

Mindfulness meditation training has stress reduction benefits in various patient
populations, but its effects on biological markers of HIV-1 progression are
unknown. The present study tested the efficacy of an 8-week Mindfulness-based
stress reduction (MBSR) meditation program compared to a 1-day control seminar on
CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in stressed HIV infected adults. A single-blind
randomized controlled trial was conducted with enrollment and follow-up occurring
between November 2005 and December 2007. A diverse community sample of 48 HIV-1
infected adults was randomized and entered treatment in either an 8-week MBSR or
a 1-day control stress reduction education seminar. The primary outcome was
circulating counts of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Participants in the 1-day control
seminar showed declines in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts whereas counts among
participants in the 8-week MBSR program were unchanged from baseline to
post-intervention (time x treatment condition interaction, p=.02). This effect
was independent of antiretroviral (ARV) medication use. Additional analyses
indicated that treatment adherence to the mindfulness meditation program, as
measured by class attendance, mediated the effects of mindfulness meditation
training on buffering CD4+ T lymphocyte declines. These findings provide an
initial indication that mindfulness meditation training can buffer CD4+ T
lymphocyte declines in HIV-1 infected adults. Clinical Trials Registration:
clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT00600561.

PMCID: PMC2725018
PMID: 18678242 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

135. Clin Trials. 2009 Feb;6(1):76-89.

Mindfulness meditation training to reduce symptom distress in transplant
patients: rationale, design, and experience with a recycled waitlist.

Gross CR, Kreitzer MJ, Reilly-Spong M, Winbush NY, Schomaker EK, Thomas W.

Dept of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, University
of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA. gross002@umn.edu.

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients must take immune suppressive
medications that have side effects, cause complications, and lead to distressing
symptoms that reduce health-related quality of life (QOL). Mindfulness meditation
has been shown to reduce these symptoms in other patient populations, and it is
unlikely to interfere with the immune suppressive medication regimen. PURPOSE:
This article describes the design and rationale of a clinical trial to determine
whether training in mindfulness meditation can reduce depression, anxiety and
insomnia after transplantation, and summarizes baseline characteristics of the
participants. METHODS: Transplant recipients were randomized in equal numbers to
one of three arms: a Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program consisting
of 8 weeks of group instruction, home practice and telephone monitoring; a time
and attention control Health Education program; or a waitlist arm. After serving
6 months as waitlist controls, these participants were re-randomized to MBSR or
Health Education. Evaluations were obtained at baseline (prior to the active
interventions), 8 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year (after randomization to MBSR or
Health Education only). The primary analysis will compare composite symptom
scores between MBSR and Health Education, initially or after serving in the
waitlist. Subsequent analyses will compare these two groups on depression,
anxiety, and insomnia symptom scales and secondary outcomes of health-related
QOL, actigraphy, and health care utilization. A separate analysis, using only
data collected before re-randomization, will compare short-term outcomes between
the waitlist and active treatment arms. RESULTS: One hundred fifty recipients
were randomized and 72% of waitlist participants (31/43) were recycled to an
active intervention after 6 months. Patient characteristics were balanced across
trial arms after initial and secondary randomizations. LIMITATIONS: Transplant
recipients are a very select population. Their adherence to the intervention and
willingness to serve as waitlist controls prior to re-randomization may be
atypical. Participants were not blinded to treatment and primary outcomes are
self-reports. CONCLUSION: The innovative design used in the trial enabled the
waitlist group to directly contribute to the number in the primary analysis of
active arms, and to also serve as an internal validation test. The trial may be a
useful model for trials involving very small target populations.

PMCID: PMC2818773
PMID: 19254938 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

136. Neuroreport. 2009 Jan 28;20(2):170-4.

Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the
brain stem.

Vestergaard-Poulsen P, van Beek M, Skewes J, Bjarkam CR, Stubberup M, Bertelsen
J, Roepstorff A.

Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University, Aarhus,
Denmark. peterv@pet.auh.dk

Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain
structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower
brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using
magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter density in lower brain
stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators.
Our findings show that long-term practitioners of meditation have structural
differences in brainstem regions concerned with cardiorespiratory control. This
could account for some of the cardiorespiratory parasympathetic effects and
traits, as well as the cognitive, emotional, and immunoreactive impact reported
in several studies of different meditation practices.

PMID: 19104459 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

137. Am Heart J. 2009 Jan;157(1):84-90.

The Support, Education, and Research in Chronic Heart Failure Study (SEARCH): a
mindfulness-based psychoeducational intervention improves depression and clinical
symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure.

Sullivan MJ, Wood L, Terry J, Brantley J, Charles A, McGee V, Johnson D, Krucoff
MW, Rosenberg B, Bosworth HB, Adams K, Cuffe MS.

Institute for Health and Wellness, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

BACKGROUND: The Support, Education, and Research in Chronic Heart Failure
(SEARCH) study was designed to assess the impact of a mindfulness-based
psychoeducational intervention on clinical outcomes, depression, and quality of
life in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although research has shown
that psychosocial factors including depression are important risk factors for
adverse events in patients with CHF, no large clinical trials have investigated
the efficacy of psychosocial interventions to reduce these factors in this
population. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of 208 adults with left
ventricular ejection fraction < or =40% and CHF geographically assigned to
treatment or control groups with follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. Treatment
groups met weekly for 8 consecutive weeks for training in mindfulness meditation,
coping skills, and support group discussion. RESULTS: Subjects had a mean age of
61 years, left ventricular ejection fraction 26%, and median New York Heart
Association class II. The majority were treated with angiotensin-converting
enzyme inhibitors (80%) and beta-blockers (86%). At baseline, patients in the
treatment group had more severe CHF with higher New York Heart Association class
(P = .0209) and more severe psychological distress (Center of Epidemiology –
Depression, Profile of Mood States; P < .05). When compared with controls,
treatment resulted in lower anxiety (Profile of Mood States, P = .003),
depression (Center of Epidemiology – Depression, P = .05), improved symptoms
(Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire symptom scale, P = .033) and clinical
scores (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire clinical score, P = .024) over
time. There were no treatment effects on death/rehospitalization at 1 year.
CONCLUSIONS: An 8-week mindfulness-based psychoeducational intervention reduced
anxiety and depression; this effect was attenuated at 1 year. Importantly, the
intervention led to significantly better symptoms of CHF at 12 months compared to
control subjects. Our results suggest that interventions of this type might have
a role in optimal therapy for CHF.

PMID: 19081401 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

138. Cogn Behav Ther. 2009;38(1):2-15.

Measuring mindfulness: pilot studies with the Swedish versions of the Mindful
Attention Awareness Scale and the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills.

Hansen E, Lundh LG, Homman A, Wångby-Lundh M.

Department of Psychology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

The present article describes data from pilot studies with the Swedish versions
of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) and the Kentucky Inventory of
Mindfulness Skills (KIMS). The MAAS and two of the KIMS scales, Act with
Awareness and Accept without Judgment, were found to correlate in the predicted
direction with measures of well-being and emotional distress. The KIMS scales
Observe and Describe showed more ambiguous results, possibly because these two
scales measure a mixture of two opposite kinds of processes: healthy
self-observation (« experiential self-focus ») and unhealthy rumination
(« analytical self-focus »). The KIMS was also used in an uncontrolled study with
participants in an educational programme for close relatives of persons with
borderline personality disorder, Family Connections (FC), which includes
components of mindfulness training. The FC participants were found to (a) score
lower than a comparison group on Act with Awareness and Accept without Judgment
before treatment and (b) show significantly increased scores on Accept without
Judgment after treatment.

PMID: 19125361 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

139. Complement Health Pract Rev. 2009 Jan 1;14(1):10-18.

Mindfulness Research Update: 2008.

Greeson JM.

Duke Integrative Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

OBJECTIVE: To briefly review the effects of mindfulness on the mind, the brain,
the body, and behavior. METHODS: Selective review of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and
Google Scholar databases (2003-2008) using the terms « mindfulness », « meditation »,
« mental health », « physical health », « quality of life », and « stress reduction. » A
total of 52 exemplars of empirical and theoretical work were selected for review.
RESULTS: Both basic and clinical research indicate that cultivating a more
mindful way of being is associated with less emotional distress, more positive
states of mind, and better quality of life. In addition, mindfulness practice can
influence the brain, the autonomic nervous system, stress hormones, the immune
system, and health behaviors, including eating, sleeping and substance use, in
salutary ways. CONCLUSION: The application of cutting-edge technology toward
understanding mindfulness – an « inner technology » – is elucidating new ways in
which attention, awareness, acceptance, and compassion may promote optimal health
– in mind, body, relationships, and spirit.

PMCID: PMC2679512
PMID: 20047019 [PubMed]

140. Explore (NY). 2009 Jan-Feb;5(1):37-44.

The role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal.

Garland E, Gaylord S, Park J.

School of Social Work, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill,
North Carolina, USA. elgarlan@email.unc.edu

Mindfulness meditation is increasingly well known for therapeutic efficacy in a
variety of illnesses and conditions, but its mechanism of action is still under
debate in scientific circles. In this paper, we propose a hypothetical causal
model that argues for the role of mindfulness in positive reappraisal coping.
Positive reappraisal is a critical component of meaning-based coping that enables
individuals to adapt successfully to stressful life events. Mindfulness, as a
metacognitive form of awareness, involves the process of decentering, a shifting
of cognitive sets that enables alternate appraisals of life events. We review the
concept of positive reappraisal in transactional stress and coping theory, then
describe research and traditional literature related to mindfulness and positive
reappraisal, and detail the central role of mindfulness in the reappraisal
process. With this understanding, we present a causal model explicating the
proposed mechanism. The discussion has implications for clinical practice,
suggesting how mindfulness-based integrative medicine interventions can be
designed to support adaptive coping processes.

PMCID: PMC2719560
PMID: 19114262 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

141. Explore (NY). 2009 Jan-Feb;5(1):30-6.

Mindfulness meditation and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia: a
naturalistic 12-month follow-up.

Ong JC, Shapiro SL, Manber R.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford,
CA, USA. jason_c_ong@rush.edu

A unique intervention combining mindfulness meditation with cognitive behavioral
therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) has been shown to have acute benefits at
posttreatment in an open label study. The aim of the present study was to examine
the long-term effects of this integrated intervention on measures of sleep and
sleep-related distress in an attempt to characterize the natural course of
insomnia following this treatment and to identify predictors of poor long-term
outcome. Analyses were conducted on 21 participants, who provided follow-up data
at six and 12 months posttreatment. At each time point, participants completed
one week of sleep and meditation diaries and questionnaires related to
mindfulness, sleep, and sleep-related distress, including the Pre-Sleep Arousal
Scale, the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale, the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness
Skills, and the Insomnia Episode Questionnaire. Analyses examining the pattern of
change across time (baseline, end of treatment, six months, and 12 months)
revealed that several sleep-related benefits were maintained during the 12-month
follow-up period. Participants who reported at least one insomnia episode (>or=1
month) during the follow-up period had higher scores on the Pre-Sleep Arousal
Scale (P < .05) and the Glasgow Sleep Effort Scale (P < .05) at end of treatment
compared with those with no insomnia episodes. Correlations between mindfulness
skills and insomnia symptoms revealed significant negative correlations (P < .05)
between mindfulness skills and daytime sleepiness at each of the three time
points but not with nocturnal symptoms of insomnia. These results suggest that
most sleep-related benefits of an intervention combining CBT-I and mindfulness
meditation were maintained during the 12-month follow-up period, with indications
that higher presleep arousal and sleep effort at end of treatment constitute a
risk for occurrence of insomnia during the 12 months following treatment.

PMID: 19114261 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

142. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2009;17(4):254-67.

The emerging role of meditation in addressing psychiatric illness, with a focus
on substance use disorders.

Dakwar E, Levin FR.

Division of Substance Abuse, New York State Psychiatric
Institute/Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA.
dakware@pi.cpmc.columbia.edu

Over the past 30 years the practice of meditation has become increasingly popular
in clinical settings. In addition to evidence-based medical uses, meditation may
have psychiatric benefits. In this review, the literature on the role of
meditation in addressing psychiatric issues, and specifically substance use
disorders, is discussed. Each of the three meditation modalities that have been
most widely studied-transcendental meditation, Buddhist meditation, and
mindfulness-based meditation-is critically examined in terms of its background,
techniques, mechanisms of action, and evidence-based clinical applications, with
special attention given to its emerging role in the treatment of substance use
disorders. The unique methodological difficulties that beset the study of
meditation are also considered. A brief discussion then integrates the research
that has been completed thus far, elucidates the specific ways that meditation
may be helpful for substance use disorders, and suggests new avenues for
research.

PMID: 19637074 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

143. Int J Behav Med. 2009;16(1):74-80. Epub 2009 Jan 6.

Increases in positive reappraisal coping during a group-based mantram
intervention mediate sustained reductions in anger in HIV-positive persons.

Bormann JE, Carrico AW.

Nursing and Patient Care Services, Veterans Affairs San Diego Health Care System,
San Diego, CA, USA. jill.bormann@va.gov

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that various meditation practices reduce distress,
but little is known about the mechanisms of frequently repeating a mantram-a
spiritual word or phrase-on distress reduction. Mantram repetition is the
portable practice of focusing attention frequently on a mantram throughout the
day without a specific time, place, or posture. PURPOSE: We examined the
hypothesis of whether increases in positive reappraisal coping or distancing
coping mediated the sustained decreases in anger found following a group-based
mantram intervention that was designed to train attention and promote awareness
of internal experiences. METHOD: A secondary analysis was performed on data
collected from a randomized controlled trial that compared a group-based mantram
intervention (n = 46) to an attention-matched control (n = 47) in a community
sample of human immunodeficiency virus-positive adults. Positive reappraisal and
distancing coping were explored as potential mediators of anger reduction.
RESULTS: Participants in the mantram intervention reported significant increases
in positive reappraisal coping over the 5-week intervention period, whereas the
control group reported decreases. Increases in positive reappraisal coping during
the 5-week intervention period appear to mediate the effect of mantram on
decreased anger at 22-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that a
group-based mantram intervention may reduce anger by enhancing positive
reappraisal coping.

PMCID: PMC2739878
PMID: 19127438 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

144. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Jan;15(1):41-6.

Mindful exercise, quality of life, and survival: a mindfulness-based exercise
program for women with breast cancer.

Tacón AM, McComb J.

Department of Health, Exercise and Sport Sciences, Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. anna.tacon@ttu.edu

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this article is to describe the rationale and protocol
for a pilot study in women with breast cancer that integrates the two
complementary therapies of mindfulness and exercise. DESIGN: A sample of 30 women
diagnosed with breast cancer within the previous 12 months who have completed
initial treatment for their disease will be recruited from oncology physicians’
offices. The pilot will be a pre-post design, and the study will occur within a
hospital counseling center for 2 h one day/week for 8 weeks. Participants will
complete pre-and post-questionnaires on anxiety, depression, quality of life, and
the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) checklist. Patients will receive
audiotapes and pedometers and will keep detailed logs of their weekly homework
assignments. OUTCOME: Appropriate statistical analyses will be carried out to
arrive at data-driven results. If results show significant benefit for the
participants, the program will be revised as needed for improvement. DIRECTIONS:
Future directions will be based on findings of the proposed pilot, which will
dictate how to proceed after completion of the pilot study. A future goal, if
preliminary findings and a replication study are encouraging, will be the
development of a Mindfulness-based Exercise Program Manual for dissemination and
use by researchers and clinicians to help empower patients with cancer.

PMID: 19769475 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

145. J Correct Health Care. 2009 Jan;15(1):47-57; quiz 81.

The benefits of meditation practice in the correctional setting.

Sumter MT, Monk-Turner E, Turner C.

Departments of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Old Dominion University, Norfolk,
Virginia 23529, USA.

This research examined the impact of a structured meditation program intervention
on female detainees, comparing an experimental group and a control group for
medical symptoms, emotions, and behaviors before and after the intervention. A 2
1/2-hour meditation session was held once a week for 7 weeks. Study participants
completed a medical symptoms checklist before the program began and after it
ended. At the posttest period, the experimental group experienced fewer sleeping
difficulties, less desire to throw things or hit people, and less nail or cuticle
biting; were more hopeful about their future; and felt less guilt. Meditation was
beneficial for this population and may be a cost-effective tool for inmates and
administrators. Meditation effects, especially among inmates, merit further
research attention.

PMID: 19477811 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

146. J Health Care Chaplain. 2009;16(1-2):53-7.

Support from neurobiology for spiritual techniques for anxiety: a brief review.
Mayo KR.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Royal Ottawa Mental Health
Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Kelley.RaabMayo@rohcg.on.ca

Research in neurobiology supports use of spiritual techniques as a beneficial
treatment for anxiety. Psychotherapy, including mindfulness CBT and meditation,
has been shown to change brain structure. The amygdala-the brain structure
responsible for processing emotion and anxiety-demonstrates plasticity, and the
purpose of therapy may be to allow the cortex to establish more effective and
efficient synaptic links with the amygdala. A main feature of spiritual
approaches is changing one’s focus of attention. Instead of worry, one focuses on
peaceful thoughts, thoughts of helping others, etc. Research demonstrates that
thought, meditation, and other manifestations of mind can alter the brain,
sometimes in an enduring way. Few studies have addressed the neurobiological
underpinnings of meditation. Limited evidence, however, suggests that brain
changes occur during prolonged meditation and that meditation activates neural
structures involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system.

PMID: 20183113 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

147. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2009;27(3):344-60.

Life after cancer in India: coping with side effects and cancer pain.

Jagannathan A, Juvva S.

National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Koramangala, Bangalore,
India. jaganaarti@gmail.com

The article aims to understand the coping strategies of postsurgery head and neck
cancer patients in Mumbai, India. A descriptive research design with a sample of
80 patients suffering from head and neck cancer was selected to analyze their
coping strategies in relation to sociodemographic profile and illness
characteristics. The findings of the study highlighted that the spiritual methods
of coping (such as prayer and meditation, adopting a positive attitude) were the
most frequently used mainstream coping strategy, apart from other traditional
methods (such as taking medications, indulging in exercise and activities to
divert one’s attention, etc.) of coping. The findings of the study help to
broaden the understanding of various psychosocial aspects faced by the patient in
India and provide progressive recommendations to improve the quality of life of
the patient suffering from cancer.

PMID: 19544181 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

148. Prog Brain Res. 2009;176:161-80.

An adaptive workspace hypothesis about the neural correlates of consciousness:
insights from neuroscience and meditation studies.

Raffone A, Srinivasan N.

Department of Psychology, « Sapienza » University of Rome, Rome, Italy; Perceptual
Dynamics Laboratory, BSI RIKEN, Japan. antonino.raffone@uniroma1.it

While enormous progress has been made to identify neural correlates of
consciousness (NCC), crucial NCC aspects are still very controversial. A major
hurdle is the lack of an adequate definition and characterization of different
aspects of conscious experience and also its relationship to attention and
metacognitive processes like monitoring. In this paper, we therefore attempt to
develop a unitary theoretical framework for NCC, with an interdependent
characterization of endogenous attention, access consciousness, phenomenal
awareness, metacognitive consciousness, and a non-referential form of unified
consciousness. We advance an adaptive workspace hypothesis about the NCC based on
the global workspace model emphasizing transient resonant neurodynamics and
prefrontal cortex function, as well as meditation-related characterizations of
conscious experiences. In this hypothesis, transient dynamic links within an
adaptive coding net in prefrontal cortex, especially in anterior prefrontal
cortex, and between it and the rest of the brain, in terms of ongoing intrinsic
and long-range signal exchanges, flexibly regulate the interplay between
endogenous attention, access consciousness, phenomenal awareness, and
metacognitive consciousness processes. Such processes are established in terms of
complementary aspects of an ongoing transition between context-sensitive global
workspace assemblies, modulated moment-to-moment by body and environment states.
Brain regions associated to momentary interoceptive and exteroceptive
self-awareness, or first-person experiential perspective as emphasized in open
monitoring meditation, play an important modulatory role in adaptive workspace
transitions.

PMID: 19733756 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

149. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009 Jan;34(1):87-98. Epub 2008 Oct 4.

Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral
responses to psychosocial stress.

Pace TW, Negi LT, Adame DD, Cole SP, Sivilli TI, Brown TD, Issa MJ, Raison CL.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of
Medicine, Winship Cancer Institute, 1365C Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

Meditation practices may impact physiological pathways that are modulated by
stress and relevant to disease. While much attention has been paid to meditation
practices that emphasize calming the mind, improving focused attention, or
developing mindfulness, less is known about meditation practices that foster
compassion. Accordingly, the current study examined the effect of compassion
meditation on innate immune, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to
psychosocial stress and evaluated the degree to which engagement in meditation
practice influenced stress reactivity. Sixty-one healthy adults were randomized
to 6 weeks of training in compassion meditation (n=33) or participation in a
health discussion control group (n=28) followed by exposure to a standardized
laboratory stressor (Trier social stress test [TSST]). Physiologic and behavioral
responses to the TSST were determined by repeated assessments of plasma
concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and cortisol as well as total distress
scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS). No main effect of group assignment
on TSST responses was found for IL-6, cortisol or POMS scores. However, within
the meditation group, increased meditation practice was correlated with decreased
TSST-induced IL-6 (r(p)=-0.46, p=0.008) and POMS distress scores (r(p)=-0.43,
p=0.014). Moreover, individuals with meditation practice times above the median
exhibited lower TSST-induced IL-6 and POMS distress scores compared to
individuals below the median, who did not differ from controls. These data
suggest that engagement in compassion meditation may reduce stress-induced immune
and behavioral responses, although future studies are required to determine
whether individuals who engage in compassion meditation techniques are more
likely to exhibit reduced stress reactivity.

PMCID: PMC2695992
PMID: 18835662 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

150. Psychosom Med. 2009 Jan;71(1):106-14. Epub 2008 Dec 10.

Pain sensitivity and analgesic effects of mindful states in Zen meditators: a
cross-sectional study.

Grant JA, Rainville P.

Département de physiologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate pain perception and the potential analgesic effects of
mindful states in experienced Zen meditators. METHODS: Highly trained Zen
meditators (n = 13; >1000 hours of practice) and age/gender-matched control
volunteers (n = 13) received individually adjusted thermal stimuli to elicit
moderate pain on the calf. Conditions included: a) baseline-1: no task; b)
concentration: attend exclusively to the calf; c) mindfulness: attend to the calf
and observe, moment to moment, in a nonjudgmental manner; and d) baseline-2: no
task. RESULTS: Meditators required significantly higher temperatures to elicit
moderate pain (meditators: 49.9 degrees C; controls: 48.2 degrees C; p = .01).
While attending « mindfully, » meditators reported decreases in pain intensity
whereas control subjects showed no change from baseline. The concentration
condition resulted in increased pain intensity for controls but not for
meditators. Changes in pain unpleasantness generally paralleled those found in
pain intensity. In meditators, pain modulation correlated with slowing of the
respiratory rate and with greater meditation experience. Covariance analyses
indicated that mindfulness-related changes could be partially explained by
changes in respiratory rates. Finally, the meditators reported higher tendencies
to observe and be nonreactive of their own experience as measured on the Five
Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire; these factors correlated with individual
differences in respiration. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that Zen
meditators have lower pain sensitivity and experience analgesic effects during
mindful states. Results may reflect cognitive/self-regulatory skills related to
the concept of mindfulness and/or altered respiratory patterns. Prospective
studies investigating the effects of meditative training and respiration on pain
regulation are warranted.

PMID: 19073756 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

151. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Dec;14(10):1215-21.

Commentary on the AHRQ report on research on meditation practices in health.

Orme-Johnson DW.

Maharishi University of Management Fairfield, Iowa, USA. davidoj@earthlink.net

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) report is a major reference
point for establishing where the research on meditation stands and where it
should go from here. This commentary argues that double blinding, a major
component of the report’s evaluation criteria, is not an appropriate control for
placebo in meditation research. A viable alternative is to make the treatment and
control groups equivalent on nonspecific therapeutic attention factors and
expectation. High quality meditation research must also use qualified
instructors, have high compliance levels, insure proficient practice, use
state-of-the-art measurement methodology, and make sure control subjects are not
inadvertently practicing the same or another form of meditation. None of these
determinants of research quality was assessed by the AHRQ report. It is
noteworthy that whereas randomized controlled trials have their place in
demonstrating clinical efficacy, few if any of the major ideas in the basic or
behavioral sciences have come from randomized trails. A wide range of study
designs have demonstrated that the traditional goal of meditation, a state of
inner silence called « transcendental consciousness, » has unique physiological
characteristics with far ranging implications for health, cognition, and
behavior. Such studies need to be included in future reviews of meditation
techniques.

PMID: 19123876 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

152. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Dec;14(10):1199-213.

Clinical trials of meditation practices in health care: characteristics and
quality.

Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, Buscemi N, Dryden DM, Barnes V, Carlson LE, Dusek
JA, Shannahoff-Khalsa D.

University of Alberta Evidence-Based Practice Center, University of Alberta,
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. mospina@ualberta.ca

OBJECTIVE: To provide a descriptive overview of the clinical trials assessing
meditation practices for health care. DESIGN: Systematic review of the
literature. Comprehensive searches were conducted in 17 electronic bibliographic
databases through September 2005. Other sources of potentially relevant studies
included hand searches, reference tracking, contacting experts, and gray
literature searches. Included studies were clinical trials with 10 or more adult
participants using any meditation practice, providing quantitative data on
health-related outcomes, and published in English. Two independent reviewers
assessed study relevance, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological
quality of the studies. RESULTS: Four hundred clinical trials on meditation (72%
described as randomized) were included in the review (publication years
1956-2005). Five broad categories of meditation practices were identified: mantra
meditation, mindfulness meditation, yoga, t’ai chi, and qigong. The three most
studied clinical conditions were hypertension, miscellaneous cardiovascular
diseases, and substance abuse. Psychosocial measures were the most frequently
reported outcomes. Outcome measures of psychiatric and psychological symptoms
dominate the outcomes of interest. Overall, the methodological quality of
clinical trials is poor, but has significantly improved over time by 0.014 points
every year (95% CI, 0.005, 0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Most clinical trials on
meditation practices are generally characterized by poor methodological quality
with significant threats to validity in every major quality domain assessed.
Despite a statistically significant improvement in the methodological quality
over time, it is imperative that future trials on meditation be rigorous in
design, execution, analysis, and the reporting of results.

PMID: 19123875 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

153. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2008 Dec;15(4):331-7. Epub 2008 Dec 6.

Introducing mindfulness to clinical psychologists in training: an experiential
course of brief exercises.

Moore P.

University of Bristol Campus, Bristol, UK. drphilmoore@yahoo.co.uk

A 14 session, structured, mindfulness skills group utilizing short (10 min)
practices was undertaken by clinical psychologists in training as a voluntary
lunchtime activity. The present study was a preliminary investigation into
whether a short course of brief mindfulness exercises could facilitate the
development of personal understandings of mindfulness without requiring a
significant time commitment that might impinge upon participants’ ability to take
part. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations suggested that the course could be
a useful experiential introduction to mindfulness for clinicians. The results
also suggested that the format of frequent, brief exercises could have utility
for conducting mindfulness-based training in time-limited environments but
further research is required to examine the effects of frequency and duration of
practice on the development of mindfulness skills.

PMID: 19104991 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

154. J Sex Med. 2008 Dec;5(12):2741-8; quiz 2749.

Eastern approaches for enhancing women’s sexuality: mindfulness, acupuncture, and
yoga (CME).

Brotto LA, Krychman M, Jacobson P.

University of British Columbia-Obstetrics/Gynaecology, Vancouver, British
Columbia, Canada. Lori.Brotto@vch.ca

INTRODUCTION: A significant proportion of women report unsatisfying sexual
experiences despite no obvious difficulties in the traditional components of
sexual response (desire, arousal, and orgasm). Some suggest that nongoal-oriented
spiritual elements to sexuality might fill the gap that more contemporary forms
of treatment are not addressing. AIM: Eastern techniques including mindfulness,
acupuncture, and yoga, are Eastern techniques, which have been applied to women’s
sexuality. Here, we review the literature on their efficacy. METHODS: Our search
revealed two empirical studies of mindfulness, two of acupuncture, and one of
yoga in the treatment of sexual dysfunction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Literature
review of empirical sources. RESULTS: Mindfulness significantly improves several
aspects of sexual response and reduces sexual distress in women with sexual
desire and arousal disorders. In women with provoked vestibulodynia, acupuncture
significantly reduces pain and improves quality of life. There is also a case
series of acupuncture significantly improving desire among women with hypoactive
sexual desire disorder. Although yoga has only been empirically examined and
found to be effective for treating sexual dysfunction (premature ejaculation) in
men, numerous historical books cite benefits of yoga for women’s sexuality.
CONCLUSIONS: The empirical literature supporting Eastern techniques, such as
mindfulness, acupuncture, and yoga, for women’s sexual complaints and loss of
satisfaction is sparse but promising. Future research should aim to empirically
support Eastern techniques in women’s sexuality.

PMID: 19090937 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

155. Urology. 2008 Dec;72(6):1324-8. Epub 2008 Apr 8.

A dietary intervention for recurrent prostate cancer after definitive primary
treatment: results of a randomized pilot trial.

Carmody J, Olendzki B, Reed G, Andersen V, Rosenzweig P.

Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts
Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655, USA. james.carmody@umassmed.edu

OBJECTIVES: Considerable evidence has shown that diet can affect both the
incidence and the progression of prostate cancer. The objective of this study was
to determine whether men in this situation could make a change to a diet
emphasizing plant-based foods and fish and to examine the effect on quality of
life (QOL) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity. METHODS: A total of 36
men and their partners were randomly assigned to attend a series of 11 dietary
and cooking classes that also integrated mindfulness practice as a support in
making the change or a wait-list control group. Assessments were made of dietary
intake, QOL, and PSA at baseline, after intervention (11 weeks), and 3 months
after intervention. RESULTS: The intervention group showed significant reductions
in the consumption of saturated fat and increased consumption of vegetable
proteins with accompanying reductions in animal proteins, including dairy
products. They also showed increased QOL. Although no significant change was
found in the rate of PSA increase between the two groups, the mean PSA doubling
time for the intervention group was substantially longer at the 3-month follow-up
visit than that of the controls. CONCLUSIONS: Men with a increasing PSA level
after primary treatment were able to make a change to a prostate-healthy diet,
accompanied by increases in QOL. No significant difference was found in the log
PSA slope between the two groups; however, the PSA doubling time increased
substantially in the intervention group compared with that in the controls.
Future trials should examine the effect of the prostate-healthy diet with a
larger sample of men for a longer period.

PMID: 18400281 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

156. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008 Nov;95(5):1045-62.

Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness
meditation, build consequential personal resources.

Fredrickson BL, Cohn MA, Coffey KA, Pek J, Finkel SM.

Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel
Hill, NC 27599, USA. blf@unc.edu

B. L. Fredrickson’s (1998, 2001) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions
asserts that people’s daily experiences of positive emotions compound over time
to build a variety of consequential personal resources. The authors tested this
build hypothesis in a field experiment with working adults (n = 139), half of
whom were randomly-assigned to begin a practice of loving-kindness meditation.
Results showed that this meditation practice produced increases over time in
daily experiences of positive emotions, which, in turn, produced increases in a
wide range of personal resources (e.g., increased mindfulness, purpose in life,
social support, decreased illness symptoms). In turn, these increments in
personal resources predicted increased life satisfaction and reduced depressive
symptoms. Discussion centers on how positive emotions are the mechanism of change
for the type of mind-training practice studied here and how loving-kindness
meditation is an intervention strategy that produces positive emotions in a way
that outpaces the hedonic treadmill effect.

PMID: 18954193 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

157. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Nov;5(11):624-36. Epub 2008 Sep 30.

Complementary and alternative medicine for IBS in adults: mind-body
interventions.

Kearney DJ, Brown-Chang J.

Gastroenterology Section, University of Washington School of Medicine, VA Puget
Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA 98108, USA. kearney@u.washington.edu

Comment in:
Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Feb;6(2):E1.

Standard treatment for IBS focuses on the management or alleviation of the
predominant gastrointestinal presenting symptoms, such as diarrhea or
constipation, often using pharmacological therapy. For many patients, this
approach is unsatisfactory, and patients frequently seek the advice of
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in order to explore
other treatment options. CAM practices include a broad range of modalities, and
mind-body interventions hold particular promise as treatment modalities for IBS
because psychological factors could have an important role in IBS symptomatology
and quality of life. Psychological stressors are postulated to result in
gastrointestinal symptoms through alteration of intestinal function mediated by
the autonomic nervous system, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune
system. Hypnotherapy has the strongest supportive evidence as a beneficial
mind-body intervention for IBS. Clinical studies of hypnotherapy have uniformly
shown improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms, anxiety, depression and quality
of life in patients with IBS. Mindfulness meditation remains unstudied for IBS,
but is theoretically attractive as a stress-reduction technique. There is a
suggestion that relaxation therapy or multimodal therapy (a combination of
relaxation therapy, education and psychotherapy) is beneficial for IBS. The most
generally accepted psychological mind-body intervention is cognitive behavioral
therapy, and clinical trials support the beneficial effects of cognitive
behavioral therapy in patients with IBS.

PMID: 18825145 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

158. Prog Neurobiol. 2008 Nov;86(3):156-85. Epub 2008 Sep 7.

Frontal-midline theta from the perspective of hippocampal « theta ».

Mitchell DJ, McNaughton N, Flanagan D, Kirk IJ.

Department of Psychology and Centre for Neuroscience, University of Otago,
Dunedin, New Zealand.

Electrical recordings from the surface of the skull have a wide range of rhythmic
components. A major task of analysis of this EEG is to determine their source and
functional significance. The hippocampal « theta rhythm » has been extensively
studied in rats and its rhythmicity has recently been shown to be functionally
significant, per se. Here, we use relevant aspects of the hippocampal literature
to provide perspective on one of the most studied human EEG rhythms:
frontal-midline theta. We review its electrographic features, localization,
prevalence, age distribution, behavioural modulation (particularly in relation to
working memory, spatial navigation, episodic memory, internalised attention and
meditation), relationship to personality, drug interactions, neurochemical
relationships, and coherence with rhythmic activity at other sites. We conclude
that FM-theta, like hippocampal theta, appears to play a role in (or at least
occur during) processing of memory and emotion. It is correlated with working
memory and/or sustained attention; but this does not entail a role in function
since clear behavioural correlates of hippocampal theta have been demonstrated
that are not sensitive to hippocampal damage. FM-theta is increased by anxiolytic
drug action and personality-related reductions in anxiety, whereas hippocampal
theta is decreased by anxiolytic drugs. In animals, frontal theta and hippocampal
theta can be phase-locked or independent, depending on behavioural state. So, the
cognitive functions of FM-theta, and their relationship to hippocampal theta, are
unclear and definitive evidence for functional involvement in cognitive or
emotional processing is lacking. One possible solution to this problem is
analysis of FM-theta in animals-provided homology can be determined. The issues
of sporadicity and low incidence of FM-theta also need to be addressed in the
future. Changes in functional connectivity, indicated by changes in coherence,
are also a largely untapped resource. We suggest that the most hopeful path to
assessing the functions of FM-theta will be through the use of drugs, and the
variation of their effects depending on baseline levels of FM-theta. Finally, we
review some theories of theta function. Despite the apparent richness of the
current data, we conclude that it is difficult (and may ultimately be impossible)
to formulate a theory that attributes a specific cognitive function to FM-theta.
However, the theories share some general computational assumptions and these
should be a useful guide to future work and, ultimately, a definite theory of the
function or functions of FM-theta.

PMID: 18824212 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

159. Psychother Res. 2008 Nov;18(6):735-42.

Beyond the individual: group effects in mindfulness-based stress reduction.

Imel Z, Baldwin S, Bonus K, Maccoon D.

Department of Counseling Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison,
Wisconsin 53703, USA. zeimel@wisc.edu

The authors explored the group as a source of change in mindfulness-based stress
reduction (MBSR). Participants consisted of 606 adults in 59 groups who completed
an 8-week MBSR program. The authors examined change in the General Symptom Index
(GSI) of the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and the Medical Symptom Checklist (MSC)
from pre- to postintervention. Multilevel models were used to examine the extent
to which groups differed in the amount of change reported by the participants.
After controlling for pretreatment severity, group accounted for 7% of the
variability in the GSI and 0% in the MSC. The authors discuss the implications of
these findings for the practice of MBSR as well as for research investigating the
effects of MBSR and other programs or psychotherapies.

PMID: 18815948 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

160. Biomed Res. 2008 Oct;29(5):245-50.

Inward-attention meditation increases parasympathetic activity: a study based on
heart rate variability.

Wu SD, Lo PC.

Department of Electrical and Control Engineering, National Chiao Tung University,
Taiwan, Republic of China.

Phenomenon of the heart rate variability (HRV) during various meditation
techniques has been reported. However, most of these techniques emphasized the
skill of slow breathing (<0.15 Hz). This paper reports our study on HRV during
meditation which emphasizes inward attention. Inward attention has been an
important approach for the Zen-meditation practitioners to enter into
transcendental consciousness. Two groups of subjects were investigated, 10
experimental subjects with Zen-meditation experience and 10 control subjects
without any meditation experience. We analyzed HRV both in time and frequency
domains. The results revealed both common and different effects on HRV between
inward-attention meditation and normal rest. The major difference of effects
between two groups were the decrease of LF/HF ratio and LF norm as well as the
increase of HF norm, which suggested the benefit of a sympathovagal balance
toward parasympathetic activity. Moreover, we observed regular oscillating
rhythms of the heart rate when the LF/HF ratio was small under meditation.
According to previous studies, regular oscillations of heart rate signal usually
appeared in the low-frequency band of HRV under slow breathing. Our findings
showed that such regular oscillations could also appear in the high-frequency
band of HRV but with smaller amplitude.

PMID: 18997439 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

161. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2008 Oct;196(10):776-9.

The effects of a mindfulness intervention on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a
non-clinical student population.

Hanstede M, Gidron Y, Nyklícek I.

Centre of Research on Psychology in Somatic Disease (CoRPS), Department of
Medical Psychology, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

This controlled pilot study tested the effects of a mindfulness intervention on
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and tested the psychological
processes possibly mediating such effects. Participants with OCD symptoms (12
women, 5 men) received either mindfulness training (N=8) or formed a waiting-list
control group (N = 9). Meditation included 8 group meetings teaching meditative
breathing, body-scan, and mindful daily living, applied to OCD. The intervention
had a significant and large effect on mindfulness, OCD symptoms, letting go, and
thought-action fusion. Controlling for changes in « letting go, » group effects on
change in OCD symptoms disappeared, pointing at a mediating role for letting go.
This may be the first controlled study demonstrating that a mindfulness
intervention reduces OCD symptoms, possibly explained by increasing letting go
capacity. If replicated in larger and clinical samples, mindfulness training may
be an alternative therapy for OCD.

PMID: 18852623 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

162. JAMA. 2008 Sep 17;300(11):1350-2.

Mindfulness in medicine.

Ludwig DS, Kabat-Zinn J.

Department of Medicine, Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
david.ludwig@childrens.harvard.edu

PMID: 18799450 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

163. PLoS One. 2008 Sep 3;3(9):e3083.

« Thinking about not-thinking »: neural correlates of conceptual processing during
Zen meditation.

Pagnoni G, Cekic M, Guo Y.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of
Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, Untied States of America. gpagnon@emory.edu

Recent neuroimaging studies have identified a set of brain regions that are
metabolically active during wakeful rest and consistently deactivate in a variety
the performance of demanding tasks. This « default network » has been functionally
linked to the stream of thoughts occurring automatically in the absence of
goal-directed activity and which constitutes an aspect of mental behavior
specifically addressed by many meditative practices. Zen meditation, in
particular, is traditionally associated with a mental state of full awareness but
reduced conceptual content, to be attained via a disciplined regulation of
attention and bodily posture. Using fMRI and a simplified meditative condition
interspersed with a lexical decision task, we investigated the neural correlates
of conceptual processing during meditation in regular Zen practitioners and
matched control subjects. While behavioral performance did not differ between
groups, Zen practitioners displayed a reduced duration of the neural response
linked to conceptual processing in regions of the default network, suggesting
that meditative training may foster the ability to control the automatic cascade
of semantic associations triggered by a stimulus and, by extension, to
voluntarily regulate the flow of spontaneous mentation.

PMCID: PMC2518618
PMID: 18769538 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

164. Assessment. 2008 Sep;15(3):329-42. Epub 2008 Feb 29.

Construct validity of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in meditating and
nonmeditating samples.
Baer RA, Smith GT, Lykins E, Button D, Krietemeyer J, Sauer S, Walsh E, Duggan D,
Williams JM.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0044, USA.
rbaer@email.uky.edu

Previous research on assessment of mindfulness by self-report suggests that it
may include five component skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness,
nonjudging of inner experience, and nonreactivity to inner experience. These
elements of mindfulness can be measured with the Five Facet Mindfulness
Questionnaire (FFMQ). The authors investigated several aspects of the construct
validity of the FFMQ in experienced meditators and nonmeditating comparison
groups. Consistent with predictions, most mindfulness facets were significantly
related to meditation experience and to psychological symptoms and well-being. As
expected, relationships between the observing facet and psychological adjustment
varied with meditation experience. Regression and mediation analyses showed that
several of the facets contributed independently to the prediction of well-being
and significantly mediated the relationship between meditation experience and
well-being. Findings support the construct validity of the FFMQ in a combination
of samples not previously investigated.

PMID: 18310597 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

165. Behav Modif. 2008 Sep;32(5):622-37. Epub 2008 Mar 24.

Clinical and benefit–cost outcomes of teaching a mindfulness-based procedure to
adult offenders with intellectual disabilities.

Singh NN, Lancioni GE, Winton AS, Singh AN, Adkins AD, Singh J.

ONE Research Institute, Midlothian, VA 23112, USA . nirbsingh52@aol.com

The effects of a mindfulness-based procedure, called Meditation on the Soles of
the Feet, were evaluated as a cognitive-behavioral intervention for physical
aggression in 6 offenders with mild intellectual disabilities. They were taught a
simple meditation technique that required them to shift their attention and
awareness from the precursors of aggression to the soles of their feet, a neutral
point on their body. Results showed that physical and verbal aggression decreased
substantially, no Stat medication or physical restraint was required, and there
were no staff or peer injuries. Benefit-cost analysis of lost days of work and
cost of medical and rehabilitation because of injury caused by these individuals
in both the 12 months prior to and following mindfulness-based training showed a
95.7% reduction in costs. This study suggests that this procedure may be a
clinically effective and cost-effective method of enabling adult offenders with
intellectual disabilities to control their aggression.

PMID: 18362201 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

166. J Dent Educ. 2008 Sep;72(9):998-1009.

Mindfulness and professionalism in dentistry.

Lovas JG, Lovas DA, Lovas PM.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Dalhousie
University, 5981 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H 1W2.
jlovas@dal.ca

To improve the effectiveness of teaching professionalism, the authors propose
introducing mindfulness practice into the dental curriculum. The qualities
cultivated through mindfulness meditation practice closely resemble the global
attitudes of professionalism. Professionalism and mindfulness are broad
overlapping constructs with a common prosocial aim: letting go of selfish,
short-sighted rewards and promoting the long-term common good. Both constructs
also aim for the highest quality of life for practitioners and patients alike.
Based on a selective review of the medical literature, we suggest that
mindfulness practice should help improve attentiveness, self-awareness,
acceptance, wisdom, and self-care in dentistry. We briefly review the role of
mindfulness in higher education, as well as current attempts at Dalhousie
University to integrate mindfulness into the dental and dental hygiene curricula.

PMID: 18768442 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

167. J Pain. 2008 Sep;9(9):841-8. Epub 2008 Jun 12.

« I felt like a new person. » the effects of mindfulness meditation on older adults
with chronic pain: qualitative narrative analysis of diary entries.

Morone NE, Lynch CS, Greco CM, Tindle HA, Weiner DK.

Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. moronene@upmc.edu

To identify the effects of mindfulness meditation on older adults with chronic
low back pain (CLBP), we conducted a qualitative study based on grounded theory
and used content analysis of diary entries from older adults who had participated
in a clinical trial of an 8-week mindfulness meditation program. Participants
were 27 adults > or = 65 years of age with CLBP of at least moderate severity and
of at least 3 months duration. We found several themes reflecting the beneficial
effects of mindfulness meditation on pain, attention, sleep, and achieving
well-being. Various methods of pain reduction were used, including distraction,
increased body awareness leading to behavior change, better pain coping, and
direct pain reduction through meditation. Participants described improved
attention skills. A number of participants reported improved sleep latency as
well as quality of sleep. Participants described achieving well-being during and
after a meditation session that had immediate effects on mood elevation but also
long-term global effects on improved quality of life. Several themes were
identified related to pain reduction, improved attention, improved sleep, and
achieving well-being resulting from mindfulness meditation that suggest it has
promising potential as a nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic pain for older
adults. PERSPECTIVE: Community-dwelling older adults with chronic low back pain
experience numerous benefits from mindfulness meditation including less pain,
improved attention, better sleep, enhanced well-being, and improved quality of
life. Additional research is needed to determine how mindfulness meditation works
and how it might help with other chronic illnesses.

PMCID: PMC2569828
PMID: 18550444 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

168. Patient Educ Couns. 2008 Sep;72(3):436-42. Epub 2008 Jul 25.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction training for oncology patients: patients’
appraisal and changes in well-being.

Kieviet-Stijnen A, Visser A, Garssen B, Hudig W.

Helen Dowling Institute, Center for Psycho-oncology, P.O. Box 85061, 3508 AB
Utrecht, The Netherlands. akieviet@hdi.nl

OBJECTIVE: This study explores satisfaction and changes in well-being in cancer
patients following mindfulness-based stress reduction training. METHOD: Data were
collected in 47 cancer patients before and after the training, and also 1 year
later. Standardized questionnaires were used to measure quality of life, joy in
life, mood disturbances (depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and tension), meaning
in life and physical symptoms. RESULTS: Participants were highly satisfied and
said they had reached their goals with the training. The results show that
directly after the training patients reported a better quality of life, more joy
in life, less tension, and fewer physical symptoms. These effects appeared even
stronger at follow-up. A year after the training a decrease was also found in
depression, anger, vigor and total mood disturbance. No changes could be
established for meaning in life and fatigue. Effect sizes varied between 0.28 and
0.60, indicating small-to-moderate changes. CONCLUSION: Mindfulness training
potentially supports cancer patients in handling the stress due to their
life-threatening disease and increases their well-being. Several suggestions for
further research are discussed. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Mindfulness training
provides cancer patients with tools to deal with their limitations and worries,
both during and after their treatment.

PMID: 18657376 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

169. AAOHN J. 2008 Aug;56(8):357-63.

Mindfulness meditation for veterans—implications for occupational health
providers.
Cuellar NG.

School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Mindfulness meditation (MfM) is a mind-body therapy identified by the National
Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Initially taught in a formal
classroom setting, MfM is a sustainable intervention with minimal costs that can
be used over time. For veterans, after mastery, this technique shows promise in
improving health outcomes and quality of life. This article describes MfM,
discusses the conceptual framework and evidence-based research for MfM, and
identifies the implications of MfM use by health care providers who are caring
for war veterans.

PMID: 18717302 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

170. Brain Behav Immun. 2008 Aug;22(6):969-81. Epub 2008 Mar 21.

Effect of mindfulness based stress reduction on immune function, quality of life
and coping in women newly diagnosed with early stage breast cancer.

Witek-Janusek L, Albuquerque K, Chroniak KR, Chroniak C, Durazo-Arvizu R, Mathews
HL.

Niehoff School of Nursing, Loyola University of Chicago, Maguire Center, Room
2840, 2160 South First Avenue, Maywood, IL 60153, USA. ljanuse@luc.edu

This investigation used a non-randomized controlled design to evaluate the effect
and feasibility of a mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) program on immune
function, quality of life (QOL), and coping in women recently diagnosed with
breast cancer. Early stage breast cancer patients, who did not receive
chemotherapy, self-selected into an 8-week MBSR program or into an assessment
only, control group. Outcomes were evaluated over time. The first assessment was
at least 10 days after surgery and prior to adjuvant therapy, as well as before
the MBSR start-up. Further assessments were mid-MBSR, at completion of MBSR, and
at 4-week post-MBSR completion. Women with breast cancer enrolled in the control
group (Non-MBSR) were assessed at similar times. At the first assessment (i.e.,
before MBSR start), reductions in peripheral blood mononuclear cell NK cell
activity (NKCA) and IFN-gamma production with increases in IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10
production and plasma cortisol levels were observed for both the MBSR and
Non-MBSR groups of breast cancer patients. Over time women in the MBSR group
re-established their NKCA and cytokine production levels. In contrast, breast
cancer patients in the Non-MBSR group exhibited continued reductions in NKCA and
IFN-gamma production with increased IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10 production. Moreover,
women enrolled in the MBSR program had reduced cortisol levels, improved QOL, and
increased coping effectiveness compared to the Non-MBSR group. In summary, MBSR
is a program that is feasible for women recently diagnosed with early stage
breast cancer and the results provide preliminary evidence for beneficial effects
of MBSR; on immune function, QOL, and coping.

PMCID: PMC2586059
PMID: 18359186 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

171. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2008 Aug;196(8):630-3.

Mindfulness predicts relapse/recurrence in major depressive disorder after
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.

Michalak J, Heidenreich T, Meibert P, Schulte D.

Department of Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, Ruhr-University, Bochum,
Germany.

Empirical evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy
(MBCT) is encouraging. However, data concerning the role of mindfulness in its
relapse preventive effect are lacking. In our study, 25 formerly depressed
patients received MBCT. Mindfulness was assessed before and immediately after
MBCT using the Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale. Mindfulness significantly
increased during MBCT, and posttreatment levels of mindfulness predicted the risk
of relapse/recurrence to major depressive disorder in the 12-month follow-up
period. Mindfulness predicted the risk of relapse/recurrence after controlling
for numbers of previous episodes and residual depressive symptoms. The results
provide preliminary evidence for the notion that mindfulness is an important
factor in relapse prevention in major depression.

PMID: 18974675 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

172. BJOG. 2008 Jul;115(8):991-1000. Epub 2008 May 22.

Effect of yoga on cognitive functions in climacteric syndrome: a randomised
control study.
Chattha R, Nagarathna R, Padmalatha V, Nagendra HR.

Division of Yoga and Life Sciences Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana
(SVYASA), Bangalore, India.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of an integrated approach of yoga therapy
(IAYT) on cognitive abilities in climacteric syndrome. DESIGN: A randomised
control study wherein the participants were divided into experimental and control
groups. SETTINGS: Fourteen centres of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation,
Bangalore, India. SAMPLE: One hundred and eight perimenopausal women between 40
and 55 years with follicle-stimulating hormone level equal to or greater than 15
miu/ml. One hundred and twenty perimenopausal women were randomly allotted into
the yoga and the control groups. METHODS: The yoga group practised a module
comprising breathing practices, sun salutation and cyclic meditation, whereas the
control group practised a set of simple physical exercises, under supervision (1
hour/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Assessments were made
by vasomotor symptom checklist, six-letter cancellation test (SLCT) for attention
and concentration and Punit Govil Intelligence Memory Scale (PGIMS) with ten
subtests. RESULTS: The Wilcoxon test showed significant (P < 0.001) reduction in
hot flushes, night sweats and sleep disturbance in yoga group, with a trend of
significant difference between groups at P = 0.06 on Mann-Whitney test in night
sweats. There was no change within or between groups in the control group. The
SLCT score and the PGIMS showed significant improvement in eight of ten subtests
in the yoga group and six of ten subtests in the control group. The yoga group
performed significantly better (P < 0.001) with higher effect sizes in SLCT and
seven tests of PGIMS compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Integrated
approach of yoga therapy can improve hot flushes and night sweats. It also can
improve cognitive functions such as remote memory, mental balance, attention and
concentration, delayed and immediate recall, verbal retention and recognition
tests.

PMID: 18503578 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

173. Br J Anaesth. 2008 Jul;101(1):111-20. Epub 2008 May 16.

Advances in understanding the mechanisms and management of persistent pain in
older adults.

Karp JF, Shega JW, Morone NE, Weiner DK.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburg School of Medicine, Pittsburg,
PA, USA.

Older adults with persistent pain are not simply a chronologically older version
of younger pain patients. Pain-related disability in older adults may be driven
by pain ‘homeostenosis’, that is, diminished ability to effectively respond to
the stress of persistent pain. Some of the comorbidities of ageing that can
contribute to pain homeostenosis include cognitive and physical impairments,
increased sensitivity to suprathreshold pain stimuli, medical and psychological
comorbidities, altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and social
isolation. A key distinction between older and younger individuals with
persistent pain is the normal and pathological ageing-associated brain changes.
These may alter the expression and experience of pain with impaired descending
inhibition and dysfunction of pain gating mechanisms. Cognizance of these brain
changes is needed to guide appropriate evaluation and treatment approaches. This
paper reviews data that support these ageing-associated phenomena. Specifically,
we discuss age-related changes in the brain (both normal and pathological) and in
pain physiology; changes in experience and expression of pain that occur with
dementia and contribute to pain homeostenosis; and unique aspects of age and
pain-associated psychological function and their contribution to disability. We
also present data demonstrating changes in brain morphology and
neuropsychological performance that accompany persistent non-malignant pain in
older adults and the treatment implications of these brain changes. Finally,
preliminary data are presented on the efficacy of mindfulness meditation, a
treatment that has been examined explicitly in older adults and targets
optimizing brain function and descending inhibition.

PMCID: PMC2841779
PMID: 18487247 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

174. Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008 Jul;13(3):395-407.

Mindfulness with children and adolescents: effective clinical application.

Thompson M, Gauntlett-Gilbert J.

Bath Centre for Pain Services, Royal National Hospital for Rheumatic Diseases,
Bath BA1 1RL, UK. miles.thompson@rnhrd.nhs.uk

Mindfulness interventions within adult populations are becoming increasingly
popular. Research suggests that mindfulness can deliver lasting improvements in
self-awareness and emotional stability to adults with severe and chronic
conditions. As yet, research within child and adolescent populations is in its
initial stages, although mindfulness shows great clinical promise for young
people. This article aims to provide an overview of mindfulness to professionals
who are working in child or adolescent settings. Initially, it will provide the
reader with some orientation to and definitions from the field, before
summarizing the current evidence for the utility of the approach. The article
recommends specific clinical modifications for mindfulness with children and
adolescents, as well as reviewing how to monitor and enhance the development of
this skill. Finally, it highlights important differences among mindfulness,
relaxation and other meditative techniques.

PMID: 18783122 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

175. Explore (NY). 2008 Jul-Aug;4(4):225-7.

Noticing.

Dossey L.

PMID: 18602613 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

176. Holist Nurs Pract. 2008 Jul-Aug;22(4):225-34.

Meditation as an intervention for chronic pain: an integrative review.

Teixeira ME.

Hightstown Medical Associates, East Windsor, NJ 08520, USA. Bet3079@comcast.net

Chronic pain is a complex phenomenon that causes a significant disruption in the
lives of those affected. Chronic pain is difficult to treat and challenges
healthcare professionals’ abilities to implement effective treatments. Therefore,
chronic pain sufferers often seek complementary alternative medicine therapies
such as meditation. Literature reviews have examined studies using
mindfulness-based stress reduction program as an intervention for a variety of
health problems. However, no reviews exist looking at a specific patient
population’s utilization of meditation-based programs. Therefore, the purpose of
this integrative review is to examine studies that have investigated meditation
as an intervention for chronic pain, identify gaps in the literature, and make
recommendations for further research.

PMID: 18607236 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

177. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul;14(6):637-44.

Effect of short-term intensive yoga program on pain, functional disability and
spinal flexibility in chronic low back pain: a randomized control study.
Tekur P, Singphow C, Nagendra HR, Raghuram N.

Division of Yoga and Life Sciences, Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation
(SVYASA), Bangalore, India. p_tekur@yahoo.co.in

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a short-term
intensive residential yoga program with physical exercise (control) on pain and
spinal flexibility in subjects with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). DESIGN: This
was a wait-list, randomized controlled study. SETTING: The study was conducted at
a residential integrative health center in Bangalore, South India. SUBJECTS:
Eighty (80) subjects (females, n = 37) with CLBP, who consented were randomly
assigned to receive yoga or physical exercise if they satisfied the selection
criteria. Intervention: The intervention consisted of a 1-week intensive
residential yoga program comprised of asanas (physical postures) designed for
back pain, pranayamas (breathing practices), meditation, and didactic and
interactive sessions on philosophical concepts of yoga. The control group
practiced physical exercises under a trained physiatrist and also had didactic
and interactive sessions on lifestyle change. Both of the groups were matched for
time on intervention and attention. OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain-related outcomes were
assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and by spinal flexibility, which
was assessed using goniometer at pre and post intervention. Data were analyzed
using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). RESULTS: Data conformed
to a Gaussian distribution. There was a significant reduction in ODI scores in
the yoga group compared to the control group (p = 0.01; effect size 1.264).
Spinal flexibility measures improved significantly in both groups but the yoga
group had greater improvement as compared to controls on spinal flexion (p =
0.008; effect size 0.146), spinal extension (p = 0.002; effect size 0.251), right
lateral flexion (p = 0.059; effect size 0.006); and left lateral flexion (p =
0.006; effect size 0.171). CONCLUSIONS: Seven (7) days of a residential intensive
yoga-based lifestyle program reduced pain-related disability and improved spinal
flexibility in patients with CLBP better than a physical exercise regimen.

PMID: 18673078 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

178. J Clin Psychol. 2008 Jul;64(7):840-62.

Cultivating mindfulness: effects on well-being.

Shapiro SL, Oman D, Thoresen CE, Plante TG, Flinders T.

Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA 95053, USA. slshapiro@scu.edu

There has been great interest in determining if mindfulness can be cultivated and
if this cultivation leads to well-being. The current study offers preliminary
evidence that at least one aspect of mindfulness, measured by the Mindful
Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS; K. W. Brown & R. M. Ryan, 2003), can be
cultivated and does mediate positive outcomes. Further, adherence to the
practices taught during the meditation-based interventions predicted positive
outcomes. College undergraduates were randomly allocated between training in two
distinct meditation-based interventions, Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction
(MBSR; J. Kabat-Zinn, 1990; n=15) and E. Easwaran’s (1978/1991) Eight Point
Program (EPP; n=14), or a waitlist control (n=15). Pretest, posttest, and 8-week
follow-up data were gathered on self-report outcome measures. Compared to
controls, participants in both treatment groups (n=29) demonstrated increases in
mindfulness at 8-week follow-up. Further, increases in mindfulness mediated
reductions in perceived stress and rumination. These results suggest that
distinct meditation-based practices can increase mindfulness as measured by the
MAAS, which may partly mediate benefits. Implications and future directions are
discussed.

PMID: 18484600 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

179. J Sex Med. 2008 Jul;5(7):1646-59.

A mindfulness-based group psychoeducational intervention targeting sexual arousal
disorder in women.

Brotto LA, Basson R, Luria M.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Lori.Brotto@vch.ca

INTRODUCTION: Despite their widespread prevalence, there are no existing
evidence-based psychological treatments for women with sexual desire and arousal
disorder. Mindfulness, the practice of relaxed wakefulness, is an ancient eastern
practice with roots in Buddhist meditation which has been found to be an
effective component of psychological treatments for numerous psychiatric and
medical illnesses. In recent years, mindfulness has been incorporated into sex
therapy and has been found effective for genital arousal disorder among women
with acquired sexual complaints secondary to gynecologic cancer. AIM: The aim of
this study was to adapt an existing mindfulness-based psychoeducation (PED) to a
group format for women with sexual desire/interest disorder and/or sexual arousal
disorders unrelated to cancer. METHODS: Twenty-six women participated in three
90-minute sessions, spaced 2 weeks apart, with four to six other women. Group PED
was administered by one mental health trained provider and one gynecologist with
post graduate training and experience in sexual medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Prior to and following the group, women viewed audiovisual erotic stimuli and had
both physiological (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal
assessed. Additionally, they completed self-report questionnaires of sexual
response, sexual distress, mood, and relationship satisfaction. RESULTS: There
was a significant beneficial effect of the group PED on sexual desire and sexual
distress. Also, we found a positive effect on self-assessed genital wetness
despite little or no change in actual physiological arousal, and a marginally
significant improvement in subjective and self-reported physical arousal during
an erotic stimulus. A follow-up comparison of women with and without a sexual
abuse history revealed that women with a sexual abuse history improved
significantly more than those without such history on mental sexual excitement,
genital tingling/throbbing, arousal, overall sexual function, sexual distress,
and on negative affect while viewing the erotic film. Moreover, there was a trend
for greater improvement on depression scores among those with a sexual abuse
history. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide preliminary support for a brief,
three-session group psychoeducational intervention for women with sexual desire
and arousal complaints. Specifically, women with a history of sexual abuse
improved more than women without such a history. Participant feedback indicated
that mindfulness was the most effective component of the treatment, in line with
prior findings. However, future compartmentalization trials are necessary in
order to conclude this more definitively.

PMID: 18507718 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

180. Psychophysiology. 2008 Jul;45(4):671-7. Epub 2008 May 20.

Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators.

Khalsa SS, Rudrauf D, Damasio AR, Davidson RJ, Lutz A, Tranel D.

Neuroscience Graduate Program, Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, 200
Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. sahib-khalsa@uiowa.edu

Attention to internal body sensations is practiced in most meditation traditions.
Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of
internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are
lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance
superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive
measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two groups of meditators
(Tibetan Buddhist and Kundalini) to an age- and body mass index-matched group of
nonmeditators. Contrary to our prediction, we found no evidence that meditators
were superior to nonmeditators in the heartbeat detection task, across several
sessions and respiratory modulation conditions. Compared to nonmeditators,
however, meditators consistently rated their interoceptive performance as
superior and the difficulty of the task as easier. These results provide evidence
against the notion that practicing attention to internal body sensations, a core
feature of meditation, enhances the ability to sense the heartbeat at rest.

PMCID: PMC2637372
PMID: 18503485 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

181. Neurology. 2008 Jun 10;70(24):2321-8.

Mind-body interventions: applications in neurology.

Wahbeh H, Elsas SM, Oken BS.

Department of Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, 3181 SW Sam Jackson
Park Road, Mail Code CR120, Portland, OR 97239, USA.

OBJECTIVE: Half of the adults in the United States use complementary and
alternative medicine with mind-body therapy being the most commonly used form.
Neurology patients often turn to their physicians for insight into the
effectiveness of the therapies and resources to integrate them into their care.
The objective of this article is to give a clinical overview of mind-body
interventions and their applications in neurology. METHODS: Medline and PsychInfo
were searched on mind-body therapies and neurologic disease search terms for
clinical trials and reviews and published evidence was graded. RESULTS:
Meditation, relaxation, and breathing techniques, yoga, tai chi, and qigong,
hypnosis, and biofeedback are described. Mind-body therapy application to general
pain, back and neck pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, headaches, fibromyalgia,
multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, muscular dysfunction, stroke, aging, Parkinson
disease, stroke, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder are reviewed.
CONCLUSIONS: There are several conditions where the evidence for mind-body
therapies is quite strong such as migraine headache. Mind-body therapies for
other neurology applications have limited evidence due mostly to small clinical
trials and inadequate control groups.

PMCID: PMC2882072
PMID: 18541886 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

182. Ann Behav Med. 2008 Jun;35(3):331-40. Epub 2008 Jun 6.

Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention on psychological
well-being and quality of life: is increased mindfulness indeed the mechanism?

Nyklícek I, Kuijpers KF.

CoRPS, Department of Psychology and Health, Tilburg University, P.O. Box 90153,
5000, LE Tilburg, The Netherlands. i.nyklicek@uvt.nl

BACKGROUND: Although several studies have reported positive effects of
mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention on psychological
well-being, it is not known whether these effects are attributable to a change in
mindfulness. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to compare the effects of MBSR to
a waiting-list control condition in a randomized controlled trial while examining
potentially mediating effects of mindfulness. METHODS: Forty women and 20 men
from the community with symptoms of distress (mean age 43.6 years, SD = 10.1)
were randomized into a group receiving MBSR or a waiting-list control group.
Before and after the intervention period, questionnaires were completed on
psychological well-being, quality of life, and mindfulness. RESULTS: Repeated
measures multiple analysis of variance (MANCOVAs) showed that, compared with the
control group, the intervention resulted in significantly stronger reductions of
perceived stress (p = 0.016) and vital exhaustion (p = 0.001) and stronger
elevations of positive affect (p = 0.006), quality of life (p = .009), as well as
mindfulness (p = 0.001). When mindfulness was included as a covariate in the
MANCOVA, the group effects on perceived stress and quality of life were reduced
to nonsignificance. CONCLUSION: Increased mindfulness may, at least partially,
mediate the positive effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention.

PMCID: PMC2517090
PMID: 18535870 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

183. Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2008 Jun;22(3):127-34.

The psychological impact of Buddhist counseling for patients suffering from
symptoms of anxiety.

Rungreangkulkij S, Wongtakee W.

Faculty of Nursing, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand. somrun@kku.ac.th

The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of individual Buddhist
counseling interventions for patients suffering from symptoms of anxiety. A
single-group pretest and posttest design was used to measure outcomes. Twenty-one
patients participated in the study as voluntary subjects, all of whom completed
two sessions of Buddhist counseling interventions. The individual Buddhist
counseling program was developed by the investigators based on the Buddhist
doctrine. The outcomes were evaluated with the use of the State-Trait Anxiety
Inventory. Data were analyzed using the Friedman test, which provides an
indicator for evidence-based outcomes related to anxiety reduction scores. The
results revealed that the scores on the state anxiety test in relation to the
trait anxiety test had been reduced at the 1-month follow-up. The findings from
content analysis showed that when the patients practiced mindfulness, they were
able to accept unpleasant situations calmly. Sixteen patients were prescribed
lower doses of antianxiety medications. Furthermore, medication was discontinued
for two patients, and three other patients continued their prescribed medication
regimen completely. The study indicates that counseling as a basis from Buddhist
principles has the potential to benefit patients with emotional anxiety-based
problems.

PMID: 18505694 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

184. Behav Ther. 2008 Jun;39(2):171-82. Epub 2007 Nov 14.

Combining mindfulness meditation with cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia: a
treatment-development study.

Ong JC, Shapiro SL, Manber R.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University Medical
Center, Stanford, CA 94305-5730, USA. jcong@stanford.edu

This treatment-development study is a Stage I evaluation of an intervention that
combines mindfulness meditation with cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia
(CBT-I). Thirty adults who met research diagnostic criteria for
Psychophysiological Insomnia (Edinger et al., 2004) participated in a 6-week,
multi-component group intervention using mindfulness meditation, sleep
restriction, stimulus control, sleep education, and sleep hygiene. Sleep diaries
and self-reported pre-sleep arousal were assessed weekly while secondary measures
of insomnia severity, arousal, mindfulness skills, and daytime functioning were
assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment. Data collected on recruitment,
retention, compliance, and satisfaction indicate that the treatment protocol is
feasible to deliver and is acceptable for individuals seeking treatment for
insomnia. The overall patterns of change with treatment demonstrated
statistically and clinically significant improvements in several nighttime
symptoms of insomnia as well as statistically significant reductions in pre-sleep
arousal, sleep effort, and dysfunctional sleep-related cognitions. In addition, a
significant correlation was found between the number of meditation sessions and
changes on a trait measure of arousal. Together, the findings indicate that
mindfulness meditation can be combined with CBT-I and this integrated
intervention is associated with reductions in both sleep and sleep-related
arousal. Further testing of this intervention using randomized controlled trials
is warranted to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention for this population and
the specific effects of each component on sleep and both psychological and
physiological arousal.

PMID: 18502250 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

185. Exp Brain Res. 2008 Jun;188(2):317-22. Epub 2008 May 30.

Tactile acuity in experienced Tai Chi practitioners: evidence for use dependent
plasticity as an effect of sensory-attentional training.

Kerr CE, Shaw JR, Wasserman RH, Chen VW, Kanojia A, Bayer T, Kelley JM.

Harvard Osher Research Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
catherine_kerr@hms.harvard.edu

The scientific discovery of novel training paradigms has yielded better
understanding of basic mechanisms underlying cortical plasticity, learning and
development. This study is a first step in evaluating Tai Chi (TC), the Chinese
slow-motion meditative exercise, as a training paradigm that, while not engaging
in direct tactile stimulus training, elicits enhanced tactile acuity in long-term
practitioners. The rationale for this study comes from the fact that, unlike
previously studied direct-touch tactile training paradigms, TC practitioners
focus specific mental attention on the body’s extremities including the
fingertips and hands as they perform their slow routine. To determine whether TC
is associated with enhanced tactile acuity, experienced adult TC practitioners
were recruited and compared to age-gender matched controls. A blinded assessor
used a validated method (Van Boven et al. in Neurology 54(12): 2230-2236, 2000)
to compare TC practitioners’ and controls’ ability to discriminate between two
different orientations (parallel and horizontal) across different grating widths
at the fingertip. Study results showed that TC practitioners’ tactile spatial
acuity was superior to that of the matched controls (P < 0.04). There was a trend
showing TC may have an enhanced effect on older practitioners (P < 0.066),
suggesting that TC may slow age related decline in this measure. To the best of
our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate a long-term attentional
practice’s effects on a perceptual measure. Longitudinal studies are needed to
examine whether TC initiates or is merely correlated with perceptual changes and
whether it elicits long-term plasticity in primary sensory cortical maps. Further
studies should also assess whether related somatosensory attentional practices
(such as Yoga, mindfulness meditation and Qigong) achieve similar effects.

PMCID: PMC2795804
PMID: 18512052 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

186. Integr Cancer Ther. 2008 Jun;7(2):62-9.

Facing the challenges of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with mindfulness
meditation: a pilot study.

Bauer-Wu S, Sullivan AM, Rosenbaum E, Ott MJ, Powell M, McLoughlin M, Healey MW.

Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
sbauerw@emory.edu

The hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) experience is emotionally and
physically stressful for cancer patients who undergo this procedure.
Mindfulness-based interventions have been studied in patients with various
diagnoses, including cancer, although minimal work has applied this intervention
to hospitalized patients. Use of mindfulness meditation has potential to provide
HSCT patients with coping skills to deal with unpleasant symptoms and an
uncertain future. This exploratory study examined feasibility, physiological
arousal, and psychological and physical symptoms in HSCT patients participating
in a mindfulness meditation intervention that begins before and continues
throughout hospitalization and involves one-on-one guided sessions and daily
practice using a 17-minute meditation CD. Of the 20 participants, 78.9% completed
the intervention. Statistically significant decreases in heart and respiratory
rates and improvements in symptoms immediately before and after each session were
found. These findings demonstrate feasibility and preliminary support of a
mindfulness meditation intervention with symptomatic, hospitalized cancer
patients.

PMID: 18550888 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

187. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2008 Jun;76(3):408-21.

Comparison of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness meditation interventions on
adaptation to rheumatoid arthritis for patients with and without history of
recurrent depression.

Zautra AJ, Davis MC, Reich JW, Nicassario P, Tennen H, Finan P, Kratz A, Parrish
B, Irwin MR.

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1104, USA.
alex.zautra@asu.edu

This research examined whether cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness
interventions that target responses to chronic stress, pain, and depression
reduce pain and improve the quality of everyday life for adults with rheumatoid
arthritis (RA). The 144 RA participants were clustered into groups of 6-10
participants and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: cognitive behavioral
therapy for pain (P); mindfulness meditation and emotion regulation therapy (M);
or education-only group (E), which served as an attention placebo control. The
authors took a multimethod approach, employing daily diaries and laboratory
assessment of pain and mitogen-stimulated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a
proinflammatory cytokine. Participants receiving P showed the greatest Pre to
Post improvement in self-reported pain control and reductions in the IL-6; both P
and M groups showed more improvement in coping efficacy than did the E group. The
relative value of the treatments varied as a function of depression history. RA
patients with recurrent depression benefited most from M across several measures,
including negative and positive affect and physicians’ ratings of joint
tenderness, indicating that the emotion regulation aspects of that treatment were
most beneficial to those with chronic depressive features.

PMID: 18540734 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

188. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2008 Jun;196(6):501-3.

Usefulness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for treating insomnia in
patients with anxiety disorders: a pilot study.

Yook K, Lee SH, Ryu M, Kim KH, Choi TK, Suh SY, Kim YW, Kim B, Kim MY, Kim MJ.

Department of Psychiatry-Bundang CHA Hospital, Pochon CHA University College of
Medicine, Seongnam, Republic of Korea.

The objective of this study was to examine the usefulness of a mindfulness-based
cognitive therapy (MBCT) for treating insomnia symptoms in patients with anxiety
disorder. Nineteen patients with anxiety disorder were assigned to an 8-week MBCT
clinical trial. Participants showed significant improvement in Pittsburgh Sleep
Quality Index (Z = -3.46, p = 0.00), Penn State Worry Questionnaire (Z = -3.83, p
= 0.00), Ruminative Response Scale (Z = -3.83, p = 0.00), Hamilton Anxiety Rating
Scale (Z = -3.73, p = 0.00), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores (Z =
-3.06, p = 0.00) at the end of the 8-week program as compared with baseline.
Multiple regression analysis showed that baseline Penn State Worry Questionnaire
scores were associated with baseline Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. These
findings suggest that MBCT can be effective at relieving insomnia symptoms by
reducing worry associated sleep disturbances in patients with anxiety disorder.
However, well-designed, randomized, controlled trials are needed to confirm our
findings.

PMID: 18552629 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

189. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008 Jun;62(3):366.

Preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging Stroop task results before and
after a Zen meditation retreat.

Kozasa EH, Radvany J, Barreiros MA, Leite JR, Amaro E Jr.

PMID: 18588603 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

190. J Anxiety Disord. 2008 May;22(4):716-21. Epub 2007 Jul 22.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for generalized anxiety disorder.

Evans S, Ferrando S, Findler M, Stowell C, Smart C, Haglin D.

Department of Psychiatry, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065,
United States. sue2002@med.cornell.edu

While cognitive behavior therapy has been found to be effective in the treatment
of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a significant percentage of patients
struggle with residual symptoms. There is some conceptual basis for suggesting
that cultivation of mindfulness may be helpful for people with GAD.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a group treatment derived from
mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn and
colleagues. MBSR uses training in mindfulness meditation as the core of the
program. MBCT incorporates cognitive strategies and has been found effective in
reducing relapse in patients with major depression (Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z.
V., Williams, J. M. G., Ridgeway, V., Soulsby, J., & Lau, M. (2000). Prevention
of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 6, 615-623). METHOD: Eligible
subjects recruited to a major academic medical center participated in the group
MBCT course and completed measures of anxiety, worry, depressive symptoms, mood
states and mindful awareness in everyday life at baseline and end of treatment.
RESULTS: Eleven subjects (six female and five male) with a mean age of 49
(range=36-72) met criteria and completed the study. There were significant
reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms from baseline to end of treatment.
CONCLUSION: MBCT may be an acceptable and potentially effective treatment for
reducing anxiety and mood symptoms and increasing awareness of everyday
experiences in patients with GAD. Future directions include development of a
randomized clinical trial of MBCT for GAD.

PMID: 17765453 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

191. J Atten Disord. 2008 May;11(6):737-46. Epub 2007 Nov 19.

Mindfulness meditation training in adults and adolescents with ADHD: a
feasibility study.

Zylowska L, Ackerman DL, Yang MH, Futrell JL, Horton NL, Hale TS, Pataki C,
Smalley SL.

University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. lzylowsk@ucla.edu

OBJECTIVE: ADHD is a childhood-onset psychiatric condition that often continues
into adulthood. Stimulant medications are the mainstay of treatment; however,
additional approaches are frequently desired. In recent years, mindfulness
meditation has been proposed to improve attention, reduce stress, and improve
mood. This study tests the feasibility of an 8-week mindfulness training program
for adults and adolescents with ADHD. METHOD: Twenty-four adults and eight
adolescents with ADHD enrolled in a feasibility study of an 8-week mindfulness
training program. RESULTS: The majority of participants completed the training
and reported high satisfaction with the training. Pre-post improvements in
self-reported ADHD symptoms and test performance on tasks measuring attention and
cognitive inhibition were noted. Improvements in anxiety and depressive symptoms
were also observed. CONCLUSION: Mindfulness training is a feasible intervention
in a subset of ADHD adults and adolescents and may improve behavioral and
neurocognitive impairments. A controlled clinical study is warranted.

PMID: 18025249 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

192. Forsch Komplementmed. 2008 Apr;15(2):74-81. Epub 2008 Apr 7.

Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on quality of life in nursing home
residents: a feasibility study.

Ernst S, Welke J, Heintze C, Gabriel R, Zöllner A, Kiehne S, Schwantes U, Esch T.

Institut fur Allgemeinmedizin, Charité – Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Berlin,
Germany.

BACKGROUND: With demographic change, the number of elderly people is increasing.
The aging process and associated stress diminishes their quality of life.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been claimed to reduce stress and
alleviate suffering. It might be a useful approach to improve the condition in
the elderly. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To examine feasibility and potential effects
of MBSR on nursing home residents in Germany, a non-randomized feasibility study
was conducted including 22 participants; 15 of them participated in an 8-week
MBSR course, 7 served as untreated comparison group. Health-related quality of
life (SF-12), depressive symptoms (GDS-12R), cognitive impairment (MMST),
activities of daily living (Barthel Index), satisfaction with life, physical pain
and major complaints were assessed pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: 9 out of
15 course participants completed the course (60%). They showed a significant
increase in the SF-12 physical health score (p = 0.017). Depressive symptoms
(GDS-12R) significantly declined within the meditation group (p = 0.04) and as
compared to the untreated group (p = 0.011). In the comparison group, a
significant decrease in major complaints (p = 0.011) and an increase in the SF-12
mental health score were found. The meditation group yielded positive changes in
the SF-12 mental health score, in satisfaction with life and in pain intensity.
CONCLUSIONS: In view of the setting, the completion rate of 60% appears to be
acceptable. Significant results suggest that MBSR may help improve health-related
quality of life and reduce symptoms of depression. Yet, as participants did not
meet the requirement to practice independently, feasibility of conducting MBSR
with elderly who live in a nursing home has to be questioned.

PMID: 18496020 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

193. J Affect Disord. 2008 Apr;107(1-3):275-9. Epub 2007 Sep 19.

Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in bipolar disorder: preliminary
evaluation of immediate effects on between-episode functioning.

Williams JM, Alatiq Y, Crane C, Barnhofer T, Fennell MJ, Duggan DS, Hepburn S,
Goodwin GM.

University of Oxford, Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Warneford
Lane, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7JX, UK. mark.williams@psych.ox.ac.uk

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is highly recurrent and rates of comorbidity are
high. Studies have pointed to anxiety comorbidity as one factor associated with
risk of suicide attempts and poor overall outcome. This study aimed to explore
the feasibility and potential benefits of a new psychological treatment
(Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy: MBCT) for people with bipolar disorder
focusing on between-episode anxiety and depressive symptoms. METHODS: The study
used data from a pilot randomized trial of MBCT for people with bipolar disorder
in remission, focusing on between-episode anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Immediate effects of MBCT versus waitlist on levels of anxiety and depression
were compared between unipolar and bipolar participants. RESULTS: The results
suggest that MBCT led to improved immediate outcomes in terms of anxiety which
were specific to the bipolar group. Both bipolar and unipolar participants
allocated to MBCT showed reductions in residual depressive symptoms relative to
those allocated to the waitlist condition. LIMITATIONS: Analyses were based on a
small sample, limiting power. Additionally the study recruited participants with
suicidal ideation or behaviour so the findings cannot immediately be generalized
to individuals without these symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The study, although
preliminary, suggests an immediate effect of MBCT on anxiety and depressive
symptoms among bipolar participants with suicidal ideation or behaviour, and
indicates that further research into the use of MBCT with bipolar patients may be
warranted.

PMCID: PMC2881943
PMID: 17884176 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

194. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Apr;14(3):241-50.

Differential effects of relaxation techniques on ultraweak photon emission.
Van Wijk EP, Lüdtke R, Van Wijk R.

International Institute of Biophysics, Neuss, Germany.

BACKGROUND: Evidence has accumulated favoring the possible role of oxidative
stress in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Meditation is utilized as an
adjunct to conventional medical treatment for several clinical conditions. A few
studies suggest a role of long-term meditation in the control of the free-radical
metabolism. Many techniques for recording reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been
made available. However, most are invasive and none are applicable to all
conditions. Attention has recently been drawn to spontaneous ultraweak photon
emission (UPE). However, the application of this method in meditation studies is
very limited. OBJECTIVE: The present study recorded spontaneous UPE at multiple
anatomic locations of subjects with long-term experience in transcendental
meditation (TM) and compared this with a group that practiced other meditation
techniques (OMT) and with subjects having no meditation experience. METHODS: The
study examined the anatomic pattern of UPE of 20 subjects practicing TM, compared
to 20 subjects practicing OMT, and 20 control subjects with no experience in
meditation. Subjects were men who were reported to be healthy and nonsmokers.
Meditation was not practiced on the day prior to recording. UPE was recorded in a
dark room, using a highly sensitive, cooled photomultiplier system designed for
manipulation in three directions. The protocol for the multisite registration of
UPE included recording 12 anatomic locations, including the anterior torso, head,
neck, and hands. RESULTS: Data demonstrated emission intensities in the TM and
OMT groups that were 27% and 17% lower, respectively, compared to the control
group. The decrease was recorded at all anatomic locations. The percent emission
contribution of each location to total emission was very similar for the three
groups. CONCLUSIONS: Data supported the hypothesis that persistent meditation
resulted in decreased UPE. However, the determination of oxidation levels as the
source of group differences needs to be verified further to confirm our
hypothesis.

PMID: 18399758 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

195. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Apr;14(3):251-8.

A pilot study comparing the effects of mindfulness-based and cognitive-behavioral
stress reduction.

Smith BW, Shelley BM, Dalen J, Wiggins K, Tooley E, Bernard J.

Department of Psychology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 85131-1161,
USA. bwsmith@unm.edu

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this pilot study was to compare the effects of two
mind-body interventions: mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and
cognitive-behavioral stress reduction (CBSR). SUBJECTS: Fifty (50) subjects were
recruited from the community and took part in MBSR (n = 36) and CBSR (n = 14)
courses. Participants self-selected into MBSR or CBSR courses taught at different
times. There were no initial differences between the MBSR and CBSR subjects on
demographics, including age, gender, education, and income. INTERVENTION: MBSR
was an 8-week course using meditation, gentle yoga, and body scanning exercises
to increase mindfulness. CBSR was an 8-week course using cognitive and behavioral
techniques to change thinking and reduce distress. DESIGN: Perceived stress,
depression, psychological well-being, neuroticism, binge eating, energy, pain,
and mindfulness were assessed before and after each course. Pre-post scores for
each intervention were compared by using paired t tests. Pre-post scores across
interventions were compared by using a general linear model with repeated
measures. SETTINGS/LOCATIONS: Weekly meetings for both courses were held in a
large room on a university medical center campus. RESULTS: MBSR subjects improved
on all eight outcomes, with all of the differences being significant. CBSR
subjects improved on six of eight outcomes, with significant improvements on
well-being, perceived stress, and depression. Multivariate analyses showed that
the MBSR subjects had better outcomes across all variables, when compared with
the CBSR subjects. Univariate analyses showed that MBSR subjects had better
outcomes with regard to mindfulness, energy, pain, and a trend for binge eating.
CONCLUSIONS: While MBSR and CBSR may both be effective in reducing perceived
stress and depression, MBSR may be more effective in increasing mindfulness and
energy and reducing pain. Future studies should continue to examine the
differential effects of cognitive behavioral and mindfulness-based interventions
and attempt to explain the reasons for the differences.

PMID: 18370583 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

196. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2008 Apr;20(4):212-6.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction: a literature review and clinician’s guide.

Praissman S.

Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
spraissman@hotmail.com

PURPOSE: To provide nurse practitioners (NPs) with clinical research about
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and demonstrate its usefulness for
reducing stress in a variety of populations. DATA SOURCES: A literature review
was conducted using the following databases: EBSCO, Cinahl, Pschyline, and
Medline. English language articles published between 2000 and 2006 in
peer-reviewed journals were reviewed. Search terms « mindfulness, » »meditation, »
and « stress » were used. Additional information was obtained through select,
reputable Internet sites. CONCLUSIONS: MBSR is an effective treatment for
reducing stress and anxiety that accompanies daily life and chronic illness. MBSR
is also therapeutic for healthcare providers, enhancing their interactions with
patients. No negative side effects from MBSR have been documented. IMPLICATIONS
FOR PRACTICE: MBSR is a safe, effective, integrative approach for reducing
stress. Patients and healthcare providers experiencing stress or stress-related
symptoms benefit from MBSR programs. NPs can safely and effectively use this
intervention in a variety of patient populations.

PMID: 18387018 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

197. J Pastoral Care Counsel. 2008 Spring-Summer;62(1-2):143-4.

Mindfulness practice.

Neth C.

7905 Whitehaven Dr, Parma, OH 44129-5359, USA.

PMID: 18572549 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

198. J Psychosom Res. 2008 Apr;64(4):405-8.

On measuring mindfulness in psychosomatic and psychological research.

Grossman P.

Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, University
of Basel Hospital, Hebelstrasse 2, CH4031 Basel, Switzerland. grossmanp@uhbs.ch

PMID: 18374739 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

199. J Psychosom Res. 2008 Apr;64(4):393-403. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

Mindfulness, spirituality, and health-related symptoms.
Carmody J, Reed G, Kristeller J, Merriam P.

Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts
Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA. james.carmody@umassmed.edu

OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between religious practice and health is
well established, the relationship between spirituality and health is not as well
studied. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether participation in
the mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program was associated with
increases in mindfulness and spirituality, and to examine the associations
between mindfulness, spirituality, and medical and psychological symptoms.
METHODS: Forty-four participants in the University of Massachusetts Medical
School’s MBSR program were assessed preprogram and postprogram on trait (Mindful
Attention and Awareness Scale) and state (Toronto Mindfulness Scale) mindfulness,
spirituality (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Spiritual
Well-Being Scale), psychological distress, and reported medical symptoms.
Participants also kept a log of daily home mindfulness practice. Mean changes in
scores were computed, and relationships between changes in variables were
examined using mixed-model linear regression. RESULTS: There were significant
improvements in spirituality, state and trait mindfulness, psychological
distress, and reported medical symptoms. Increases in both state and trait
mindfulness were associated with increases in spirituality. Increases in trait
mindfulness and spirituality were associated with decreases in psychological
distress and reported medical symptoms. Changes in both trait and state
mindfulness were independently associated with changes in spirituality, but only
changes in trait mindfulness and spirituality were associated with reductions in
psychological distress and reported medical symptoms. No association was found
between outcomes and home mindfulness practice. CONCLUSIONS: Participation in the
MBSR program appears to be associated with improvements in trait and state
mindfulness, psychological distress, and medical symptoms. Improvements in trait
mindfulness and spirituality appear, in turn, to be associated with improvements
in psychological and medical symptoms.

PMID: 18374738 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

200. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2008 Apr;5(4):48-55.

Meditation-based training: a possible intervention for attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder.

Baijal S, Gupta R.

Drs. Baijal and Gupta are from the Centre for Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences,
University of Allahabad, Allahabad, India.

Recent studies suggest that training-based measures are effective in improving
cognitive skills. Meditation-based training has produced lasting changes in brain
and cognitive functions. This technique of mental training exhibits
neuroplasticity in the attentional networks, exhibiting superior performance,
especially in the domain of attention and executive control processing, which is
impaired in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although
intervention techniques for ADHD are well researched, many individuals continue
to experience significant functional impairment despite the symptom improvement.
This emphasizes a need for a comprehensive approach that requires an effective
behavioral intervention. The present paper provides a converging review of
meditation-based effects on the brain, dysfunctions of ADHD, and suggestions for
enhancement of cognitive abilities in patients with ADHD using meditational
training combined with existing measures of intervention. The idea proposed
herein should be considered a step for initiation of empirical studies on
meditation-based training intervention and outcome effects.

PMCID: PMC2719552
PMID: 19727310 [PubMed – in process]

201. Psychoanal Rev. 2008 Apr;95(2):285-303.

Being the moment.

Cooper PC.

145 East 35th Street, #5FE, New York, NY 10016, USA. pshaku@aol.com

PMID: 18416691 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

202. Qual Life Res. 2008 Apr;17(3):367-76. Epub 2008 Mar 7.

Improving quality of life using compound mind-body therapies: evaluation of a
course intervention with body movement and breath therapy, guided imagery, chakra
experiencing and mindfulness meditation.

Fernros L, Furhoff AK, Wändell PE.

Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm County Council’s Center for Family and Community
Medicine, Huddinge, Sweden. lotta.fernros@sll.se

OBJECTIVE: Assess changes in quality of life and in sense of coherence (SOC),
after an intervention involving a self-development course using mind-body
medicine (MBM) activities. DESIGN: A questionnaire study using a health-related
quality of life (HRQOL) instrument, the SWEDQUAL, with 13 subscales and scores
ranging from 0 to 100, combined with the SOC-13 scale, healthcare utilisation,
medication and sick listing data. SETTING: A training centre for MBM. Eligible
course attendants (study group, SG, n = 83) assessed their HRQOL before and 6
months after a 1-week course. A control group (CG) of individuals who had
previously attended the course (n = 69), matched for age, sex and length of
course time to the SG, also made assessments. MAIN OUTCOME: Changes in HRQOL and
SOC in SG and CG. RESULTS: Of the 13 HRQOL subscales, eight showed clinically
significant improvement in the SG (>9%, p < 0.01), namely, General health
perceptions (9%), Emotional well-being [negative (45%) and positive (26%)],
Cognitive functioning (24%), Sleep (15%), Pain (10%), Role limitation due to
emotional health (22%) and Family functioning (16%). Sexual, marital and physical
function and role in the SG as well as all CG scores were similar to average
population values. The assessed SOC also improved in the SG after intervention (p
< 0.01), challenging previous statements of ‘the stableness of SOC’. Use of
psychotropic medication was slightly reduced in the younger aged SG participants
after intervention. CONCLUSIONS: This group of men and women (SG), starting from
a clinically significant low health assessment, had improved their HRQOL and SOC
after the course intervention.

PMID: 18324479 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

203. Sociol Health Illn. 2008 Apr;30(3):413-28.

Like a prayer: the role of spirituality and religion for people living with HIV
in the UK.

Ridge D, Williams I, Anderson J, Elford J.

Institute of Health Sciences, City University London, UK.
d.ridge@westminster.ac.uk

Over 40,000 people are now living with diagnosed HIV in the UK. There is,
however, uncertainty about how people with HIV use religion or spirituality to
cope with their infection. Adopting a modified grounded theory approach, we
analysed individual and group interviews with the people most affected by HIV in
the UK: black African heterosexual men and women and gay men (mostly white). For
the majority of black African heterosexual men and women in our study, religion
was extremely important. We found that gay men in the study were less religious
than black Africans, although many were spiritual in some way. Black African
individuals constructed their spiritual narratives as largely Christian or
collective, while gay men described more individualistic or ‘New Age’ approaches.
We developed a six-level heuristic device to examine the ways in which prayer and
meditation were deployed in narratives to modulate subjective wellbeing. These
were: (i) creating a dialogue with an absent counsellor; (ii) constructing a
compassionate ‘life scheme’; (iii) interrupting rumination; (iv) establishing
mindfulness; (v) promoting positive thinking, and (vi) getting results. That
people with HIV report specific subjective benefits from prayer or meditation
presents a challenge to secular healthcare professionals and sociologists.

PMID: 18419695 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

204. Trends Cogn Sci. 2008 Apr;12(4):163-9. Epub 2008 Mar 10.

Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation.

Lutz A, Slagter HA, Dunne JD, Davidson RJ.

Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior, Department of Psychology,
University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53705, USA. alutz@wisc.edu <alutz@wisc.edu>

Meditation can be conceptualized as a family of complex emotional and attentional
regulatory training regimes developed for various ends, including the cultivation
of well-being and emotional balance. Among these various practices, there are two
styles that are commonly studied. One style, focused attention meditation,
entails the voluntary focusing of attention on a chosen object. The other style,
open monitoring meditation, involves nonreactive monitoring of the content of
experience from moment to moment. The potential regulatory functions of these
practices on attention and emotion processes could have a long-term impact on the
brain and behavior.

PMCID: PMC2693206
PMID: 18329323 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

205. Turk Neurosurg. 2008 Apr;18(2):134-41.

Functional brain mapping during recitation of Buddhist scriptures and repetition
of the Namu Amida Butsu: a study in experienced Japanese monks.
Shimomura T, Fujiki M, Akiyoshi J, Yoshida T, Tabata M, Kabasawa H, Kobayashi H.

Dept. of Neurosurgery, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan.
simomura@med.oita-u.ac.jp

BACKGROUND: The invocation Namu Amida Butsu (Nembutsu), voices the hope of
rebirth into Amida’s Pure Land. In the Nembutsu, Buddhists imagine that they are
absorbed into Amida’s Pure Land. Shiritori, a Japanese word chain game, is a
common task used to activate language related regions in Japanese. The purpose of
this study was to identify the regions activated during praying of the Namo Amida
Butsu (Nembutsu), and the reciting of Buddhist scriptures (Sutra). MATERIAL AND
METHOD: Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to identify the regions activated by the
Nenbutsu, the Sutra and the Shiritori in eight highlytrained Japanese monks.
RESULTS: The task of repeating the Nenbutsu activates the medial frontal gyrus,
which is mainly related to mental concentration and visuospatial attention,
similar to the areas activated by meditation. The task of reciting the Sutra
activates the left lateral middle frontal gyrus, the right angular gyrus, and the
right supramarginal gyrus, which are related to visuospatial attention also
involved in the area activated by meditation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest
that different types of meditation in Japanese Buddhism showed different brain
regional activation. The Nenbutsu activated the prefrontal cortex, and the Sutra
activated the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right parietal cortex.

PMID: 18597227 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

206. Psychiatry Res. 2008 Mar 15;158(2):265. Epub 2008 Jan 24.

Promotion of mindfulness in psychotherapists in training.

Grepmair L, Mitterlehner F, Nickel M.

PMID: 18221793 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

207. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2008 Mar;33(1):39-47. Epub 2008 Jan 24.

Electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements of mindfulness-based Triarchic
body-pathway relaxation technique: a pilot study.

Chan AS, Han YM, Cheung MC.

Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of
Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR. aschan@psy.cuhk.edu.hk

OBJECTIVE: The « Triarchic body-pathway relaxation technique » (TBRT) is a form of
ancient Chinese mindfulness-based meditation professed to give rise to positive
emotions and a specific state of consciousness in which deep relaxation and
internalized attention coexist. The purpose of this study was to examine the EEG
pattern generated during the practice of this mindfulness exercise, and compare
it to music listening which has been shown to induce positive emotions. METHODS:
Nineteen college students (aged 19-22 years) participated in the study. Each
participant listened to both the TBRT and music audiotapes while EEG was
recorded. The order of presentation was counterbalanced to avoid order effect.
Two EEG indicators were used: (1) alpha asymmetry index, an indicator for
left-sided anterior activation, as measure of positive emotions, and (2) frontal
midline theta activity, as a measure for internalized attention. RESULTS:
Increased left-sided activation, a pattern associated with positive emotions, was
found during both TBRT exercise and music conditions. However, only TBRT exercise
was shown to exhibit greater frontal midline theta power, a pattern associated
with internalized attention. CONCLUSIONS: These results provided evidence to
support that the TBRT gives rise to positive emotional experience, accompanied by
focused internalized attention.

PMID: 18214668 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

208. Behav Modif. 2008 Mar;32(2):167-81.

A mindfulness-based health wellness program for an adolescent with Prader-Willi
syndrome.

Singh NN, Lancioni GE, Singh AN, Winton AS, Singh J, McAleavey KM, Adkins AD.

ONE Research Institute, Midlothian, Virginia, USA. nirbsingh52@aol.com

Individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome have hyperphagia, a characteristic eating
disorder defined by a marked delay in the satiety response when compared to
controls. This eating disorder has been particularly difficult to control. The
authors taught and evaluated effectiveness of regular exercise alone, regular
exercise plus healthy eating, and mindfulness-based strategies combined with
exercise and healthy eating to an adolescent with this syndrome.
Mindfulness-based strategies included mindful eating, visualizing and labeling
hunger, and rapidly shifting attention away from hunger by engaging in Meditation
on the Soles of the Feet. On average, when compared to baseline levels, there
were decreases in weight with regular exercise and exercise plus healthy eating,
but the most consistent and sustained changes were evidenced when mindfulness
training was added to exercise and healthy eating. The adolescent continued using
the mindfulness health wellness program and further reduced his weight during the
3-year follow-up period.

PMID: 18285504 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

209. J Am Coll Health. 2008 Mar-Apr;56(5):569-78.

Meditation lowers stress and supports forgiveness among college students: a
randomized controlled trial.

Oman D, Shapiro SL, Thoresen CE, Plante TG, Flinders T.

School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360, USA.
dougoman@post.harvard.edu

OBJECTIVE AND PARTICIPANTS: The authors evaluated the effects on stress,
rumination, forgiveness, and hope of two 8-week, 90-min/wk training programs for
college undergraduates in meditation-based stress-management tools. METHODS:
After a pretest, the authors randomly allocated college undergraduates to
training in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR; n = 15), Easwaran’s
Eight-Point Program (EPP; n = 14), or wait-list control (n = 15). The authors
gathered pretest, posttest, and 8-week follow-up data on self-report outcome
measures. RESULTS: The authors observed no post-treatment differences between
MBSR and EPP or between posttest and 8-week follow-up (p > .10). Compared with
controls, treated participants (n = 29) demonstrated significant benefits for
stress (p < .05, Cohen’s d = -.45) and forgiveness (p < .05, d = .34) and
marginal benefits for rumination (p < .10, d = -.34). CONCLUSIONS: Evidence
suggests that meditation-based stress-management practices reduce stress and
enhance forgiveness among college undergraduates. Such programs merit further
study as potential health-promotion tools for college populations.

PMID: 18400671 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

210. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2008 Mar;3(1):55-61. Epub 2007 Dec 3.

Investigation of mindfulness meditation practitioners with voxel-based
morphometry.

Hölzel BK, Ott U, Gard T, Hempel H, Weygandt M, Morgen K, Vaitl D.

Bender Institute of Neuroimaging, Justus-Liebig-University, 35394 Giessen,
Germany. Britta.K.Hoelzel@psychol.uni-giessen.de

Mindfulness meditators practice the non-judgmental observation of the ongoing
stream of internal experiences as they arise. Using voxel-based morphometry, this
study investigated MRI brain images of 20 mindfulness (Vipassana) meditators
(mean practice 8.6 years; 2 h daily) and compared the regional gray matter
concentration to that of non-meditators matched for sex, age, education and
handedness. Meditators were predicted to show greater gray matter concentration
in regions that are typically activated during meditation. Results confirmed
greater gray matter concentration for meditators in the right anterior insula,
which is involved in interoceptive awareness. This group difference presumably
reflects the training of bodily awareness during mindfulness meditation.
Furthermore, meditators had greater gray matter concentration in the left
inferior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus. Both regions have previously been
found to be involved in meditation. The mean value of gray matter concentration
in the left inferior temporal gyrus was predictable by the amount of meditation
training, corroborating the assumption of a causal impact of meditation training
on gray matter concentration in this region. Results suggest that meditation
practice is associated with structural differences in regions that are typically
activated during meditation and in regions that are relevant for the task of
meditation.

PMCID: PMC2569815
PMID: 19015095 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

211. J Behav Med. 2008 Feb;31(1):23-33. Epub 2007 Sep 25.

Relationships between mindfulness practice and levels of mindfulness, medical and
psychological symptoms and well-being in a mindfulness-based stress reduction
program.
Carmody J, Baer RA.

Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts
Medical School, 55 Lake Ave North, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
james.carmody@umassmed.edu

Relationships were investigated between home practice of mindfulness meditation
exercises and levels of mindfulness, medical and psychological symptoms,
perceived stress, and psychological well-being in a sample of 174 adults in a
clinical Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program. This is an 8- session
group program for individuals dealing with stress-related problems, illness,
anxiety, and chronic pain. Participants completed measures of mindfulness,
perceived stress, symptoms, and well-being at pre- and post-MBSR, and monitored
their home practice time throughout the intervention. Results showed increases in
mindfulness and well-being, and decreases in stress and symptoms, from pre- to
post-MBSR. Time spent engaging in home practice of formal meditation exercises
(body scan, yoga, sitting meditation) was significantly related to extent of
improvement in most facets of mindfulness and several measures of symptoms and
well-being. Increases in mindfulness were found to mediate the relationships
between formal mindfulness practice and improvements in psychological
functioning, suggesting that the practice of mindfulness meditation leads to
increases in mindfulness, which in turn leads to symptom reduction and improved
well-being.

PMID: 17899351 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

212. Pain. 2008 Feb;134(3):310-9. Epub 2007 Jun 1.

Mindfulness meditation for the treatment of chronic low back pain in older
adults: a randomized controlled pilot study.

Morone NE, Greco CM, Weiner DK.

Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. moronene@upmc.edu

The objectives of this pilot study were to assess the feasibility of recruitment
and adherence to an eight-session mindfulness meditation program for
community-dwelling older adults with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and to develop
initial estimates of treatment effects. It was designed as a randomized,
controlled clinical trial. Participants were 37 community-dwelling older adults
aged 65 years and older with CLBP of moderate intensity occurring daily or almost
every day. Participants were randomized to an 8-week mindfulness-based meditation
program or to a wait-list control group. Baseline, 8-week and 3-month follow-up
measures of pain, physical function, and quality of life were assessed.
Eighty-nine older adults were screened and 37 found to be eligible and randomized
within a 6-month period. The mean age of the sample was 74.9 years, 21/37 (57%)
of participants were female and 33/37 (89%) were white. At the end of the
intervention 30/37 (81%) participants completed 8-week assessments. Average class
attendance of the intervention arm was 6.7 out of 8. They meditated an average of
4.3 days a week and the average minutes per day was 31.6. Compared to the control
group, the intervention group displayed significant improvement in the Chronic
Pain Acceptance Questionnaire Total Score and Activities Engagement subscale
(P=.008, P=.004) and SF-36 Physical Function (P=.03). An 8-week mindfulness-based
meditation program is feasible for older adults with CLBP. The program may lead
to improvement in pain acceptance and physical function.

PMCID: PMC2254507
PMID: 17544212 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

213. Adv Mind Body Med. 2008 Winter;23(4):20-24.

Practicing Medicine In The Now: An Interview With John Astin, PhD.

Nachman-Hunt N.

John Astin, PhD, is a health psychologist at the California Pacific Medical
Center Research Institute in San Francisco. He studies psychological,
attitudinal, and sociocultural barriers to the integration of mind-body factors
in medicine and is especially interested in the role of contemplative practices,
particularly meditation, in improving mental and physical health. As part of a
National Institutes of Health project, Dr Astin has examined physicians’, medical
students’, and medical residents’ attitudes toward the role of
psychosocial/mind-body factors and therapies in medicine. With his colleague,
Cassi Vieten, he currently is developing a series of mindfulness-based
interventions to help substance-dependent individuals manage stress.

Abstract not available.

PMID: 20664148 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

214. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008;2008:662-5.

Improving the performance of brain-computer interface through meditation
practicing.

Eskandari P, Erfanian A.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Iran
University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Cognitive tasks using motor imagery have been used for generating and controlling
EEG activity in most brain-computer interface (BCI). Nevertheless, during the
performance of a particular mental task, different factors such as concentration,
attention, level of consciousness and the difficulty of the task, may be
affecting the changes in the EEG activity. Accordingly, training the subject to
consistently and reliably produce and control the changes in the EEG signals is a
critical issue in developing a BCI system. In this work, we used meditation
practice to enhance the mind controllability during the performance of a mental
task in a BCI system. The mental states to be discriminated are the imaginative
hand movement and the idle state. The experiments were conducted on two groups of
subject, meditation group and control group. The time-frequency analysis of EEG
signals for meditation practitioners showed an event-related desynchronization
(ERD) of beta rhythm before imagination during resting state. In addition, a
strong event-related synchronization (ERS) of beta rhythm was induced in
frequency around 25 Hz during hand motor imagery. The results demonstrated that
the meditation practice can improve the classification accuracy of EEG patterns.
The average classification accuracy was 88.73% in the meditation group, while it
was 70.28% in the control group. An accuracy as high as 98.0% was achieved in the
meditation group.

PMID: 19162742 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

215. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;21(1):37-42.

Complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of anxiety and
depression.

van der Watt G, Laugharne J, Janca A.

School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia,
Perth, Australia.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is well documented evidence for the increasing
widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of
physical and psychiatric symptoms and disorders within Western populations. Here
we provide a review of the recent literature on evidence for using such
interventions in the treatment of anxiety and depression. RECENT FINDINGS: With
regard to herbal treatments, kava is effective in reducing anxiety symptoms and
St John’s wort in treating mild to moderate depression. The association of kava
with hepatotoxicity, however, is a significant concern. Promising data continue
to emerge for the use of omega-3 fatty acids in managing depression. Evidence for
the use of acupuncture in treating anxiety disorders is becoming stronger,
although there is currently minimal empirical evidence for the use of
aromatherapy or mindfulness-based meditation. SUMMARY: The evidence base for the
efficacy of the majority of complementary and alternative interventions used to
treat anxiety and depression remains poor. Recent systematic reviews all point to
a significant lack of methodologically rigorous studies within the field. This
lack of evidence does not diminish the popularity of such interventions within
the general Western population.

PMID: 18281839 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

216. Eat Disord. 2008 Jan-Feb;16(1):52-72.

Experiences of women with bulimia nervosa in a mindfulness-based eating disorder
treatment group.

Proulx K.

University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA. kproulx55@comcast.net

The experience of 6 college-age women with bulimia nervosa was examined after
they participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group.
This phenomenological study used individual interview and pre- and post-treatment
self-portraits. Participants described their experience of transformation from
emotional and behavioral extremes, disembodiment, and self-loathing to the
cultivation of an inner connection with themselves resulting in greater
self-awareness, acceptance, and compassion. They reported less emotional distress
and improved abilities to manage stress. This treatment may help the 40% of women
who do not improve with current therapies and might be useful to prevent symptoms
in younger women.

PMID: 18175233 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

217. J Laryngol Otol. 2008 Jan;122(1):31-7. Epub 2007 Apr 23.

Tinnitus rehabilitation: a mindfulness meditation cognitive behavioural therapy
approach.

Sadlier M, Stephens SD, Kennedy V.

Physiotherapy Department, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK.
sadliermj@cardiff.ac.uk

BACKGROUND: Chronic tinnitus is a frequent symptom presentation in clinical
practice. No drug treatment to date has shown itself to be effective. The aim of
the present study was to investigate the effects of cognitive behavioural therapy
and meditation in tinnitus sufferers. METHODOLOGY: Patients were selected from a
dedicated tinnitus clinic in the Welsh Hearing Institute. A waiting list control
design was used. Twenty-five chronic tinnitus sufferers were consecutively
allocated to two groups, one receiving a cognitive behavioural therapy/meditation
intervention of four one hour sessions with the other group waiting three months
and subsequently treated in the same way, thereby acting as their own control.
The main outcome was measured using the Hallam tinnitus questionnaire. A four to
six month follow up was conducted. RESULTS: These showed significant statistical
reductions in tinnitus variables both in the active and also in the control
group. Post-therapy, no significant change was found after the waiting list
period. The improvement was maintained at the four to six month period.
CONCLUSION: The positive findings give support for the use of cognitive
behavioural therapy/meditation for chronic tinnitus sufferers.

PMID: 17451612 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

218. J Telemed Telecare. 2008;14(2):88-92.

Evaluating distance education of a mindfulness-based meditation programme for
chronic pain management.

Gardner-Nix J, Backman S, Barbati J, Grummitt J.

Department of Anaesthesia, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, Canada.
gardner-nixj@smh.toronto.on.ca

Patients with chronic pain were recruited from two large urban hospitals and from
rural hospitals in Ontario. Patients on the waiting list served as controls. The
intervention was a Mindfulness-Based Chronic Pain Management course, delivered to
patients for two hours per week for 10 weeks. Pre- and postcourse measures of
quality of life, pain catastrophizing and usual pain ratings were collected over
a period of two years. Patients received the course via traditional face-to-face,
in-person teaching (Present site group) or via videoconferencing at their local
hospital site (Distant site group). In all, there were 99 Present site
participants, 57 at Distant sites and 59 waitlist controls. Patients at Present
and Distant sites achieved similar gains in mental health (P < 0.01) and pain
catastrophizing levels (P < 0.01) relative to controls. However, the Present site
group obtained significantly higher scores on the physical dimension of quality
of life (P < 0.01) and lower usual-pain ratings (P < 0.05) than the Distant site
group. The results suggest that videoconferencing is an effective mode of
delivery for the Mindfulness course and may represent a new way of helping
chronic pain patients in rural areas manage their suffering.

PMID: 18348755 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

219. Psychother Psychosom. 2008;77(5):319-20. Epub 2008 Jul 4.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for treatment-resistant depression: a pilot
study.

Eisendrath SJ, Delucchi K, Bitner R, Fenimore P, Smit M, McLane M.

PMID: 18600038 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

220. Hawaii Med J. 2007 Dec;66(12):328-30.

Mindfulness meditation and its medical and non-medical applications.

Huynh TV, Gotay C, Layi G, Garrard S.

John A. Burns School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, and Cancer Research
Center of Hawai’i, University of Hawa’i, USA. thahhh@hawaii.edu

This paper focuses on a promising health care intervention–mindfulness
meditation–that is the subject of considerable and increasing interest. The
authors describe what mindfulness means, how it has been applied in patient and
non-patient populations, and current activities in Hawai’i.

PMID: 18269092 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

221. Int J Psychoanal. 2007 Dec;88(Pt 6):1507-26.

Learning from experience: Bion’s concept of reverie and Buddhist meditation. A
comparative study.

Pelled E.

University of Tel-Aviv, Mane 19B, Tel-Aviv 64364, Israel. estipell@yahoo.com

The author argues for a common denominator between Bion’s view and the Buddhist
view of mental development. In both thought systems, mental growth is synonymous
to learning from experience. The author closely examines Bion’s concept of
attention and compares it to mindfulness, a major factor in Buddhist meditation.
In both doctrines, attention must be isolated from other mental processes in
order to attain learning from experience. The author compares reverie to the
state of mind of equanimity. She argues that enhancement of the ability of
reverie, or improving the inner container such that it can hold any content while
unmoved by desire, is the purpose of Buddhist practice. Both view the mind as
capable of transcending its own restrictions and ‘the capacity to know anything’
as attainable through disciplined practice.

PMID: 18055380 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

222. J Holist Nurs. 2007 Dec;25(4):265-74; quiz 275-77.

The suitability of mindfulness-based stress reduction for chronic hepatitis C.

Koerbel LS, Zucker DM.

University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA

As incidence of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in the United States increases,
management of physical and psychological symptoms over the long term becomes
crucial. Research has shown meditation to be a valuable tool in reducing such
symptoms for various chronic illnesses. In particular, the Mindfulness-Based
Stress Reduction (MBSR) program offers curriculum that has been shown to
influence both physiology and perception of disease states. Although there has
been no direct research to date on the effectiveness of the MBSR program for CHC,
several studies have shown significant findings affecting other chronic
conditions, including heart disease, fibromyalgia, and HIV. The purpose of this
literature review is to examine recent research, summarize findings, and indicate
appropriate inclusion of MBSR as a primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment
option in conjunction with biomedical care for those diagnosed with CHC. Thusly,
nurses can better inform their clients with this condition.

PMID: 18029968 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

223. J Nurs Educ. 2007 Dec;46(12):568-71.

An evidence-based solution for minimizing stress and anger in nursing students.
Shirey MR.

Shirey & Associates, Evansville, Indiana, USA. mrs@mail2maria.com

Manifestations of stress and anger are becoming more evident in society. Anger,
an emotion associated with stress, often affects other aspects of everyday life,
including the workplace and the educational setting. Stress and irrational anger
in nursing students presents a potential teaching-learning problem that requires
innovative evidence-based solutions. In this article, anger in nursing students
is discussed, and background information on the topic is provided. Common sources
and manifestations of anger in nursing students are presented, and one
evidence-based solution–mindfulness-based-stress reduction–is discussed.

PMID: 18196841 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

224. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2007 Dec;2(4):313-22.

Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of
self-reference.

Farb NA, Segal ZV, Mayberg H, Bean J, McKeon D, Fatima Z, Anderson AK.

Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3G3, Canada.

It has long been theorised that there are two temporally distinct forms of
self-reference: extended self-reference linking experiences across time, and
momentary self-reference centred on the present. To characterise these two
aspects of awareness, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to
examine monitoring of enduring traits (‘narrative’ focus, NF) or momentary
experience (‘experiential’ focus, EF) in both novice participants and those
having attended an 8 week course in mindfulness meditation, a program that trains
individuals to develop focused attention on the present. In novices, EF yielded
focal reductions in self-referential cortical midline regions (medial prefrontal
cortex, mPFC) associated with NF. In trained participants, EF resulted in more
marked and pervasive reductions in the mPFC, and increased engagement of a right
lateralised network, comprising the lateral PFC and viscerosomatic areas such as
the insula, secondary somatosensory cortex and inferior parietal lobule.
Functional connectivity analyses further demonstrated a strong coupling between
the right insula and the mPFC in novices that was uncoupled in the mindfulness
group. These results suggest a fundamental neural dissociation between two
distinct forms of self-awareness that are habitually integrated but can be
dissociated through attentional training: the self across time and in the present
moment.

PMCID: PMC2566754
PMID: 18985137 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

225. Behav Modif. 2007 Nov;31(6):800-14.

Mindfulness training assists individuals with moderate mental retardation to
maintain their community placements.

Singh NN, Lancioni GE, Winton AS, Adkins AD, Singh J, Singh AN.

ONE Research Institute, Chesterfield, Virginia, USA. nirbsingh52@aol.com

The mindfulness procedure Meditation on the Soles of the Feet can help
individuals with mild mental retardation control aggressive behavior. In this
study, our aim was to teach this mindfulness technique, using a multiple baseline
design, to 3 individuals with moderate mental retardation who were at risk of
losing their community placements because of their aggressive behavior. These
individuals initially found the procedure difficult to comprehend because they
could not easily visualize past anger-producing situations, but mastery was
achieved when we incorporated recreating-the-scene as a prompt and added a
discriminative stimulus on the soles of the participants’ feet. Aggressive
behavior decreased with mindfulness training, and follow-up data showed that they
managed their aggressive behavior in the community for at least 2 years and thus
were able to retain their community placements.

PMID: 17932236 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

226. Brain Behav Immun. 2007 Nov;21(8):1038-49. Epub 2007 May 22.

One year pre-post intervention follow-up of psychological, immune, endocrine and
blood pressure outcomes of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in breast
and prostate cancer outpatients.

Carlson LE, Speca M, Faris P, Patel KD.

Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre Holy Cross Site,
Alberta Cancer Board, 2202 Second St. S.W., Calgary, Alta., Canada T3B 0W7.
lindacar@cancerboard.ab.ca

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the ongoing effects of participation in a
mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on quality of life (QL),
symptoms of stress, mood and endocrine, immune and autonomic parameters in early
stage breast and prostate cancer patients. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with
breast cancer and 10 with prostate cancer enrolled in an eight-week MBSR program
that incorporated relaxation, meditation, gentle yoga and daily home practice.
Demographic and health behaviors, QL, mood, stress symptoms, salivary cortisol
levels, immune cell counts, intracellular cytokine production, blood pressure
(BP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and at 6- and
12-month follow-up. RESULTS: Fifty-nine, 51, 47 and 41 patients were assessed
pre- and post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively,
although not all participants provided data on all outcomes at each time point.
Linear mixed modeling showed significant improvements in overall symptoms of
stress which were maintained over the follow-up period. Cortisol levels decreased
systematically over the course of the follow-up. Immune patterns over the year
supported a continued reduction in Th1 (pro-inflammatory) cytokines. Systolic
blood pressure (SBP) decreased from pre- to post-intervention and HR was
positively associated with self-reported symptoms of stress. CONCLUSIONS: MBSR
program participation was associated with enhanced quality of life and decreased
stress symptoms, altered cortisol and immune patterns consistent with less stress
and mood disturbance, and decreased blood pressure. These pilot data represent a
preliminary investigation of the longer-term relationships between MBSR program
participation and a range of potentially important biomarkers.

PMID: 17521871 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

227. Eur Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;22(8):485-9. Epub 2007 Apr 5.

Promotion of mindfulness in psychotherapists in training: preliminary study.
Grepmair L, Mitterlehner F, Loew T, Nickel M.

Psychotherapeutic Teaching Institute, Regensburg, Germany.

This study examined whether the promotion of mindfulness in psychotherapists in
training can influence the treatment results of their patients. The therapeutic
course and treatment results of 196 inpatients, who were treated during a nine
week period by nine psychotherapists in training, were compared: in the first
phase of the study, the treatment group without (CG, historical control group,
n=55), and in the second phase the treatment group with, (MFG, n=58) therapists
who were currently practicing Zen meditation. The results of treatment were
examined (according to the intent-to-treat principle) with the Session
Questionnaire for General and Differential Individual Psychotherapy (STEP), the
Questionnaire of Changes in Experience and Behaviour (VEV) and the Symptom
Checklist (SCL-90-R), and showed significantly better results in the MFG.

PMID: 17418536 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

228. Explore (NY). 2007 Nov-Dec;3(6):585-91.

The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sleep disturbance: a
systematic review.

Winbush NY, Gross CR, Kreitzer MJ.

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, MN, USA. winbu002@umn.edu

INTRODUCTION: Sleep disturbance is common and associated with compromised health
status. Cognitive processes characterized by stress and worry can cause, or
contribute to, sleep complaints. This study systematically evaluated the evidence
that sleep can be improved by mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), a
formalized psychoeducational intervention that helps individuals self-manage and
reframe worrisome and intrusive thoughts. METHODS: Articles were identified from
searches of Medline, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, CINAHL,
PsycINFO, Digital Dissertations, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled
Trials. Eligible for inclusion were English language clinical trials of MBSR that
reported preintervention and postintervention measures of sleep quality or
duration. Studies employing multicomponent interventions were excluded. Studies
were reviewed independently by the first and second authors. RESULTS:
Thirty-eight articles were identified for review. Seven met inclusion criteria.
Lack of standardized outcome measures precluded pooling of results for
quantitative data analysis. Sleep report measures varied (standardized scales,
single item, sleep diaries). Four studies (all uncontrolled) found that MBSR
significantly improved measures of sleep quality or duration. The remaining
studies found no statistically significant difference between treatment and
control conditions. CONCLUSIONS: To date, controlled studies have not clearly
demonstrated the positive effects of MBSR on sleep quality and duration. However,
there is some evidence to suggest that increased practice of mindfulness
techniques is associated with improved sleep and that MBSR participants
experience a decrease in sleep-interfering cognitive processes (eg, worry). More
research is needed using standardized sleep scales and methods, with particular
attention to the importance of MBSR home practice.

PMID: 18005910 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

229. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2007 Nov;45(11):23-9.

Mindfulness: an intervention for anxiety in schizophrenia.
Davis LW, Strasburger AM, Brown LF.

Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. louanne.davis@va.gov

Comment in:
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2008 Apr;46(4):49.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2008 Sep;46(9):15; author reply 15-6.

Despite evidence that individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders
experience significant and persistent symptoms of anxiety, there are few reports
of the use of empirically supported treatments for anxiety in this population.
This article describes how we have tried to adapt mindfulness interventions to
help individuals with schizophrenia who experience significant anxiety symptoms.
Although mindfulness has been widely used to help individuals without psychosis,
to our knowledge, this is the first study adapting it to help those with
schizophrenia manage worry and stress. We provide an overview of the intervention
and use an individual example to describe how our treatment development group
responded. We also explore directions for future research of mindfulness
interventions for schizophrenia.

PMID: 18041355 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

230. Neuroreport. 2007 Oct 29;18(16):1709-12.

Concentrative meditation enhances preattentive processing: a mismatch negativity
study.

Srinivasan N, Baijal S.

Centre for Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences, University of Allahabad,
Allahabad, India. ammuns@yahoo.com

The mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm that is an indicator of preattentive
processing was used to study the effects of concentrative meditation. Sudarshan
Kriya Yoga meditation is a yogic exercise practiced in an ordered sequence
beginning with breathing exercises, and ending with concentrative (Sahaj Samadhi)
meditation. Auditory MMN waveforms were recorded at the beginning and after each
of these practices for meditators, and equivalently after relaxation sessions for
the nonmeditators. Overall meditators were found to have larger MMN amplitudes
than nonmeditators. The meditators also exhibited significantly increased MMN
amplitudes immediately after meditation suggesting transient state changes owing
to meditation. The results indicate that concentrative meditation practice
enhances preattentive perceptual processes, enabling better change detection in
auditory sensory memory.

PMID: 17921873 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

231. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Regional Brain Activation During Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An
Exploratory FMRI Study{dagger}

Baron Short E, Kose S, Mu Q, Borckardt J, Newberg A, George MS, Kozel FA.

MD; Brain Stimulation Laboratory; Institute of Psychiatry, 67 President Street,
3North; Charleston, SC 29425, USA. shorteb@musc.edu or shorteb@gmail.com.

Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in
brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex
(DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Using functional magnetic resonance
imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation.
Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects
meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min
control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation
response versus control response and late meditation response versus early
meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the
overall group (n = 13), and using an overall brain analysis, there were no
statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative
thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of
DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison
to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8) and
long-term (n = 5) practitioners (>10 years) revealed that the time courses of
long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained
activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in
comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the
more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and
attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention
vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and
short-term meditation practitioners.

PMCID: PMC2816391
PMID: 18955268 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

232. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 23;104(43):17152-6. Epub 2007 Oct 11.

Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation.

Tang YY, Ma Y, Wang J, Fan Y, Feng S, Lu Q, Yu Q, Sui D, Rothbart MK, Fan M,
Posner MI.

Institute of Neuroinformatics and Laboratory for Body and Mind, Dalian University
of Technology, Dalian 116023, China. yiyuan@uoregon.edu

Recent studies suggest that months to years of intensive and systematic
meditation training can improve attention. However, the lengthy training required
has made it difficult to use random assignment of participants to conditions to
confirm these findings. This article shows that a group randomly assigned to 5
days of meditation practice with the integrative body-mind training method shows
significantly better attention and control of stress than a similarly chosen
control group given relaxation training. The training method comes from
traditional Chinese medicine and incorporates aspects of other meditation and
mindfulness training. Compared with the control group, the experimental group of
40 undergraduate Chinese students given 5 days of 20-min integrative training
showed greater improvement in conflict scores on the Attention Network Test,
lower anxiety, depression, anger, and fatigue, and higher vigor on the Profile of
Mood States scale, a significant decrease in stress-related cortisol, and an
increase in immunoreactivity. These results provide a convenient method for
studying the influence of meditation training by using experimental and control
methods similar to those used to test drugs or other interventions.

PMCID: PMC2040428
PMID: 17940025 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

233. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Oct 15;57(7):1134-42.

Effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Pradhan EK, Baumgarten M, Langenberg P, Handwerger B, Gilpin AK, Magyari T,
Hochberg MC, Berman BM.

The University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
epradhan@compmed.umm.edu

Comment in:
Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Oct 15;57(7):1116-8.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a meditation training program,
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), on depressive symptoms, psychological
status, and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) through a
randomized, waitlist-controlled pilot study. METHODS: Participants were
randomized to either an MBSR group, where they attended an 8-week course and
4-month maintenance program, or to a waitlist control group, where they attended
all assessment visits and received MBSR free of charge after study end.
Participants received usual care from their rheumatologists throughout the trial.
Self-report questionnaires were used to evaluate depressive symptoms,
psychological distress, well-being, and mindfulness. Evaluation of RA disease
activity (by Disease Activity Score in 28 joints) included examination by a
physician masked to treatment status. Adjusted means and mean changes in outcomes
were estimated in mixed model repeated measures analyses. RESULTS: Sixty-three
participants were randomized: 31 to MBSR and 32 to control. At 2 months, there
were no statistically significant differences between groups in any outcomes. At
6 months, there was significant improvement in psychological distress and
well-being (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03, respectively), and marginally significant
improvement in depressive symptoms and mindfulness (P = 0.08 and P = 0.09,
respectively). There was a 35% reduction in psychological distress among those
treated. The intervention had no impact on RA disease activity. CONCLUSION: An
8-week MBSR class was not associated with change in depressive symptoms or other
outcomes at 2-month followup. Significant improvements in psychological distress
and well-being were observed following MBSR plus a 4-month program of continued
reinforcement. Mindfulness meditation may complement medical disease management
by improving psychological distress and strengthening well-being in patients with
RA.

PMID: 17907231 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

234. Addict Behav. 2007 Oct;32(10):2324-8. Epub 2007 Jan 23.

The role of thought suppression in the relationship between mindfulness
meditation and alcohol use.

Bowen S, Witkiewitz K, Dillworth TM, Marlatt GA.

University of Washington, Department of Psychology, Box 351525, Seattle, WA
98195, USA. swbowen@u.washington.edu

Previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to suppress thoughts about using
substances may actually lead to increases in substance use. Vipassana, a
mindfulness meditation practice, emphasizes acceptance, rather than suppression,
of unwanted thoughts. A study by Bowen and colleagues examining the effects of a
Vipassana course on substance use in an incarcerated population showed
significant reductions in substance use among the Vipassana group as compared to
a treatment – usual control condition [Bowen S., Witkiewitz K., Dillworth T.M.,
Chawla N., Simpson T.L., Ostafin B.D., et al. (2006). Mindfulness Meditation and
Substance Use in an Incarcerated Population. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors.].
The current study further examines the mediating effects of thought suppression
in the relationship between participation in the course and subsequent alcohol
use. Those who participated in the course reported significant decreases in
avoidance of thoughts when compared to controls. The decrease in avoidance
partially mediated effects of the course on post-release alcohol use and
consequences.

PMCID: PMC1989113
PMID: 17300875 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

235. Behav Res Ther. 2007 Oct;45(10):2518-26. Epub 2007 May 3.

Randomized trial of a meditation-based stress reduction program and cognitive
behavior therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder.

Koszycki D, Benger M, Shlik J, Bradwejn J.

Stress and Anxiety Clinical Research Unit, University of Ottawa Institute of
Mental Health Research, Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, 1145 Carling Ave.,
Ottawa, Ont., Canada K1Z 7K4. dkoszyck@rohcg.on.ca

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been reported to reduce anxiety in
a broad range of clinical populations. However, its efficacy in alleviating core
symptoms of specific anxiety disorders is not well established. We conducted a
randomized trial to evaluate how well MBSR compared to a first-line psychological
intervention for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Fifty-three patients with DSM-IV
generalized SAD were randomized to an 8-week course of MBSR or 12 weekly sessions
of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT). Although patients in both treatment
groups improved, patients receiving CBGT had significantly lower scores on
clinician- and patient-rated measures of social anxiety. Response and remission
rates were also significantly greater with CBGT. Both interventions were
comparable in improving mood, functionality and quality of life. The results
confirm that CBGT is the treatment of choice of generalized SAD and suggest that
MBSR may have some benefit in the treatment of generalized SAD.

PMID: 17572382 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

236. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Oct;28(10):1623-7. Epub 2007 Jul 25.

Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation.

Pagnoni G, Cekic M.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, 101 Woodruff
Circle, Suite 4000, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. gpagnon@emory.edu

Zen meditation, a Buddhist practice centered on attentional and postural
self-regulation, has been speculated to bring about beneficial long-term effects
for the individual, ranging from stress reduction to improvement of cognitive
function. In this study, we examined how the regular practice of meditation may
affect the normal age-related decline of cerebral gray matter volume and
attentional performance observed in healthy individuals. Voxel-based morphometry
for MRI anatomical brain images and a computerized sustained attention task were
employed in 13 regular practitioners of Zen meditation and 13 matched controls.
While control subjects displayed the expected negative correlation of both gray
matter volume and attentional performance with age, meditators did not show a
significant correlation of either measure with age. The effect of meditation on
gray matter volume was most prominent in the putamen, a structure strongly
implicated in attentional processing. These findings suggest that the regular
practice of meditation may have neuroprotective effects and reduce the cognitive
decline associated with normal aging.

PMID: 17655980 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

237. Percept Mot Skills. 2007 Oct;105(2):379-85.

Immediate effect of two yoga-based relaxation techniques on performance in a
letter-cancellation task.

Sarang SP, Telles S.

Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation, No. 19 K.G. Nagar, Bangalore 560 019,
India.

The performance in a six-letter cancellation task was assessed with 69 male
volunteers, ages 18 to 48 years, immediately before and after two yoga-based
relaxation techniques and a control session of equal duration. The techniques
were Cyclic Meditation and Supine Rest. Cyclic Meditation consists of alternating
cycles of yoga postures and supine rest. After both practices, the net scores
were significantly higher, although the magnitude of change was more after Cyclic
Meditation than after Supine Rest (24.9% versus 13.6%). There was reduction in
scores for wrong cancellations after Cyclic Meditation and not after Supine Rest.
The control group showed no change. The results suggest that Cyclic Meditation
brings about a greater improvement in performance in this task, which requires
selective attention, concentration, visual scanning abilities, and a repetitive
motor response.

PMID: 18065059 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

238. Altern Ther Health Med. 2007 Sep-Oct;13(5):36-8.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction is associated with improved glycemic control
in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot study.

Rosenzweig S, Reibel DK, Greeson JM, Edman JS, Jasser SA, McMearty KD, Goldstein
BJ.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson
University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

CONTEXT: Psychological distress is linked with impaired glycemic control among
diabetics. OBJECTIVE: Estimate changes in glycemic control, weight, blood
pressure, and stress-related psychological symptoms in patients with type 2
diabetes participating in a standard Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)
program. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: Academic health
center. PATIENTS: Adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. INTERVENTIONS:
Participation in MBSR program for heterogeneous patient population. Diet and
exercise regimens held constant. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Glycosylated hemoglobin
A1c (HA1c), blood pressure, body weight, and Symptom Checklist 90-Revised
(anxiety, depression, somatization, and general psychological distress scores).
RESULTS: Eleven of 14 patients completed the intervention. At 1 month follow-up,
HA1c was reduced by 0.48% (P = .03), and mean arterial pressure was reduced by 6
mmHg (P = .009). Body weight did not change. A decrease in measures of
depression, anxiety, and general psychological distress was observed.

PMID: 17900040 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

239. Am J Psychoanal. 2007 Sep;67(3):249-59.

Embodiment.

Langan R.

Center for Applied Psychoanalysis, William Alanson White Institute.
rlangan@psychoanalysis.net

Groddeck, most interestingly, proposed that the body manifested the mind, and the
mind the body. I consider his interactional viewpoint from several perspectives.
First, I discuss how the entire body not only is minded by and minding of all
that occurs within and without, but as well how the developable capacity for
mindfulness affects the perception of reality, within and without. Secondly, I
consider the body as delusion, a seemingly necessary anchor into the reality of
the physical world, whereas Groddeck’s and Ferenczi’s openness to ideas of
telepathy and communication beyond death flirts with a disembodied transcendence
of physicality. And third, I propose that Groddeck’s psychoanalytic approach,
like Buddhist meditational techniques, reveals an experiential flux of embodiment
and disembodiment in each re-embodied moment of being alive.

PMID: 17717555 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

240. Explore (NY). 2007 Sep-Oct;3(5):449-52.

New studies support the therapeutic value of meditation.

Horrigan BJ.

PMID: 17905353 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

241. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2007 Sep;14(6):603-8.

A qualitative study into the experience of individuals involved in a mindfulness
group within an acute inpatient mental health unit.

York M.

The Glenbourne Unit, Plymouth Teaching Primary Care Trust, UK.

PMID: 17718735 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

242. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2007 Sep;34(5):1059-66.

Measuring the psychological impact of mindfulness meditation on health among
patients with cancer: a literature review.

Matchim Y, Armer JM.

Prince of Songkla University, Songkla, Thailand. ym6c6@mizzou.edu

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To describe the construct of mindfulness meditation and
systematically review instruments measuring the psychological impact of
mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on health among patients with cancer.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, EBSCO, and
published literature (1987-2006). DATA SYNTHESIS: 13 psychological instruments
used in seven studies (2000-2005) to measure effects of MBSR on health in
patients with cancer were reviewed. Most studies used a one-group pre- and
post-test design. The post-MBSR outcomes for each instrument varied, suggesting
different yet promising relationships. For some instruments, data were
insufficient to conclude sufficiently whether any were strong or appropriate to
use in future intervention studies. CONCLUSIONS: To enhance knowledge of MBSR,
more intervention research studies of MBSR in patients with cancer and
reexamination of specific instruments are needed. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING: Based
on the review, instruments can measure MBSR effects and found MBSR to be a
potentially beneficial oncology nursing intervention.

PMID: 17878133 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

243. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 3;104(27):11483-8. Epub 2007 Jun 27.

Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners.

Brefczynski-Lewis JA, Lutz A, Schaefer HS, Levinson DB, Davidson RJ.

W.M. Keck Laboratory for Functional Brain Imaging and Behavior, Medical College
of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53226, USA.

Meditation refers to a family of mental training practices that are designed to
familiarize the practitioner with specific types of mental processes. One of the
most basic forms of meditation is concentration meditation, in which sustained
attention is focused on an object such as a small visual stimulus or the breath.
In age-matched participants, using functional MRI, we found that activation in a
network of brain regions typically involved in sustained attention showed an
inverted u-shaped curve in which expert meditators (EMs) with an average of
19,000 h of practice had more activation than novices, but EMs with an average of
44,000 h had less activation. In response to distracter sounds used to probe the
meditation, EMs vs. novices had less brain activation in regions related to
discursive thoughts and emotions and more activation in regions related to
response inhibition and attention. Correlation with hours of practice suggests
possible plasticity in these mechanisms.

PMCID: PMC1903340
PMID: 17596341 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

244. Adv Mind Body Med. 2007 Summer;22(1):16-26.

Mindfulness training and meditation for mental health.

Rediger JD, Summers L.

Author.

Reprinted from Chapter 14, « Mindfulness Training and Meditation, » by Jeffrey D.
Rediger and Lauren Summers, in Complementary and Alternative Treatments in Mental
Health Care. James Lake and David Spiegel, eds. Arlington, Va: American
Psychiatric Publishing, Inc; 2006. Reprinted with permission.

PMID: 20671339 [PubMed – in process]

245. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jul-Aug;13(6):651-7.

Effects of level of meditation experience on attentional focus: is the efficiency
of executive or orientation networks improved?

Chan D, Woollacott M.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley,
California, United States.

The present investigation examined the contributions of specific attentional
networks to long-term trait effects of meditation. It was hypothesized that
meditation could improve the efficiency of executive processing (inhibits
prepotent/incorrect responses) or orientational processing (orients to specific
objects in the attentional field). Participants (50 meditators and 10 controls)
were given the Stroop (measures executive attention) and Global-Local Letters
(measures orientational attention) tasks. Results showed that meditation
experience was associated with reduced interference on the Stroop task (p <
0.03), in contrast with a lack of effect on interference in the Global-Local
Letters task. This suggests that meditation produces long-term increases in the
efficiency of the executive attentional network (anterior cingulate/prefrontal
cortex) but no effect on the orientation network (parietal systems). The amount
of time participants spent meditating each day, rather than the total number of
hours of meditative practice over their lifetime, was negatively correlated with
interference on the Stroop task (r = -0.31, p < 0.005).

PMID: 17718648 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

246. Psychosom Med. 2007 Jul-Aug;69(6):560-5. Epub 2007 Jul 18.

Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling.

Creswell JD, Way BM, Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1563,
USA. creswell@ucla.edu

OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness is a process whereby one is aware and receptive to present
moment experiences. Although mindfulness-enhancing interventions reduce
pathological mental and physical health symptoms across a wide variety of
conditions and diseases, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unknown.
Converging evidence from the mindfulness and neuroscience literature suggests
that labeling affect may be one mechanism for these effects. METHODS:
Participants (n = 27) indicated trait levels of mindfulness and then completed an
affect labeling task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. The
labeling task consisted of matching facial expressions to appropriate affect
words (affect labeling) or to gender-appropriate names (gender labeling control
task). RESULTS: After controlling for multiple individual difference measures,
dispositional mindfulness was associated with greater widespread prefrontal
cortical activation, and reduced bilateral amygdala activity during affect
labeling, compared with the gender labeling control task. Further, strong
negative associations were found between areas of prefrontal cortex and right
amygdala responses in participants high in mindfulness but not in participants
low in mindfulness. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings with a dispositional
measure of mindfulness suggest one potential neurocognitive mechanism for
understanding how mindfulness meditation interventions reduce negative affect and
improve health outcomes, showing that mindfulness is associated with enhanced
prefrontal cortical regulation of affect through labeling of negative affective
stimuli.

PMID: 17634566 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

247. Neurosci Lett. 2007 Jun 21;421(1):16-21. Epub 2007 May 25.

Differential engagement of anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex
in adept meditators and non-meditators.

Hölzel BK, Ott U, Hempel H, Hackl A, Wolf K, Stark R, Vaitl D.

Bender Institute of Neuroimaging, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany.
britta.k.hoelzel@psychol.uni-giessen.de

This study investigated differences in brain activation during meditation between
meditators and non-meditators. Fifteen Vipassana meditators (mean practice: 7.9
years, 2h daily) and fifteen non-meditators, matched for sex, age, education, and
handedness, participated in a block-design fMRI study that included mindfulness
of breathing and mental arithmetic conditions. For the meditation condition
(contrasted to arithmetic), meditators showed stronger activations in the rostral
anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex bilaterally,
compared to controls. Greater rostral anterior cingulate cortex activation in
meditators may reflect stronger processing of distracting events. The increased
activation in the medial prefrontal cortex may reflect that meditators are
stronger engaged in emotional processing.

PMID: 17548160 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

248. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2007 Jun;32(2):89-98. Epub 2007 May 23.

Psychophysiological effects of breathing instructions for stress management.

Conrad A, Müller A, Doberenz S, Kim S, Meuret AE, Wollburg E, Roth WT.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of
Medicine, and the Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.

Stressed and tense individuals often are recommended to change the way they
breathe. However, psychophysiological effects of breathing instructions on
respiration are rarely measured. We tested the immediate effects of short and
simple breathing instructions in 13 people seeking treatment for panic disorder,
15 people complaining of daily tension, and 15 controls. Participants underwent a
3-hour laboratory session during which instructions to direct attention to
breathing and anti-hyperventilation instructions to breathe more slowly,
shallowly, or both were given. Respiratory, cardiac, and electrodermal measures
were recorded. The anti-hyperventilation instructions failed to raise end-tidal
pCO(2) above initial baseline levels for any of the groups because changes in
respiratory rate were compensated for by changes in tidal volume and vice versa.
Paying attention to breathing significantly reduced respiratory rate and
decreased tidal volume instability compared to the other instructions. Shallow
breathing made all groups more anxious than did other instructions. Heart rate
and skin conductance were not differentially affected by instructions. We
conclude that simple and short instructions to alter breathing do not change
respiratory or autonomic measures in the direction of relaxation, except for
attention to breathing, which increases respiratory stability. To understand the
results of breathing instructions for stress and anxiety management, respiration
needs to be monitored physiologically.

PMID: 17520360 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

249. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2007 Jun;7(2):109-19.

Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention.

Jha AP, Krompinger J, Baime MJ.

Department of Psychology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
19104, USA. apjha@psych.upenn.edu

Mindfulness is defined as paying attention in the present moment. We investigate
the hypothesis that mindfulness training may alter or enhance specific aspects of
attention. We examined three functionally and neuroanatomically distinct but
overlapping attentional subsystems: alerting, orienting, and conflict monitoring.
Functioning of each subsystem was indexed by performance on the Attention Network
Test. Two types of mindfulness training (MT) programs were examined, and
behavioral testing was conducted on participants before (Time 1) and after (Time
2) training. One training group consisted of individuals naive to mindfulness
techniques who participated in an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction
(MBSR) course that emphasized the development of concentrative meditation skills.
The other training group consisted of individuals experienced in concentrative
meditation techniques who participated in a 1-month intensive mindfulness
retreat. Performance of these groups was compared with that of control
participants who were meditation naive and received no MT. At Time 1, the
participants in the retreat group demonstrated improved conflict monitoring
performance relative to those in the MBSR and control groups. At Time 2, the
participants in the MBSR course demonstrated significantly improved orienting in
comparison with the control and retreat participants. In contrast, the
participants in the retreat group demonstrated altered performance on the
alerting component, with improvements in exogenous stimulus detection in
comparison with the control and MBSR participants. The groups did not differ in
conflict monitoring performance at Time 2. These results suggest that mindfulness
training may improve attention-related behavioral responses by enhancing
functioning of specific subcomponents of attention. Whereas participation in the
MBSR course improved the ability to endogenously orient attention, retreat
participation appeared to allow for the development and emergence of receptive
attentional skills, which improved exogenous alerting-related process.

PMID: 17672382 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

250. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep). 2007 Jun;(155):1-263.

Meditation practices for health: state of the research.

Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, Tjosvold L, Vandermeer B, Liang Y, Bialy L,
Hooton N, Buscemi N, Dryden DM, Klassen TP.

OBJECTIVES: To review and synthesize the state of research on a variety of
meditation practices, including: the specific meditation practices examined; the
research designs employed and the conditions and outcomes examined; the efficacy
and effectiveness of different meditation practices for the three most studied
conditions; the role of effect modifiers on outcomes; and the effects of
meditation on physiological and neuropsychological outcomes. DATA SOURCES:
Comprehensive searches were conducted in 17 electronic databases of medical and
psychological literature up to September 2005. Other sources of potentially
relevant studies included hand searches, reference tracking, contact with
experts, and gray literature searches. REVIEW METHODS: A Delphi method was used
to develop a set of parameters to describe meditation practices. Included studies
were comparative, on any meditation practice, had more than 10 adult
participants, provided quantitative data on health-related outcomes, and
published in English. Two independent reviewers assessed study relevance,
extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of the studies.
RESULTS: Five broad categories of meditation practices were identified (Mantra
meditation, Mindfulness meditation, Yoga, Tai Chi, and Qi Gong). Characterization
of the universal or supplemental components of meditation practices was precluded
by the theoretical and terminological heterogeneity among practices. Evidence on
the state of research in meditation practices was provided in 813 predominantly
poor-quality studies. The three most studied conditions were hypertension, other
cardiovascular diseases, and substance abuse. Sixty-five intervention studies
examined the therapeutic effect of meditation practices for these conditions.
Meta-analyses based on low-quality studies and small numbers of hypertensive
participants showed that TM(R), Qi Gong and Zen Buddhist meditation significantly
reduced blood pressure. Yoga helped reduce stress. Yoga was no better than
Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction at reducing anxiety in patients with
cardiovascular diseases. No results from substance abuse studies could be
combined. The role of effect modifiers in meditation practices has been neglected
in the scientific literature. The physiological and neuropsychological effects of
meditation practices have been evaluated in 312 poor-quality studies.
Meta-analyses of results from 55 studies indicated that some meditation practices
produced significant changes in healthy participants. CONCLUSIONS: Many
uncertainties surround the practice of meditation. Scientific research on
meditation practices does not appear to have a common theoretical perspective and
is characterized by poor methodological quality. Firm conclusions on the effects
of meditation practices in healthcare cannot be drawn based on the available
evidence. Future research on meditation practices must be more rigorous in the
design and execution of studies and in the analysis and reporting of results.

PMID: 17764203 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

251. Neuroreport. 2007 May 7;18(7):709-12.

Effects of meditation on frontal alpha-asymmetry in previously suicidal
individuals.

Barnhofer T, Duggan D, Crane C, Hepburn S, Fennell MJ, Williams JM.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK.
thorsten.barnhofer@psych.ox.ac.uk

This study investigated the effects of a meditation-based treatment for
preventing relapse to depression, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), on
prefrontal alpha-asymmetry in resting electroencephalogram (EEG), a biological
indicator of affective style. Twenty-two individuals with a previous history of
suicidal depression were randomly assigned to either MBCT (N=10) or
treatment-as-usual (TAU, N=12). Resting electroencephalogram was measured before
and after an 8-week course of treatment. The TAU group showed a significant
deterioration toward decreased relative left-frontal activation, indexing
decreases in positive affective style, while there was no significant change in
the MBCT group. The findings suggest that MBCT can help individuals at high risk
for suicidal depression to retain a balanced pattern of baseline emotion-related
brain activation.

PMID: 17426604 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

252. Aging Ment Health. 2007 May;11(3):346-57.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for recurring depression in older people: a
qualitative study.

Smith A, Graham L, Senthinathan S.

Psychological Services, Lancashire Care NHS Trust, Chorley, Lancashire, UK.
alistair.smith@lancashirecare.nhs.uk

Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a meditation-based intervention
designed to reduce recurrence in people with histories of relapsing unipolar
major depression. MBCT is an eight-session course delivered to groups of
participants who are currently not (or only mildly) depressed. We sought to
determine whether MBCT is suitable for older people, and what modifications they
may require. We recruited 38 participants aged over 65, of whom 30 completed an
MBCT course. Their responses at assessment, post-course and one-year follow-up
interviews, plus comments at three-monthly ‘reunion’ meetings, provided data for
thematic analysis. Main themes emerging for participants as a group are
considered, as are individuals’ understandings and uses of MBCT, and how these
developed during and following the course. We found MBCT promising as a
cost-effective addition to clinicians’ repertoire for addressing depression in
old age, and identified issues for further research. Participants’ comments
indicated that they considered MBCT a helpful intervention for older sufferers
from recurring depression.

PMID: 17558586 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

253. Behav Modif. 2007 May;31(3):313-28.

Individuals with mental illness can control their aggressive behavior through
mindfulness training.

Singh NN, Lancioni GE, Winton AS, Adkins AD, Wahler RG, Sabaawi M, Singh J.

ONE Research Institute, Midlothian, VA 23112, USA. nirbsingh52@aol.com

Verbal and physical aggression are risk factors for community placement of
individuals with serious and persistent mental illness. Depending on the
motivations involved, treatment typically consists of psychotropic medications
and psychosocial interventions, including contingency management procedures and
anger management training. Effects of a mindfulness procedure, Meditation on the
Soles of the Feet , were tested as a cognitive behavioral intervention for verbal
and physical aggression in 3 individuals who had frequently been readmitted to an
inpatient psychiatric hospital owing to their anger management problems. In a
multiple baseline across subjects design, they were taught a simple meditation
technique, requiring them to shift their attention and awareness from the
anger-producing situation to the soles of their feet, a neutral point on their
body. Their verbal and physical aggression decreased with mindfulness training;
no physical aggression and very low rates of verbal aggression occurred during 4
years of follow-up in the community.

PMID: 17438345 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

254. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2007 May;13(2):110-5. Epub 2007 Jan 29.

Enhancing mental health services to bone marrow transplant recipients through a
mindfulness-based therapeutic intervention.

Horton-Deutsch S, O’Haver Day P, Haight R, Babin-Nelson M.

Indiana University School of Nursing, 1111 Middle Drive, 403L Indianapolis, IN
46202, USA. shortond@iupui.edu

Complementary and alternative therapies are gaining recognition in the treatment
of many disease states. The importance of treating psychological and emotional
problems associated with bone marrow transplant has been substantiated by
research evidence. This feasibility study tested a mindfulness-based therapeutic
intervention to treat such problems in this context. Pretests and post-tests were
administered to patients (n=24) undergoing bone marrow transplant. Results
indicate that the mindfulness-based therapeutic intervention has the potential to
be an effective therapy for bone marrow transplant recipients.

PMID: 17400146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

255. Can J Psychiatry. 2007 Apr;52(4):260-6.

Does mindfulness meditation improve anxiety and mood symptoms? A review of the
controlled research.

Toneatto T, Nguyen L.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario. tony_toneatto@camh.net

OBJECTIVE: To review the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on
symptoms of anxiety and depression in a range of clinical populations. METHOD:
Our review included any study that was published in a peer-reviewed journal, used
a control group, and reported outcomes related to changes in depression and
anxiety. We extracted the following key variables from each of the 15 studies
identified: anxiety or depression outcomes after the MBSR program, measurement of
compliance with MBSR instructions, type of control group included, type of
clinical population studied, and length of follow-up. We also summarized
modifications to the MBSR program. RESULTS: Measures of depression and anxiety
were included as outcome variables for a broad range of medical and emotional
disorders. Evidence for a beneficial effect of MBSR on depression and anxiety was
equivocal. When active control groups were used, MBSR did not show an effect on
depression and anxiety. Adherence to the MBSR program was infrequently assessed.
Where it was assessed, the relation between practising mindfulness and changes in
depression and anxiety was equivocal. CONCLUSIONS: MBSR does not have a reliable
effect on depression and anxiety.

PMID: 17500308 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

256. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2007 Apr;10(2):309-15.

Combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder: a case report using virtual
reality exposure therapy with physiological monitoring.

Wood DP, Murphy J, Center K, McLay R, Reeves D, Pyne J, Shilling R, Wiederhold
BK.

Virtual Reality Medical Center, 6160 Cornerstone C.E, #155, San Diego, CA 92121,
USA. dpwcapt@aol.com

The current report summarizes a case study from an Office of Naval Research (ONR)
funded project to compare the effects of virtual reality graded exposure therapy
(VRGET) with cognitive behavioral group therapy in active-duty corpsmen. Details
of the collaborative program between the Virtual Reality Medical Center (VRMC)
and Naval Medical Center San Diego (NMCSD) will be discussed.

PMID: 17474853 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

257. J Psychosom Res. 2007 Mar;62(3):297-300.

A pilot randomized control trial investigating the effect of mindfulness practice
on pain tolerance, psychological well-being, and physiological activity.

Kingston J, Chadwick P, Meron D, Skinner TC.

School of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
jlk100@soton.ac.uk

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of mindfulness training on pain tolerance,
psychological well-being, physiological activity, and the acquisition of
mindfulness skills. METHODS: Forty-two asymptomatic University students
participated in a randomized, single-blind, active control pilot study.
Participants in the experimental condition were offered six (1-h) mindfulness
sessions; control participants were offered two (1-h) Guided Visual Imagery
sessions. Both groups were provided with practice CDs and encouraged to practice
daily. Pre-post pain tolerance (cold pressor test), mood, blood pressure, pulse,
and mindfulness skills were obtained. RESULTS: Pain tolerance significantly
increased in the mindfulness condition only. There was a strong trend indicating
that mindfulness skills increased in the mindfulness condition, but this was not
related to improved pain tolerance. Diastolic blood pressure significantly
decreased in both conditions. CONCLUSION: Mindfulness training did increase pain
tolerance, but this was not related to the acquisition of mindfulness skills.

PMID: 17324679 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

258. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Feb 15;57(1):77-85.

Mindfulness meditation alleviates depressive symptoms in women with fibromyalgia:
results of a randomized clinical trial.

Sephton SE, Salmon P, Weissbecker I, Ulmer C, Floyd A, Hoover K, Studts JL.

University of Louisville and James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville,
Kentucky 40202, USA. sephton@louisville.edu

OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are common among patients with fibromyalgia, and
behavioral intervention has been recommended as a major treatment component for
this illness. The objective of this study was to test the effects of the
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on depressive symptoms in
patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial examined
effects of the 8-week MBSR intervention on depressive symptoms in 91 women with
fibromyalgia who were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 51) or a waiting-list
control group (n = 40). Eligible patients were at least 18 years old, willing to
participate in a weekly group, and able to provide physician verification of a
fibromyalgia diagnosis. Of 166 eligible participants who responded to local
television news publicizing, 49 did not appear for a scheduled intake, 24
enrolled but did not provide baseline data, and 2 were excluded due to severe
mental illness, leaving 91 participants. The sample averaged 48 years of age and
had 14.7 years of education. The typical participant was white, married, and
employed. Patients randomly assigned to treatment received MBSR. Eight weekly
2.5-hour sessions were led by a licensed clinical psychologist with mindfulness
training. Somatic and cognitive symptoms of depression were assessed using the
Beck Depression Inventory administered at baseline, immediately postprogram, and
at followup 2 months after the conclusion of the intervention. RESULTS: Change in
depressive symptoms was assessed using slopes analyses of intervention effects
over time. Depressive symptoms improved significantly in treatment versus control
participants over the 3 assessments. CONCLUSION: This meditation-based
intervention alleviated depressive symptoms among patients with fibromyalgia.

PMID: 17266067 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

259. Ann Behav Med. 2007 Feb;33(1):11-21.

A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation
training: effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and
distraction.

Jain S, Shapiro SL, Swanick S, Roesch SC, Mills PJ, Bell I, Schwartz GE.

SDSU/UCSD Joint Doctoral Program, Clinical Psychology, San Diego, CA 92103-0804,
USA. sjain@ucsd.edu

BACKGROUND: Although mindfulness meditation interventions have recently shown
benefits for reducing stress in various populations, little is known about their
relative efficacy compared with relaxation interventions. PURPOSE: This
randomized controlled trial examines the effects of a 1-month mindfulness
meditation versus somatic relaxation training as compared to a control group in
83 students (M age = 25; 16 men and 67 women) reporting distress. Method:
Psychological distress, positive states of mind, distractive and ruminative
thoughts and behaviors, and spiritual experience were measured, while controlling
for social desirability. RESULTS: Hierarchical linear modeling reveals that both
meditation and relaxation groups experienced significant decreases in distress as
well as increases in positive mood states over time, compared with the control
group (p < .05 in all cases). There were no significant differences between
meditation and relaxation on distress and positive mood states over time. Effect
sizes for distress were large for both meditation and relaxation (Cohen’s d =
1.36 and .91, respectively), whereas the meditation group showed a larger effect
size for positive states of mind than relaxation (Cohen’s d =.71 and .25,
respectively). The meditation group also demonstrated significant pre-post
decreases in both distractive and ruminative thoughts/behaviors compared with the
control group (p < .04 in all cases; Cohen’s d = .57 for rumination and .25 for
distraction for the meditation group), with mediation models suggesting that
mindfulness meditation’s effects on reducing distress were partially mediated by
reducing rumination. No significant effects were found for spiritual experience.
CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that compared with a no-treatment control, brief
training in mindfulness meditation or somatic relaxation reduces distress and
improves positive mood states. However, mindfulness meditation may be specific in
its ability to reduce distractive and ruminative thoughts and behaviors, and this
ability may provide a unique mechanism by which mindfulness meditation reduces
distress.

PMID: 17291166 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

260. Dis Mon. 2007 Feb;53(2):70-131.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan: the child,
adolescent, and adult.

Greydanus DE, Pratt HD, Patel DR.

Pediatrics and Human Development, Michigan State University College of Human
Medicine, Sindecuse College Health Center, USA.

Management of a child, adolescent, college student, or adult with ADD/ADHD (ADHD)
is reviewed with emphasis on pharmacologic approaches in the adult. Psychological
treatment includes psychotherapy, cognitive-behavior therapy, support groups,
parent training, biofeedback, meditation, and social skills training. Medications
are reviewed that research has revealed can improve the core symptomatology of a
child or adolescent with ADHD. These medications include stimulants
(psychostimulants), antidepressants, alpha-2 agonists, and a norepinephrine
reuptake inhibitor. Psychopharmacology approved and/or used in pediatric patients
are also used in adults with ADHD, though most are not officially FDA-approved.
It is emphasized that ADHD management should include a multi-modal approach,
involving appropriate educational interventions, appropriate psychological
management of the patient of any age, and judicious use of medications. Such an
approach is recommended to benefit those with ADHD achieve their maximum
potential across the human life span.

PMID: 17386306 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

261. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2007 Jan 25;7:2.

A pilot study on mindfulness based stress reduction for smokers.

Davis JM, Fleming MF, Bonus KA, Baker TB.

Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, University of Wisconsin School of
Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI 53711-2027, USA. jd4@medicine.wisc.edu

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness means paying attention in the present moment,
non-judgmentally, without commentary or decision-making. We report results of a
pilot study designed to test the feasibility of using Mindfulness Based Stress
Reduction (MBSR) (with minor modifications) as a smoking intervention. METHODS:
MBSR instructors provided instructions in mindfulness in eight weekly group
sessions. Subjects attempted smoking cessation during week seven without
pharmacotherapy. Smoking abstinence was tested six weeks after the smoking quit
day with carbon monoxide breath test and 7-day smoking calendars. Questionnaires
were administered to evaluate changes in stress and affective distress. RESULTS:
18 subjects enrolled in the intervention with an average smoking history of 19.9
cigarettes per day for 26.4 years. At the 6-week post-quit visit, 10 of 18
subjects (56%) achieved biologically confirmed 7-day point-prevalent smoking
abstinence. Compliance with meditation was positively associated with smoking
abstinence and decreases in stress and affective distress. DISCUSSIONS AND
CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that mindfulness training may show
promise for smoking cessation and warrants additional study in a larger
comparative trial.

PMCID: PMC1794538
PMID: 17254362 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

262. Conn Med. 2007 Jan;71(1):35.

Mindfulness meditation and public health.

Silverman J.

PMID: 17288105 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

263. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):59-66.

Cortical dynamics as a therapeutic mechanism for touch healing.

Kerr CE, Wasserman RH, Moore CI.

Division for Research and Education in Complementary and Integrative Medical
Therapies, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Catherine.Kerr@hms.harvard.edu

Erratum in:
J Altern Complement Med. 2007 Mar;13(2):301.

Touch Healing (TH) therapies, defined here as treatments whose primary route of
administration is tactile contact and/or active guiding of somatic attention, are
ubiquitous across cultures. Despite increasing integration of TH into mainstream
medicine through therapies such as Reiki, Therapeutic Touch,(TM) and somatically
focused meditation practices such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction,
relatively little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. Here, we
present a neuroscientific explanation for the prevalence and effectiveness of TH
therapies for relieving chronic pain. We begin with a cross-cultural review of
several different types of TH treatments and identify common characteristics,
including: light tactile contact and/or a somatosensory attention directed toward
the body, a behaviorally relevant context, a relaxed context and repeated
treatment sessions. These cardinal features are also key elements of established
mechanisms of neural plasticity in somatosensory cortical maps, suggesting that
sensory reorganization is a mechanism for the healing observed. Consideration of
the potential health benefits of meditation practice specifically suggests that
these practices provide training in the regulation of neural and perceptual
dynamics that provide ongoing resistance to the development of maladaptive
somatic representations. This model provides several direct predictions for
investigating ways that TH may induce cortical plasticity and dynamics in pain
remediation.

PMID: 17309379 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

264. Psychother Psychosom. 2007;76(6):332-8.

Promoting mindfulness in psychotherapists in training influences the treatment
results of their patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

Grepmair L, Mitterlehner F, Loew T, Bachler E, Rother W, Nickel M.

Psychotherapeutic Teaching Institute, University Clinic, Regensburg, Germany.

BACKGROUND: All therapists direct their attention in some manner during
psychotherapy. A special form of directing attention, ‘mindfulness’, is
recommended. This study aimed to examine whether, and to what extent, promoting
mindfulness in psychotherapists in training (PiT) influences the treatment
results of their patients. METHODS: The therapeutic course and treatment results
of 124 inpatients, who were treated for 9 weeks by 18 PiTs, were compared. The
PiTs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (i) those practicing Zen meditation
(MED; n = 9 or (ii) control group, which did not perform meditation (noMED; n =
9). The results of treatment (according to the intent-to-treat principle) were
examined using the Session Questionnaire for General and Differential Individual
Psychotherapy (STEP), the Questionnaire of Changes in Experience and Behavior
(VEV) and the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R). RESULTS: Compared to the noMED group
(n = 61), the patients of PiTs from the MED group (n = 63) had significantly
higher evaluations (according to the intent-to-treat principle) for individual
therapy on 2 STEP scales, clarification and problem-solving perspectives. Their
evaluations were also significantly higher for the entire therapeutic result on
the VEV. Furthermore, the MED group showed greater symptom reduction than the
noMED group on the Global Severity Index and 8 SCL-90-R scales, including
Somatization, Insecurity in Social Contact, Obsessiveness, Anxiety,
Anger/Hostility, Phobic Anxiety, Paranoid Thinking and Psychoticism. CONCLUSIONS:
This study indicates that promoting mindfulness in PiTs could positively
influence the therapeutic course and treatment results in their patients.

PMID: 17917468 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

265. Ann Behav Med. 2006 Dec;32(3):227-34.

Short-term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of mindfulness body scan
meditation.

Ditto B, Eclache M, Goldman N.

Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
blaine.ditto@mcgill.ca

BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction
program has positive effects on health, but little is known about the immediate
physiological effects of different components of the program. PURPOSE: To examine
the short-term autonomic and cardiovascular effects of one of the techniques
employed in mindfulness meditation training, a basic body scan meditation.
METHODS: In Study 1, 32 healthy young adults (23 women, 9 men) were assigned
randomly to either a meditation, progressive muscular relaxation or wait-list
control group. Each participated in two laboratory sessions 4 weeks apart in
which they practiced their assigned technique. In Study 2, using a
within-subjects design, 30 healthy young adults (15 women, 15 men) participated
in two laboratory sessions in which they practiced meditation or listened to an
audiotape of a popular novel in counterbalanced order. Heart rate, cardiac
respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and blood pressure were measured in both
studies. Additional measures derived from impedance cardiography were obtained in
Study 2. RESULTS: In both studies, participants displayed significantly greater
increases in RSA while meditating than while engaging in other relaxing
activities. A significant decrease in cardiac pre-ejection period was observed
while participants meditated in Study 2. This suggests that simultaneous
increases in cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity may explain the
lack of an effect on heart rate. Female participants in Study 2 exhibited a
significantly larger decrease in diastolic blood pressure during meditation than
the novel, whereas men had greater increases in cardiac output during meditation
compared to the novel. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate both similarities and
differences in the physiological responses to body scan meditation and other
relaxing activities.

PMID: 17107296 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

266. J Clin Psychol. 2006 Dec;62(12):1445-67.

The Toronto Mindfulness Scale: development and validation.

Lau MA, Bishop SR, Segal ZV, Buis T, Anderson ND, Carlson L, Shapiro S, Carmody
J, Abbey S, Devins G.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health and the University of Toronto.
mark_lau@camh.net

In this study, the authors both developed and validated a self-report mindfulness
measure, the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). In Study 1, participants were
individuals with and without meditation experience. Results showed good internal
consistency and two factors, Curiosity and Decentering. Most of the expected
relationships with other constructs were as expected. The TMS scores increased
with increasing mindfulness meditation experience. In Study 2, criterion and
incremental validity of the TMS were investigated on a group of individuals
participating in 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction programs. Results
showed that TMS scores increased following treatment, and Decentering scores
predicted improvements in clinical outcome. Thus, the TMS is a promising measure
of the mindfulness state with good psychometric properties and predictive of
treatment outcome.

PMID: 17019673 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

267. J Pers. 2006 Dec;74(6):1803-31.

Hypo-egoic self-regulation: exercising self-control by diminishing the influence
of the self.

Leary MR, Adams CE, Tate EB.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708,
USA. leary@duke.edu

Theory and research dealing with self-regulation have focused primarily on
instances of self-regulation that involve high levels of self-reflection and
effortful self-control. However, intentionally trying to control one’s behavior
sometimes reduces the likelihood of achieving one’s goals. This article examines
the process of hypo-egoic self-regulation in which people relinquish deliberate,
conscious control over their own behavior so that they will respond more
naturally, spontaneously, or automatically. An examination of spontaneously
occurring hypo-egoic states (such as flow, deindividuation, and transcendence)
suggests that hypo-egoic states are characterized by lowered self-awareness
and/or an increase in concrete and present-focused self-thoughts. In light of
this, people may intentionally foster hypo-egoism via two pathways-(a) taking
steps to reduce the proportion of time that they are self-aware (such as
repeating a behavior until it is automatic or practicing meditation) or (b)
increasing the concreteness of their self-thoughts (such as inducing a concrete
mindset or practicing mindfulness). In this way, people may deliberately choose
to regulate hypo-egoically when effortful control might be detrimental to their
performance.

PMID: 17083667 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

268. ScientificWorldJournal. 2006 Nov 16;6:2239-53.

Neuroscience of meditation.

Deshmukh VD.

Flagler Hospital, St Augustine, FL 32086, USA. vinod38@aol.com

Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a
means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state
with realization of one’s being in harmony with reality. It is unitive,
undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be
experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience
can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics
including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence,
sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is
proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art
of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling
to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional
energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness) or disengagement
(shunyata, silence, emptiness). In both states, there is an experience of
spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time.
It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic,
sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with
self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It
is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life
resolve. One realizes the truth of one’s harmonious being in nature and nature in
oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a
dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding
reality.

PMID: 17370019 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

269. Altern Ther Health Med. 2006 Nov-Dec;12(6):26-35.

A home study-based spirituality education program decreases emotional distress
and increases quality of life–a randomized, controlled trial.

Moritz S, Quan H, Rickhi B, Liu M, Angen M, Vintila R, Sawa R, Soriano J, Toews
J.

Canadian Institute for Natural and Integrative Medicine, Calgary.

CONTEXT: Although epidemiological studies have reported protective effects of
religion and spirituality on mental health, it is unknown whether spirituality
can be used as an intervention to improve psychological well-being. OBJECTIVE: To
evaluate the efficacy of a home study-based spirituality program on mood
disturbance in emotionally distressed patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND
PARTICIPANTS: A non-blinded, randomized, wait list-controlled trial of 165
individuals with mood disturbance [score of >40 on the Profile of Mood States
(POMS)] were recruited from primary care clinics in a Canadian city between
August 2000 and March 2001. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to a
spirituality group (an 8-week audiotaped spirituality home-study program), a
mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction group (attendance at facilitated
classes for 8 weeks), or a wait-list control group (no intervention for 12
weeks). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were mood disturbance, measured
using POMS, and quality of life, measured using the SF-36, a short-form health
survey with 36 questions. The POMS and the SF-36 were completed at baseline, at 8
weeks, and at 12 weeks. RESULTS: At the end of the 8-week intervention period,
the mean POMS score improvement was -43.1 (-45.7%) for the spirituality group,
-22.6 (-26.3%) for the meditation group, and -10.3 (11.3%) for the control group
(P<.001 for spirituality vs control group; P=.034 for spirituality vs meditation
group). Mean improvement in the SF-36 mental component summary score was 14.4
(48.6%) for the spirituality group, 7.1 (22.3%) for the meditation group, and 4.7
(16.1%) for the control group (P<.001 for spirituality vs control group; P=.029
for spirituality vs meditation group). At 12 weeks, POMS and SF-36 scores
remained significantly different from baseline for the spirituality group.

PMID: 17131979 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

270. CNS Spectr. 2006 Nov;11(11):829-51.

The application of mindfulness-based cognitive interventions in the treatment of
co-occurring addictive and mood disorders.

Hoppes K.

Department of Psychiatry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029,
USA. Kim.Hoppes@msnyuhealth.org

This article reviews the theory, clinical application, and empirical findings on
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for mental health and addictive
disorders. Expanding upon the research demonstrating the efficacy of
cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for addiction, this article develops and
explores the rationale for combining mindfulness-based interventions with
evidence-based CBTs in treating addictive disorders, with an emphasis on
substance use disorders with co-occurring mood disorders. This article proposes
that deficits in affect–regulation related to the behavioral and emotional
effects of neurobiological changes that occur with long-term substance
abuse–pose a unique set of challenges in early recovery. Prolonged use of
addictive substances impairs the brain pathways that mediate certain affect
regulation functions. These functions involve attention and inhibitory control,
the saliency of and response to addictive versus natural reward stimuli, and the
ability to detach or maintain perspective in response to strong emotional states.
In treating this affective dysregulation, which can contribute to the
vulnerability to relapse in the early stages of recovery, the
affect-regulation-specific focus of MBCT adds a valuable element to augment CBT
for addiction. Summarizing magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission
tomography findings on the effects of MBCT and the neurobiology of drug
addiction, this article outlines directions for further research on potential
benefits of MBCT for the recovering individual. Finally, this article describes a
structured protocol, developed at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York
City, which combines CBT with mindfulness-based intervention, for the treatment
of affect-regulation issues specific to co-occurring addictive and mood
disorders.

PMID: 17075556 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

271. Neural Netw. 2006 Nov;19(9):1458-60. Epub 2006 Oct 18.

Synthetic computational models of selective attention.

Raffone A.

Department of Psychology, University of Rome La Sapienza, Via dei Marsi, 78,
00185 Rome, Italy. antonino.raffone@sunderland.ac.uk

Computational modeling plays an important role to understand the mechanisms of
attention. In this framework, synthetic computational models can uniquely
contribute to integrate different explanatory levels and neurocognitive findings,
with special reference to the integration of attention and awareness processes.
Novel combined experimental and computational investigations can lead to
important insights, as in the revived domain of neural correlates of attention-
and awareness-related meditation states and traits.

PMID: 17052886 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

272. Lakartidningen. 2006 Oct 18-24;103(42):3174-7.

[Mindfulness meditation–an old fashion method for stress relief]

[Article in Swedish]

Asberg M, Sköld C, Wahlberg K, Nygren A.

Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, Danderyds sjukhus. marie.asberg@ki.se

PMID: 17111986 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

273. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Oct-Dec;50(4):375-83.

Effect of Sahaj Yoga on neuro-cognitive functions in patients suffering from
major depression.

Sharma VK, Das S, Mondal S, Goswami U, Gandhi A.

Department of Physiology, Vardhaman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi.
drviveksharma@yahoo.com

Cognitive functions are impaired in Major Depression. Studies on the effects of
Yoga on cognitive functions have shown improvement in memory, vigilance and
anxiety levels. 30 patients suffering from Major depression (age 18 to 45 years)
were randomly divided into two groups: Group 1: (10 males and 5 Females) Patients
who practised Sahaj Yoga meditation and also received conventional
anti-depressant medication. Group 2: (9 males and 6 Females) Patients who only
received conventional antidepressant medication. Group 1 patients were
administered Sahaj Yoga practice for 8 weeks. Neuro-cognitive test battery
consisting of Letter cancellation test (LCT), Trail making test ‘A’ (TTA), Trail
making test ‘B’ (TTB), Ruff figural fluency test (RFFT), Forward digit span (FDS)
& Reverse digit span test (RDS) was used to assess following cognitive domains:
Attention span, visuo-motor speed, short-term memory, working memory and
executive functions. After 8 weeks, both Group 1 and Group 2 subjects showed
significant improvement in LCT, TTA & TTB but improvement in LCT was more marked
in Group 1 subjects. Also, there was significant improvement in RDS scores in
only Group 1 subjects (P < 0.05). The results thereby, demonstrate that Sahaj
Yoga practice in addition to the improvement in various other cognitive domains
seen with conventional anti-depressants, can lead to additional improvement in
executive functions like manipulation of information in the verbal working memory
and added improvement in attention span and visuo-motor speed of the depressives.

PMID: 17402267 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

274. Cancer J. 2006 Sep-Oct;12(5):425-31.

Complementary medicine in palliative care and cancer symptom management.

Mansky PJ, Wallerstedt DB.

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes
of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA. manskyp@mail.nih.gov

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients varies
according to geographical area, gender, and disease diagnosis. The prevalence of
CAM use among cancer patients in the United States has been estimated to be
between 7% and 54%. Most cancer patients use CAM with the hope of boosting the
immune system, relieving pain, and controlling side effects related to disease or
treatment. Only a minority of patients include CAM in the treatment plan with
curative intent. This review article focuses on practices belonging to the CAM
domains of mind-body medicine, CAM botanicals, manipulative practices, and energy
medicine, because they are widely used as complementary approaches to palliative
cancer care and cancer symptom management. In the area of cancer symptom
management, auricular acupuncture, therapeutic touch, and hypnosis may help to
manage cancer pain. Music therapy, massage, and hypnosis may have an effect on
anxiety, and both acupuncture and massage may have a therapeutic role in cancer
fatigue. Acupuncture and selected botanicals may reduce chemotherapy-induced
nausea and emesis, and hypnosis and guided imagery may be beneficial in
anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Transcendental meditation and the
mindfulness-based stress reduction can play a role in the management of depressed
mood and anxiety. Black cohosh and phytoestrogen-rich foods may reduce vasomotor
symptoms in postmenopausal women. Most CAM approaches to the treatment of cancer
are safe when used by a CAM practitioner experienced in the treatment of cancer
patients. The potential for many commonly used botanical to interact with
prescription drugs continues to be a concern. Botanicals should be used with
caution by cancer patients and only under the guidance of an oncologist
knowledgeable in their use.

PMID: 17034678 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

275. Explore (NY). 2006 Sep-Oct;2(5):422-5.

The experience of transcendental meditation in middle school students: a
qualitative report.

Rosaen C, Benn R.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan Integrative Medicine, Ann
Arbor, MI 48104, USA.

BACKGROUND: Transcendental Meditation (TM), a sitting meditation technique
designed to quiet the mind and induce physical and mental relaxation, has been
widely studied in adults. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to explore systematically
the first-person experience of young adolescents who practice TM. DESIGN: A
descriptive, qualitative study using semistructured interviews. SETTING: Middle
school setting. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 10 seventh grade students who
have practiced TM for a one-year period of time. RESULTS: Themes described by
students resulting from meditation included the following: (1) an increasing
state of restful alertness; (2) improvement in skills indicative of emotional
intelligence (self-control, self-reflection/awareness, and flexibility in
emotional response); and (3) improvement in academic performance. The state of
restful alertness induced by meditation appeared central to facilitating growth
in social-emotional capacities, academic performance, and flexibility in
emotional response. The inner state of restful alertness provided students with
greater capacity to expand their ways of looking inwardly at themselves and their
relationships with others (emotional intelligence) as well as focusing their
attention on controlling their behavior and keeping on task in school.
CONCLUSIONS: Students described beneficial effects of TM: an increased state of
restful alertness and greater capacity for self-reflection, self-control, and
flexibility as well as improved academic performance. The state of restful
alertness induced by meditation may facilitate the growth of social-emotional
capacities necessary for regulating the emotional labiality and interpersonal
stress of adolescence. Future empirical validation is needed to analyze
systematically the impact of this practice on students’ social-emotional and
cognitive development and to determine whether its practice can serve as a
protective function for helping students successfully meet the challenges of
adolescence.

PMID: 16979106 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

276. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Sep;5(3):192-201.

Tai chi chuan: mind-body practice or exercise intervention? Studying the benefit
for cancer survivors.

Mansky P, Sannes T, Wallerstedt D, Ge A, Ryan M, Johnson LL, Chesney M, Gerber L.

Division of Intramural Research, National Center for Complementary and
Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and
Human Services, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1302, USA. manskyp@mail.nih.gov

Tai chi chuan (TCC) has been used as a mind-body practice in Asian culture for
centuries to improve wellness and reduce stress and has recently received
attention by researchers as an exercise intervention. A review of the English
literature on research in TCC published from 1989 to 2006 identified 20
prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials in a number of populations,
including elderly participants (7 studies), patients with cardiovascular
complications (3 studies), patients with chronic disease (6 studies), and
patients who might gain psychological benefit from TCC practice (2 studies).
However, only the studies of TCC in the elderly and 2 studies of TCC for
cardiovascular disease had adequate designs and size to allow conclusions about
the efficacy of TCC. Most (11 studies) were small and provided limited
information on the benefit of TCC in the settings tested. There is growing
awareness that cancer survivors represent a population with multiple needs
related to physical deconditioning, cardiovascular disease risk, and
psychological stress. TCC as an intervention may provide benefit to cancer
survivors in these multiple areas of need based on its characteristics of
combining aspects of meditation and aerobic exercise. However, little research
has been conducted to date to determine the benefit of TCC in this population. We
propose a model to study the unique characteristics of TCC compared to physical
exercise that may highlight characteristic features of this mind-body
intervention in cancer survivors.

PMID: 16880423 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

277. Menopause. 2006 Sep-Oct;13(5):760-9.

A pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction for hot flashes.

Carmody J, Crawford S, Churchill L.

Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, University of Massachusetts
Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA. james.carmody@umassmed.edu

Comment in:
Menopause. 2006 Sep-Oct;13(5):727-9.

OBJECTIVE: A variety of results from both population and laboratory studies
suggest that stress and hot flashes (HFs) are correlated and that HFs are more
severe in women with lower coping abilities. The objective of this pilot study
was to obtain information on the feasibility and effect of participation in a
mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on HF severity and
menopause-related quality of life. DESIGN: Fifteen women volunteers reporting a
minimum of seven moderate to severe HFs per day at study intake attended the
eight weekly MBSR classes at the University of Massachusetts Medical School.
Participants were assessed for menopause-related quality of life before beginning
and at the conclusion of the MBSR program. Women also kept a daily log of their
HFs through the course of the 7 weeks of the MBSR program and for 4 weeks after
it. RESULTS: Women’s scores on quality-of-life measures increased significantly,
and the median reported HF severity, calculated as the weekly average of a daily
HF severity score, decreased 40% over the course of the 11 weeks of the
assessment period. The women were individually interviewed at the completion of
their participation, and the results of the interviews were consistent with the
results from daily diaries. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide preliminary
positive evidence of the feasibility and efficacy of MBSR in supporting women who
are experiencing severe HFs, and it warrants further investigation.

PMID: 16932242 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

278. Psychol Addict Behav. 2006 Sep;20(3):343-7.

Mindfulness meditation and substance use in an incarcerated population.

Bowen S, Witkiewitz K, Dillworth TM, Chawla N, Simpson TL, Ostafin BD, Larimer
ME, Blume AW, Parks GA, Marlatt GA.

Addictive Behaviors Research Center, Department of Psychology, University of
Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. swbowen@u.washington.edu

Despite the availability of various substance abuse treatments, alcohol and drug
misuse and related negative consequences remain prevalent. Vipassana meditation
(VM), a Buddhist mindfulness-based practice, provides an alternative for
individuals who do not wish to attend or have not succeeded with traditional
addiction treatments. In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a
VM course on substance use and psychosocial outcomes in an incarcerated
population. Results indicate that after release from jail, participants in the VM
course, as compared with those in a treatment-as-usual control condition, showed
significant reductions in alcohol, marijuana, and crack cocaine use. VM
participants showed decreases in alcohol-related problems and psychiatric
symptoms as well as increases in positive psychosocial outcomes. The utility of
mindfulness-based treatments for substance use is discussed.

PMID: 16938074 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

279. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2006 Aug 10;126(15):1898-902.

[Training in mindfulness for patients with stress and chronic illness]

[Article in Norwegian]

de Vibe M, Moum T.

Lierskogen legekontor, 3422 Lierskogen. mdevibe@frisurf.no

BACKGROUND: Training based on mindfulness has developed into a method for
managing stress and health problems over the last 25 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS:
144 patients (88% women), troubled by stress and chronic illness, used the method
(8-week course) in a randomised controlled study in general practice. Effects on
quality of life (QoL) were measured using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire (WHO).
Subjective health was measured using the Subjective Health Complaint (SHC)
inventory and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-5). RESULTS: 92% of the patients
completed all 8 weeks of the course. The participants rated its importance to 8.5
on a scale from 1 to 10. An increase in QoL and subjective health from start to
finish of the course (p < 0.001) was observed, while the control group remained
unchanged. The changes in QoL were maintained at 3 and 6 months follow-up, while
subjective health continued to improve during that period. Changes were
independent of age, sex, education and marital-, work- and health insurance
status. Improvements were positively correlated with the self-reported amount of
mindfulness training. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were in the range of 0.5-0.6 and
were highest for mental symptoms and mental function. INTERPRETATION: The method
gives the patients a tool they can use to improve their health and QoL. By
increased understanding and ability to deal with ones own health the patients
seem to see themselves and their lives in a new way. The method may be suitable
for schools and universities in addition to patient education centres.

PMID: 16915310 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

280. Emotion. 2006 Aug;6(3):392-405.

Awareness of subtle emotional feelings: a comparison of long-term meditators and
nonmeditators.

Nielsen L, Kaszniak AW.

Behavioral and Social Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National
Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. nielsenli@nia.nih.gov

Erratum in:
Emotion. 2007 Nov;7(4):754.

The authors explored whether meditation training to enhance emotional awareness
improves discrimination of subtle emotional feelings hypothesized to guide
decision-making. Long-term meditators and nonmeditators were compared on measures
of self-reported valence and arousal, skin conductance response (SCR), and facial
electromyography (EMG) to masked and nonmasked emotional pictures, and on
measures of heartbeat detection and self-reported emotional awareness. Groups
responded similarly to nonmasked pictures. In the masked condition, only controls
showed discrimination in valence self-reports. However, meditators reported
greater emotional clarity than controls, and meditators with higher clarity had
reduced arousal and improved valence discrimination in the masked condition.
These findings provide qualified support for the somatic marker hypothesis and
suggest that meditation may influence how emotionally ambiguous information is
processed, regulated, and represented in conscious awareness.

PMID: 16938081 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

281. J Behav Med. 2006 Aug;29(4):359-76. Epub 2006 Jul 18.

Effects of spiritual mantram repetition on HIV outcomes: a randomized controlled
trial.

Bormann JE, Gifford AL, Shively M, Smith TL, Redwine L, Kelly A, Becker S,
Gershwin M, Bone P, Belding W.

VA San Diego Healthcare System, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive (118), San Diego, CA
92161, USA. jill.bormann@va.gov

Erratum in:
J Behav Med. 2006 Oct;29(5):499.

We examined the efficacy of a psycho-spiritual intervention of mantram
repetition–a word or phrase with spiritual associations repeated silently
throughout the day–on psychological distress (intrusive thoughts, stress,
anxiety, anger, depression), quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction, and
existential spiritual well-being in HIV-infected adults. Using a 2-group by
4-time repeated measures design, 93 participants were randomly assigned to
mantram (n = 46) or attention control group (n = 47). Over time, the mantram
group improved significantly more than the control group in reducing trait-anger
and increasing spiritual faith and spiritual connectedness. Actual mantram
practice measured by wrist counters was inversely associated with non-HIV related
intrusive thoughts and positively associated with quality of life, total
existential spiritual well-being, meaning/peace, and spiritual faith.
Intent-to-treat findings suggest that a mantram group intervention and actual
mantram practice each make unique contributions for managing psychological
distress and enhancing existential spiritual well-being in adults living with
HIV/AIDS.

PMID: 16847590 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

282. Bull Cancer. 2006 Jul 1;93(7):699-708.

[Psychological stress in oncology: the role of glucocorticoids]

[Article in French]

Ronson A.

Psychiatre, Institut Jules-Bordet, Clinique de Psycho-Oncologie, 121, boulevard
de Waterloo, 1000 Bruxelles. alain.ronson@bordet.be

During the last years, the correlations between biological processes,
psychological adjustment and stress disorders have received increasing attention
and a growing body of research results has been published in the general
literature. In the realm of psycho-oncology, however, conceptual models on this
topic and studies aimed at their validation have remained relatively scanty. On
the basis of our observations and available literature in the field of
post-traumatic and depressive stress disorders in oncology, we have proposed to
apply the concept of allostatic load to the study and understanding of the
psychological experience of cancer. This strategy has led us to the formulation
of a novel classification of adjustment disorders in oncology and the creation of
the clinical entity named « cancer-specific stress syndrome ». Depending on
clinical presentation of the syndrome, one distinguishes three subtypes, namely
the depressive, post-traumatic and « dysallostatic » (mixed) forms. In the present
paper, we examine the role of glucocorticoids and their relationships with one of
the basic components of allostatic load–a failure to counter-regulate the immune
system by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis–in the physiopathology of
stress disorders in oncology. Conflicting theories are presented–glucocorticoid
cascade versus insufficient glucocorticoid signal transmission–and studies
measuring potential correlations between stress and cortisol in oncology are
critically reviewed. The results of this process provide substantial support for
the application of the allostatic load model and post-traumatic phenomenology,
but important advances have yet to be achieved before definitive conclusions can
be established in this field. Such advances could lead to profound changes in the
way we understand and treat psychological distress in patients with cancer, both
pharmacologically and psychotherapeutically.

PMID: 16873079 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

283. J Gen Intern Med. 2006 Jul;21(7):728-34.

A multidimensional integrative medicine intervention to improve cardiovascular
risk.

Edelman D, Oddone EZ, Liebowitz RS, Yancy WS Jr, Olsen MK, Jeffreys AS, Moon SD,
Harris AC, Smith LL, Quillian-Wolever RE, Gaudet TW.

Division of General Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University
Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. dedelman@acpub.duke.edu

BACKGROUND: Integrative medicine is an individualized, patient-centered approach
to health, combining a whole-person model with evidence-based medicine.
Interventions based in integrative medicine theory have not been tested as
cardiovascular risk-reduction strategies. Our objective was to determine whether
personalized health planning (PHP), an intervention based on the theories and
principles underlying integrative medicine, reduces 10-year risk of coronary
heart disease (CHD). METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial among
154 outpatients age 45 or over, with 1 or more known cardiovascular risk factors.
Subjects were enrolled from primary care practices near an academic medical
center, and the intervention was delivered at a university Center for Integrative
Medicine. Following a health risk assessment, each subject in the intervention
arm worked with a health coach and a medical provider to construct a personalized
health plan. The plan identified specific health behaviors important for each
subject to modify; the choice of behaviors was driven both by cardiovascular risk
reduction and the interests of each individual subject. The coach then assisted
each subject in implementing her/his health plan. Techniques used in
implementation included mindfulness meditation, relaxation training, stress
management, motivational techniques, and health education and coaching. Subjects
randomized to the comparison group received usual care (UC) without access to the
intervention. Our primary outcome measure was 10-year risk of CHD, as measured by
a standard Framingham risk score, and assessed at baseline, 5, and 10 months.
Differences between arms were assessed by linear mixed effects modeling, with
time and study arm as independent variables. RESULTS: Baseline 10-year risk of
CHD was 11.1% for subjects randomized to UC (n=77), and 9.3% for subjects
randomized to PHP (n=77). Over 10 months of the intervention, CHD risk decreased
to 9.8% for UC subjects and 7.8% for intervention subjects. Based on a linear
mixed-effects model, there was a statistically significant difference in the rate
of risk improvement between the 2 arms (P=.04). In secondary analyses, subjects
in the PHP arm were found to have increased days of exercise per week compared
with UC (3.7 vs 2.4, P=.002), and subjects who were overweight on entry into the
study had greater weight loss in the PHP arm compared with UC (P=.06).
CONCLUSIONS: A multidimensional intervention based on integrative medicine
principles reduced risk of CHD, possibly by increasing exercise and improving
weight loss.

PMCID: PMC1924710
PMID: 16808774 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

284. Integr Cancer Ther. 2006 Jun;5(2):98-108.

Mindfulness meditation for oncology patients: a discussion and critical review.

Ott MJ, Norris RL, Bauer-Wu SM.

Nursing and Patient Care Services, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA
02115, USA. maryjane_ott@dfci.harvard.edu

The purpose of this article is to (1) provide a comprehensive over view and
discussion of mindfulness meditation and its clinical applicability in oncology
and (2) report and critically evaluate the existing and emerging research on
mindfulness meditation as an intervention for cancer patients. Using relevant
keywords, a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Ovid was completed
along with a review of published abstracts from the annual conferences sponsored
by the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society and the
American Psychosocial Oncology Society. Each article and abstract was critiqued
and systematically assessed for purpose statement or research questions, STUDY
DESIGN: The search produced 9 research articles published in the past 5 years and
5 conference abstracts published in 2004. Most studies were conducted with breast
and prostate cancer patients, and the mindfulness intervention was done in a
clinic-based group setting. Consistent benefits–improved psychological
functioning, reduction of stress symptoms, enhanced coping and well-being in
cancer outpatients–were found. More research in this area is warranted: using
randomized, controlled designs, rigorous methods, and different cancer diagnoses
and treatment settings; expanding outcomes to include quality of life,
physiological, health care use, and health-related outcomes; exploring mediating
factors; and discerning dose effects and optimal frequency and length of home
practice. Mindfulness meditation has clinically relevant implications to
alleviate psychological and physical suffering of persons living with cancer. Use
of this behavioral intervention for oncology patients is an area of burgeoning
interest to clinicians and researchers.

PMID: 16685074 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

285. J Psychosom Res. 2006 Jun;60(6):649-50.

Promotion of mindfulness in psychotherapists in training and treatment results of
their patients.

Grepmair L, Mitterlehner F, Rother W, Nickel M.

PMID: 16731244 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

286. Holist Nurs Pract. 2006 May-Jun;20(3):147-51.

Mind-body intelligence: a new perspective integrating Eastern and Western healing
traditions.

Adelman EM.

Psycare Solutions, Inc, Sage Healing Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19027, USA.
Ellensage@aol.com

The purpose of this article is to introduce a new approach that integrates
mindfulness meditation practices and Western psychotherapeutic approaches into a
holistic program.

PMID: 16672815 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

287. BMC Psychiatry. 2006 Apr 7;6:14.

An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of
Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for patients with active depression and
anxiety in primary care.

Finucane A, Mercer SW.

General Practice and Primary Care, Division of Community-based Sciences,
University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 9LX, UK. andyfinucaine@btinternet.com

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an 8-week course
developed for patients with relapsing depression that integrates mindfulness
meditation practices and cognitive theory. Previous studies have demonstrated
that non-depressed participants with a history of relapsing depression are
protected from relapse by participating in the course. This exploratory study
examined the acceptability and effectiveness of MBCT for patients in primary care
with active symptoms of depression and anxiety METHODS: 13 patients with
recurrent depression or recurrent depression and anxiety were recruited to take
part in the study. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted three
months after completing the MBCT programme. A framework approach was used to
analyse the data. Beck depression inventories (BDI-II) and Beck anxiety
inventories (BAI) provided quantitative data and were administered before and
three months after the intervention. RESULTS: The qualitative data indicated that
mindfulness training was both acceptable and beneficial to the majority of
patients. For many of the participants, being in a group was an important
normalising and validating experience. However most of the group believed the
course was too short and thought that some form of follow up was essential. More
than half the patients continued to apply mindfulness techniques three months
after the course had ended. A minority of patients continued to experience
significant levels of psychological distress, particularly anxiety. Statistically
significant reductions in mean depression and anxiety scores were observed; the
mean pre-course depression score was 35.7 and post-course score was 17.8 (p =
0.001). A similar reduction was noted for anxiety with a mean pre-course anxiety
score of 32.0 and mean post course score of 20.5 (p = 0.039). Overall 8/11 (72%)
patients showed improvements in BDI and 7/11 (63%) patients showed improvements
in BAI. In general the results of the qualitative analysis agreed well with the
quantitative changes in depression and anxiety reported. CONCLUSION: The results
of this exploratory mixed methods study suggest that mindfulness based cognitive
therapy may have a role to play in treating active depression and anxiety in
primary care.

PMCID: PMC1456957
PMID: 16603060 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

288. Am Psychol. 2006 Apr;61(3):227-39.

The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western psychology: a mutually
enriching dialogue.

Walsh R, Shapiro SL.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California College of
Medicine, CA, USA.

Meditation is now one of the most enduring, widespread, and researched of all
psychotherapeutic methods. However, to date the meeting of the meditative
disciplines and Western psychology has been marred by significant
misunderstandings and by an assimilative integration in which much of the
richness and uniqueness of meditation and its psychologies and philosophies have
been overlooked. Also overlooked have been their major implications for an
understanding of such central psychological issues as cognition and attention,
mental training and development, health and pathology, and psychological
capacities and potentials. Investigating meditative traditions with greater
cultural and conceptual sensitivity opens the possibility of a mutual enrichment
of both the meditative traditions and Western psychology, with far-reaching
benefits for both.

PMID: 16594839 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

289. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;40(4):285-94.

Mindfulness-based psychotherapies: a review of conceptual foundations, empirical
evidence and practical considerations.

Allen NB, Chambers R, Knight W; Melbourne Academic Mindfulness Interest Group.

ORYGEN Research Centre, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
nba@unimelb.edu.au

Comment in:
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;40(9):818-9; author reply 819-21.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2006 Sep;40(9):818; author reply 819-21.

OBJECTIVE: This paper, composed by an interest group of clinicians and
researchers based in Melbourne, presents some background to the practice of
mindfulness-based therapies as relevant to the general professional reader. We
address the empirical evidence for these therapies, the principles through which
they might operate, some practical questions facing those wishing to commence
practice in this area or to refer patients into mindfulness-based therapies, and
some considerations relevant to the conduct and interpretation of research into
the therapeutic application of mindfulness. METHOD: Databases (e.g. PsycINFO,
MEDLINE) were searched for literature on the impact of mindfulness interventions,
and the psychological and biological mechanisms that underpin the effects of
mindfulness practice. This paper also draws upon the clinical experience of the
author group. RESULTS: Mindfulness practice and principles have their origins in
many contemplative and philosophical traditions but individuals can effectively
adopt the training and practice of mindfulness in the absence of such traditions
or vocabulary. A recent surge of interest regarding mindfulness in therapeutic
techniques can be attributed to the publication of some well-designed empirical
evaluations of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Arising from this as well as
a broader history of clinical integration of mindfulness and Western
psychotherapies, a growing number of clinicians have interest and enthusiasm to
learn the techniques of mindfulness and to integrate them into their therapeutic
work. This review highlights the importance of accurate professional awareness
and understanding of mindfulness and its therapeutic applications. CONCLUSIONS:
The theoretical and empirical literatures on therapeutic applications of
mindfulness are in states of significant growth and development. This group
suggests, based on this review, that the combination of some well-developed
conceptual models for the therapeutic action of mindfulness and a developing
empirical base, justifies a degree of optimism that mindfulness-based approaches
will become helpful strategies to offer in the care of patients with a wide range
of mental and physical health problems.

PMID: 16620310 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

290. Rinsho Byori. 2006 Apr;54(4):329-34.

[Changes in autonomic function and EEG power during mental arithmetic task and
their mutual relationship]

[Article in Japanese]

Hamada T, Murata T, Takahashi T, Ohtake Y, Saitoh M, Kimura H, Wada Y, Yoshida H.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukui University Hospital, Yoshida-gun,
Fukui-pref 910-1193.

Meditation is a specific consciousness state in which deep relaxation and
increased internalized attention coexist. Autonomic nervous activity during
meditation was reported to be characterized by decreased sympathetic activity and
increased parasympathetic activity. And concerning EEG power, slow alpha power
and fast theta power increased during meditation. On the other hand, mental
arithmetic (MA) tasks have been reported to induce an increase in blood pressure
and heart rate with enhanced sympathetic activity. However, changes in autonomic
nervous activity and EEG power during MA tasks and their mutual relationship have
not been adequately studied. In the present study, we quantitatively analyzed the
changes in autonomic nervous activity using heart rate variability (HRV) and EEG
power during MA task in 30 healthy volunteers. MA task induced significant
increases in normalized LF, LF/HF ratio (as a sympathetic index), and a decrease
in normalized HF (as a parasympathetic index). On the other hand, significant
decrease in EEG power (slow theta: 4-6 Hz and fast alpha: 10-13 Hz in the
posterior region and fast theta: 6-8 Hz and slow alpha: 8-10 Hz in all the
regions) were induced by MA task. Further evaluation of these changes showed a
negative correlation between the change rates (with the control resting condition
as the baseline) in fast alpha power and that in LF/HF. These results suggest
that specific correlated relationships exist between the change in autonomic
nervous activity and EEG power depending on the difference in mental task (i.e.,
meditation or MA).

PMID: 16722450 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

291. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Mar 15;73(6):1049-56.

The patient with excessive worry.

Shearer S, Gordon L.

Department of Family Medicine, Franklin Square Hospital Center, Baltimore, MD
21237, USA. steve.shearer@medstar.net

Worry is a normal response to uncertainty. Education, empathetic support,
reassurance, and passage of time usually ameliorate ordinary worries. However,
these common-sense strategies for dealing with transient worries often prove
ineffective for patients with excessive worry, many of whom meet the criteria for
disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed.
Evidence-based treatments for such disorders can assist family physicians in
management of persistent worry as a self-perpetuating habit across diagnostic
categories. Antidepressants and cognitive behavioral therapy are effective
treatments for various disorders characterized by excessive worry. Cognitive
behavioral strategies that may be adapted to primary care contacts include
education about the worry process, repeated challenge of cognitive distortions
and beliefs that underpin worry, behavioral exposure assignments (e.g., scheduled
worry periods, worry journals), and learning mindfulness meditation.

PMID: 16570740 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

292. Assessment. 2006 Mar;13(1):27-45.

Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness.

Baer RA, Smith GT, Hopkins J, Krietemeyer J, Toney L.

University of Kentucky, Kentucky, USA.

The authors examine the facet structure of mindfulness using five recently
developed mindfulness questionnaires. Two large samples of undergraduate students
completed mindfulness questionnaires and measures of other constructs.
Psychometric properties of the mindfulness questionnaires were examined,
including internal consistency and convergent and discriminant relationships with
other variables. Factor analyses of the combined pool of items from the
mindfulness questionnaires suggested that collectively they contain five clear,
interpretable facets of mindfulness. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses
suggested that at least four of the identified factors are components of an
overall mindfulness construct and that the factor structure of mindfulness may
vary with meditation experience. Mindfulness facets were shown to be
differentially correlated in expected ways with several other constructs and to
have incremental validity in the prediction of psychological symptoms. Findings
suggest that conceptualizing mindfulness as a multifaceted construct is helpful
in understanding its components and its relationships with other variables.

PMID: 16443717 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

293. J Clin Psychol. 2006 Mar;62(3):373-86.

Mechanisms of mindfulness.

Shapiro SL, Carlson LE, Astin JA, Freedman B.

Department of Counseling Psychology, Santa Clara University, CA 95053-0201, USA.
slshapiro@scu.edu

Recently, the psychological construct mindfulness has received a great deal of
attention. The majority of research has focused on clinical studies to evaluate
the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions. This line of research has led to
promising data suggesting mindfulness-based interventions are effective for
treatment of both psychological and physical symptoms. However, an equally
important direction for future research is to investigate questions concerning
mechanisms of action underlying mindfulness-based interventions. This theoretical
paper proposes a model of mindfulness, in an effort to elucidate potential
mechanisms to explain how mindfulness affects positive change. Potential
implications and future directions for the empirical study of mechanisms involved
in mindfulness are addressed.

PMID: 16385481 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

294. J Clin Psychol. 2006 Feb;62(2):201-10.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of recurrence of suicidal
behavior.

Williams JM, Duggan DS, Crane C, Fennell MJ.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, UK. mark.williams@psych.ox.ac.uk

Once suicidal thoughts have emerged as a feature of depression they are likely to
be reactivated as part of a suicidal mode of mind whenever sad mood reappears.
This article reviews the methods and the usefulness of mindfulness-based
cognitive therapy (MBCT) as a treatment for the prevention of the reactivation of
the suicidal mode. MBCT integrates mindfulness meditation practices and cognitive
therapy techniques. It teaches participants to develop moment-by-moment
awareness, approaching ongoing experience with an attitude of nonjudgment and
acceptance. Participants are increasingly able to see their thoughts as mental
events rather than facts (metacognitive awareness). A case example illustrates
how mindfulness skills develop with MBCT and how they relate to the cognitive
processes that fuel suicidal crises. An ongoing controlled trial will provide
further evidence, but pilot work suggests that MBCT is a promising intervention
for those who have experienced suicidal ideation in the past.

PMID: 16342287 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

295. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jan 25;(1):CD004998.

Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders.

Krisanaprakornkit T, Krisanaprakornkit W, Piyavhatkul N, Laopaiboon M.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, KhonKaen University, KhonKaen,
Thailand, 40002. drthawatchai@yahoo.com

BACKGROUND: Anxiety disorders are characterised by long term worry, tension,
nervousness, fidgeting and symptoms of autonomic system hyperactivity. Meditation
is an age-old self regulatory strategy which is gaining more interest in mental
health and psychiatry. Meditation can reduce arousal state and may ameliorate
anxiety symptoms in various anxiety conditions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the
effectiveness of meditation therapy in treating anxiety disorders SEARCH
STRATEGY: Electronic databases searched include CCDANCTR-Studies and
CCDANCTR-References, complementary and alternative medicine specific databases,
Science Citation Index, Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database, and
grey literature databases. Conference proceedings, book chapters and references
were checked. Study authors and experts from religious/spiritual organisations
were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: Types of studies: Randomised controlled
trials. Types of participants: patients with a diagnosis of anxiety disorders,
with or without another comorbid psychiatric condition. Types of interventions:
concentrative meditation or mindfulness meditation. Comparison conditions: one or
combination of 1) pharmacological therapy 2) other psychological treatment 3)
other methods of meditation 4) no intervention or waiting list. Types of outcome:
1) improvement in clinical anxiety scale 2) improvement in anxiety level
specified by triallists, or global improvement 3) acceptability of treatment,
adverse effects 4) dropout. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were independently
extracted by two reviewers using a pre-designed data collection form. Any
disagreements were discussed with a third reviewer, and the authors of the
studies were contacted for further information. MAIN RESULTS: Two randomised
controlled studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Both studies were
of moderate quality and used active control comparisons (another type of
meditation, relaxation, biofeedback). Anti-anxiety drugs were used as standard
treatment. The duration of trials ranged from 3 months (12 weeks) to 18 weeks. In
one study transcendental meditation showed a reduction in anxiety symptoms and
electromyography score comparable with electromyography-biofeedback and
relaxation therapy. Another study compared Kundalini Yoga (KY), with
Relaxation/Mindfulness Meditation. The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale
showed no statistically significant difference between groups. The overall
dropout rate in both studies was high (33-44%). Neither study reported on adverse
effects of meditation. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS: The small number of studies included
in this review do not permit any conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of
meditation therapy for anxiety disorders. Transcendental meditation is comparable
with other kinds of relaxation therapies in reducing anxiety, and Kundalini Yoga
did not show significant effectiveness in treating obsessive-compulsive disorders
compared with Relaxation/Meditation. Drop out rates appear to be high, and
adverse effects of meditation have not been reported. More trials are needed.

PMID: 16437509 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

296. Psychother Psychosom. 2006;75(3):188-9.

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for persistent insomnia: a pilot study.

Heidenreich T, Tuin I, Pflug B, Michal M, Michalak J.

PMID: 16636636 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

297. Qual Health Res. 2005 Dec;15(10):1329-44.

Mindfulness in hospice care: practicing meditation-in-action.

Bruce A, Davies B.

University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

In this interpretive study, the authors explore the experience of mindfulness
among hospice caregivers who regularly practice mindfulness meditation at a Zen
hospice. They explore meditative awareness constituted within themes of
meditation-in-action, abiding in liminal spaces, seeing differently, and resting
in groundlessness. By opening into nonconceptual, paradoxical, and uncertain
dimensions of experience, hospice caregivers cultivate internal and external
environments in which direct experience is increasingly held without judgment.
This inquiry points to in-between spaces of human experience wherein mindfulness
fosters openness and supports letting go, and creating spaces for whatever is
happening in attending the living-and-dying process.

PMID: 16263915 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

298. Neuroreport. 2005 Nov 28;16(17):1893-7.

Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness.

Lazar SW, Kerr CE, Wasserman RH, Gray JR, Greve DN, Treadway MT, McGarvey M,
Quinn BT, Dusek JA, Benson H, Rauch SL, Moore CI, Fischl B.

Psychiatric Neuroimaging Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital,
Boston, Massachusetts, USA. lazar@nmr.mgh.harvard.edu

Previous research indicates that long-term meditation practice is associated with
altered resting electroencephalogram patterns, suggestive of long lasting changes
in brain activity. We hypothesized that meditation practice might also be
associated with changes in the brain’s physical structure. Magnetic resonance
imaging was used to assess cortical thickness in 20 participants with extensive
Insight meditation experience, which involves focused attention to internal
experiences. Brain regions associated with attention, interoception and sensory
processing were thicker in meditation participants than matched controls,
including the prefrontal cortex and right anterior insula. Between-group
differences in prefrontal cortical thickness were most pronounced in older
participants, suggesting that meditation might offset age-related cortical
thinning. Finally, the thickness of two regions correlated with meditation
experience. These data provide the first structural evidence for
experience-dependent cortical plasticity associated with meditation practice.

PMCID: PMC1361002
PMID: 16272874 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

299. Can J Psychiatry. 2005 Nov;50(13):863-9.

Integrating mindfulness meditation with cognitive and behavioural therapies: the
challenge of combining acceptance- and change-based strategies.

Lau MA, McMain SF.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Ontario. mark_lau@camh.net

Recent innovations in psychological treatments have integrated mindfulness
meditation techniques with traditional cognitive and behavioural therapies,
challenging traditional cognitive and behavioural therapists to integrate
acceptance- and change-based strategies. This article details how 2 treatments,
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and dialectical behaviour therapy, have met
this challenge. We review the integration rationale underlying the 2 treatments,
how the treatments combine strategies from each modality to accomplish treatment
goals, implications for therapist training, and treatment effectiveness. In
addition, we discuss the challenges of assessing the benefits of incorporating
acceptance-based strategies. Both therapies have integrated acceptance-based
mindfulness approaches with change-based cognitive and behavioural therapies to
create efficacious treatments.

PMID: 16483122 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

300. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2005 Nov;11(4):247-52. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

Using qualitative evaluation in a feasibility study to improve and refine a
complementary therapy intervention prior to subsequent research.

Fonteyn M, Bauer-Wu S.

The Phyllis F. Cantor Center, Research in Nursing and Patient Care Services,
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, University of Massachusetts, Boston, MA, 44 Binney
Street G220, Boston, MA 02115-6084, USA. marsha_fonteyn@dfci.harvard.edu

Feasibility studies of complementary therapies are useful and important not only
to test and evaluate the potential effectiveness of an intervention but also to
refine and improve it prior to a subsequent study. A series of guided interviews
were conducted with patients (n=19) undergoing stem cell/autologous bone marrow
transplant (SC/ABMT) who were participating in a feasibility study of a
mindfulness meditation (MM) intervention. Audiotapes of these interview sessions
were transcribed and then used to create a project in the QRS NVivo software
program to manage the data from the interview questions. Responses about what the
participants liked and disliked and their suggestions for improving the
effectiveness of the MM intervention were identified and grouped. Subsequently,
the MM intervention has been refined based on this information, and additional
testing in a randomized, controlled trial is planned. The cost is high to
implement complementary therapies and to rigorously test them. Preliminary work
using qualitative evaluation methods can provide rich and detailed information
that will save time and money in the long run.

PMID: 16290895 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

301. Geriatr Nurs. 2005 Nov-Dec;26(6):372-7.

Integrative review of research related to meditation, spirituality, and the
elderly.

Lindberg DA.

Recently, increased attention has been given to meditation-relaxation strategies
to improve physical health, reduce pain, enhance immune response, improve
emotional well-being, and foster spiritual growth. This article reviews research
conducted in the last 25 years about meditation and spirituality, in particular
as it relates to the health of the elderly. This review supports the hypothesis
that meditation can be taught to the elderly, even those with dementia. The
results also support the hypothesis that meditation and spiritual practices could
promote significant social and emotional benefits for those in social isolation.
Specific treatment plan interventions for nursing homes are discussed. Future
research should investigate the effectiveness of various types of meditative and
spiritual practices to nursing home residents.

PMID: 16373182 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

302. Harv Bus Rev. 2005 Nov;83(11):53-8, 165.

Are you working too hard? A conversation with mind/body researcher Herbert
Benson.

Benson H.

Stress is an essential response in highly competitive environments. Before a
race, before an exam, before an important meeting, your heart rate and blood
pressure rise, your focus tightens, you become more alert and more efficient. But
beyond a certain level, stress overloads your system, compromising your
performance and, eventually, your health. So the question is: When does stress
help and when does it hurt? To find out, HBR talked with Harvard Medical School
professor Herbert Benson, M.D., founder of the Mind/Body Medical Institute.
Having spent more than 35 years conducting worldwide research in the fields of
neuroscience and stress, Benson is best known for his 1975 best seller The
Relaxation Response, in which he describes how the mind can influence stress
levels through such tools as meditation. His most recent research centers on what
he calls »the breakout principle, » a method by which stress is not simply reduced
but carefully controlled so that you reap its benefits while avoiding its
dangers. He describes a four-step process in which you first push yourself to the
most productive stress level by grappling intently with a problem. Next, just as
you feel yourself flagging, you disengage entirely by doing something utterly
unrelated-going for a walk, petting a dog, taking a shower. In the third step, as
the brain quiets down, activity paradoxically increases in areas associated with
attention, space-time concepts, and decision making, leading to a sudden,
creative insight-the breakout. Step four is achievement of a « new-normal state, »
in which you find that the improved performance is sustained, sometimes
indefinitely. As counterintuitive as this research may seem, managers can
doubtless recall times when they’ve had an « aha » moment at the gym, on the golf
course, or in the shower. What Benson describes here is a way to tap into this
invaluable biological tool whenever we want.

PMID: 16299960 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

303. J Adv Nurs. 2005 Nov;52(3):315-27.

Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction as supportive therapy in cancer care:
systematic review.

Smith JE, Richardson J, Hoffman C, Pilkington K.

Research Council for Complementary Medicine, London, UK.

Erratum in:
J Adv Nurs. 2006 Mar;53(5):618.

AIM: This paper reports a systematic review and critical appraisal of the
evidence on the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for cancer
supportive care. BACKGROUND: The experience of cancer can have a negative impact
on both psychological and physical health and on quality of life.
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction is a therapy package that has been used with
patients with a variety of conditions. In order to draw conclusions on its
effectiveness for cancer patients, the evidence requires systematic assessment.
METHODS: A comprehensive search of major biomedical and specialist complementary
medicine databases was conducted. Additionally, efforts were made to identify
unpublished and ongoing research. Relevant research was categorized by study type
and appraised according to study design. Clinical commentaries were obtained for
each study and included in the review. RESULTS: Three randomized controlled
clinical trials and seven uncontrolled clinical trials were found. A lack of
relevant qualitative research studies was identified. Studies report positive
results, including improvements in mood, sleep quality and reductions in stress.
A dose-response effect has been observed between practice of Mindfulness-Based
Stress Reduction and improved outcome. A number of methodological limitations
were identified. Modifications to the traditional Mindfulness-Based Stress
Reduction programme make comparison between studies difficult and a lack of
controlled studies precludes any firm conclusion on efficacy. CONCLUSION:
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction has potential as a clinically valuable
self-administered intervention for cancer patients. Further research into its
efficacy, feasibility and safety for cancer patients in the nursing context is
recommended.

PMID: 16194185 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

304. ScientificWorldJournal. 2005 Sep 28;5:789-802.

The helpfulness of spiritually influenced group work in developing self-awareness
and self-esteem: a preliminary investigation.

Coholic D.

Laurentian University School of Social Work, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
dcoholic@laurentian.ca

This paper discusses an exploratory study that investigated the helpfulness of
spiritually influenced group work with eight adult women who shared a history of
substance abuse. The overall purpose of the group was to help participants
develop their self-awareness and self-esteem. The group, which was contextualized
in transpersonal theory, was organized around the following themes and
experiential exercises: meditation, mindfulness practice, dream work, stream of
consciousness writing, the shadow self, and other arts-based processes.
Grounded-theory analysis of group sessions and individual interviews with the
participants found that the participants perceived the group to be helpful in
developing their self-awareness and self-esteem. While the participants
identified different aspects of the group as spiritual, making-meaning was one
practice that was consistently described as a spiritually sensitive process. The
results of this study in this emergent field are promising and suggestions are
provided for future research.

PMID: 16200326 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

305. Explore (NY). 2005 Sep;1(5):380-8.

Meditation and neuroplasticity: training your brain. Interview by Bonnie J.
Horrigan.

Davidson R.

PMID: 16781570 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

306. Addict Behav. 2005 Aug;30(7):1335-41.

Spirituality, mindfulness and substance abuse.

Leigh J, Bowen S, Marlatt GA.

Department of Psychology, University of Washington, Box 351525, Seattle WA
98195-1525, United States. janis2@u.washington.edu

A growing body of research suggests that mindfulness-based therapies may be
effective in treating a variety of disorders including stress, chronic pain,
depression and anxiety. However, there are few valid and reliable measures of
mindfulness. Furthermore, mindfulness is often thought to be related to
spirituality, given its roots in Buddhist tradition, but empirical studies on
this relationship are difficult to find. The present study: (1) tested the
reliability and validity of a new mindfulness measure, the Freiburg Mindfulness
Inventory (FMI), (2) explored the relationship between mindfulness and
spirituality, and (3) investigated the relationship between mindfulness and/or
spirituality and alcohol and tobacco use in an undergraduate college population
(N=196). Results support the reliability of the FMI and suggest that spirituality
and mindfulness may be separate constructs. In addition, smoking and frequent
binge-drinking were negatively correlated with spirituality scores; as
spirituality scores increased the use of alcohol and tobacco decreased. Thus,
spirituality may be related to decreased substance use. In contrast, a positive
relationship between mindfulness and smoking/frequent binge-drinking behavior was
uncovered, and warrants further investigation.

PMID: 16022930 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

307. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Aug;11(4):711-7.

Sudarshan Kriya Yogic breathing in the treatment of stress, anxiety, and
depression. Part II–clinical applications and guidelines.

Brown RP, Gerbarg PL.

Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA.

Yogic breathing is a unique method for balancing the autonomic nervous system and
influencing psychologic and stress-related disorders. Part I of this series
presented a neurophysiologic theory of the effects of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY).
Part II will review clinical studies, our own clinical observations, and
guidelines for the safe and effective use of yoga breath techniques in a wide
range of clinical conditions. Although more clinical studies are needed to
document the benefits of programs that combine pranayama (yogic breathing) asanas
(yoga postures), and meditation, there is sufficient evidence to consider
Sudarshan Kriya Yoga to be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the
treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression,
stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal
offenders. SKY has been used as a public health intervention to alleviate PTSD in
survivors of mass disasters. Yoga techniques enhance well-being, mood, attention,
mental focus, and stress tolerance. Proper training by a skilled teacher and a
30-minute practice every day will maximize the benefits. Health care providers
play a crucial role in encouraging patients to maintain their yoga practices.

PMID: 16131297 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

308. J Pediatr Health Care. 2005 Jul-Aug;19(4):230-7.

Tai Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction in a Boston Public Middle School.

Wall RB.

wall.r@comcast.net

This article provides a description of a clinical project that used combined Tai
Chi and mindfulness-based stress reduction as an educational program. The 5-week
program demonstrated that sustained interest in this material in middle
school-aged boys and girls is possible. Statements the boys and girls made in the
process suggested that they experienced well-being, calmness, relaxation,
improved sleep, less reactivity, increased self-care, self-awareness, and a sense
of interconnection or interdependence with nature. The curriculum is described in
detail for nurses, teachers, and counselors who want to replicate this type of
instruction for adolescent children. This project infers that Tai Chi and
mindfulness-based stress reduction may be transformational tools that can be used
in educational programs appropriate for middle school-aged children.
Recommendations are made for further study in schools and other pediatric
settings.

PMID: 16010262 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

309. ScientificWorldJournal. 2005 Jun 23;5:478-89.

Adolescent aggression and differentiation of self: guided mindfulness meditation
in the service of individuation.

Birnbaum L.

Department of Social Work, Faculty of Social Sciences, College of Judea and
Samaria, Ariel, Israel. labirnbaum@bezeqint.net.il

This paper presents adolescent aggression as mediated by the level of
differentiation of self. No research has directly addressed Bowen’s notion that
level of differentiation impacts child functioning including aggression. Level of
differentiation is discussed in conjunction with social, gender and cultural
norms as manifested in aggressive behavior. Female adolescent aggression is
described as mainly relationship focused and expressed via verbal threats,
intimidation and manipulation, while male aggression is described mainly as overt
physical violence involving dominance and competitiveness. Research on
differentiation focuses mainly on Western cultures that tend to be
individualistic. Jewish-Israeli society is in transition from collectivistic to
individualistic cultural values in the midst of ongoing hostilities. These
processes create conflict regarding togetherness and individuality needs among
adolescents, who are exposed to contradictory messages regarding separating and
staying close. External as well as internal expressions of aggression
(depression, suicide) are presented as coping strategies in the service of a
wounded self-negotiating with the world. Guided mindfulness meditation is a
powerful technique for facilitating healing and growth toward autonomy by helping
adolescents connect to their inner voice. This technique may be especially useful
in the adolescent search for self-awareness, meaning and life purpose. Bodily,
cognitive and emotional experiences are treated as informative regarding the
‘self’ and facilitate expansion of self-perception and individuality.

PMID: 15980918 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

310. Curr Biol. 2005 Jun 7;15(11):R412-3.

Meditation alters perceptual rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist monks.

Carter OL, Presti DE, Callistemon C, Ungerer Y, Liu GB, Pettigrew JD.

Vision, Touch and Hearing Research Centre, University of Queensland, St Lucia,
Australia 4072. o.carter@uq.edu.au

PMID: 15936259 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

311. Prog Transplant. 2005 Jun;15(2):166-72.

Longitudinal impact of mindfulness meditation on illness burden in solid-organ
transplant recipients.

Kreitzer MJ, Gross CR, Ye X, Russas V, Treesak C.

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA.

BACKGROUND: In 2001, more than 24000 solid-organ transplant surgeries were
performed in the United States. Although survival rates have steadily risen over
the past 2 decades, transplant recipients commonly experience a myriad of
symptoms after transplantation that compromise quality of life. Anxiety,
depression, and insomnia frequently occur despite excellent function of the
transplanted organ. Use of complementary and alternative medicine has risen
sharply over the past 10 years, particularly among people with chronic illnesses.
METHODS: Twenty solid-organ transplant recipients were enrolled in a clinical
trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction. During the 8-week course, subjects
learned various forms of meditation and gentle hatha yoga. Participants were
given audiotapes for home practice and maintained practice diaries. Longitudinal
analysis focused on the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction on symptom
management, illness intrusion, and transplant-related stressors. RESULTS:
Significant improvements in the quality and duration of sleep continued for 6
months after completion of the mindfulness-based stress reduction course.
Improvements after the completion of the course were also noted in self-report
measures of anxiety and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Mindfulness-based stress
reduction is an effective treatment in improving the quality and duration of
sleep. Because sleep is highly correlated with positive mental health and overall
well-being, these findings suggest that mindfulness-based stress reduction has
the potential of being an effective, accessible and low-cost intervention that
could significantly change transplant recipients’ overall health and well-being.

PMID: 16013466 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

312. Altern Ther Health Med. 2005 Mar-Apr;11(2):42-58.

Meditation can reduce habitual responding.

Wenk-Sormaz H.

Fresh Yoga, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

CONTEXT: Although cognitive aspects of meditation underlie much of its clinical
application, very little research has examined meditation’s cognitive
consequences. This investigation provides experimental support for the idea that
meditation leads to a reduction in habitual responding using randomly selected
subjects, a secular form of meditation, and a full experimental design.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that meditation leads to a reduction in
habitual responding. DESIGN: Studies 1 and 2 each incorporated pre-test and
post-test designs with a 20-minute intervening attention task (meditation, rest,
or a cognitive control). SETTING: Yale University in New Haven, Conn, and the
University of California, Berkeley. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and twenty and 90
undergraduates participated in Studies 1 and 2, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME
MEASURES: Stroop and Word Production (category generation and stem-completion)
tasks assessed habitual responding in Study 1. Galvanic Skin response measured
arousal in Study 1. The category generation task assessed habitual responding in
Study 2. Tellegen’s Absorption Scale (TAS) measured attention ability. RESULTS:
In Study 1, meditation participants showed a reduction in habitual responding on
the Stroop task as compared to controls. Study 1 revealed no statistically
significant effects in the word production task. Stroop task performance was not
mediated by arousal reduction. In Study 2, meditation participants showed a
reduction in habitual responding on the category production task. Specifically,
when participants generated either typical or atypical items, on average,
meditation participants produced more atypical items than controls. Category
production performance was not mediated by Tellegen’s Absorption Scale (TAS)
scores. Overall, high TAS scores were related to atypical responding. CONCLUSION:
Across cognitive tasks, when participants understood that the goal was to respond
non-habitually, meditation reduced habitual responding.

PMID: 15819448 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

313. Integr Cancer Ther. 2005 Mar;4(1):87-100.

Patient perspectives: Kundalini yoga meditation techniques for psycho-oncology
and as potential therapies for cancer.

Shannahoff-Khalsa DS.

The Research Group for Mind-Body Dynamics, Institute for Nonlinear Science, Mail
Code 0402, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla,
California, 92093-0402 USA. dsk@ucsd.edu

The ancient system of Kundalini Yoga (KY) includes a vast array of meditation
techniques. Some were discovered to be specific for treating psychiatric
disorders and others are supposedly beneficial for treating cancers. To date, 2
clinical trials have been conducted for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder
(OCD). The first was an open uncontrolled trial and the second a single-blinded
randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing a KY protocol against the Relaxation
Response and Mindfulness Meditation (RRMM) techniques combined. Both trials
showed efficacy on all psychological scales using the KY protocol; however, the
RCT showed no efficacy on any scale with the RRMM control group. The KY protocol
employed an OCD-specific meditation technique combined with other techniques that
are individually specific for anxiety, low energy, fear, anger, meeting mental
challenges, and turning negative thoughts into positive thoughts. In addition to
OCD symptoms, other symptoms, including anxiety and depression, were also
significantly reduced. Elements of the KY protocol other than the OCD-specific
technique also may have applications for psycho-oncology patients and are
described here. Two depression-specific KY techniques are described that also
help combat mental fatigue and low energy. A 7-part protocol is described that
would be used in KY practice to affect the full spectrum of emotions and distress
that complicate a cancer diagnosis. In addition, there are KY techniques that
practitioners have used in treating cancer. These techniques have not yet been
subjected to formal clinical trials but are described here as potential
adjunctive therapies. A case history demonstrating rapid onset of acute relief of
intense fear in a terminal breast cancer patient using a KY technique specific
for fear is presented. A second case history is reported for a surviving male
diagnosed in 1988 with terminal prostate cancer who has used KY therapy long term
as part of a self-directed integrative care approach.

PMID: 15695478 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

314. Int J Psychophysiol. 2005 Feb;55(2):199-207.

Changes in EEG and autonomic nervous activity during meditation and their
association with personality traits.

Takahashi T, Murata T, Hamada T, Omori M, Kosaka H, Kikuchi M, Yoshida H, Wada Y.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui,
Matsuoka-cho, Fukui 910-1193, Japan.

Meditation is the attainment of a restful yet fully alert physical and mental
state practiced by many as a self-regulatory approach to emotion management, but
the psychophysiological properties and personality traits that characterize this
meditative state have not been adequately studied. We quantitatively analyzed
changes in psychophysiological parameters during Zen meditation in 20 normal
adults, and evaluated the results in association with personality traits assessed
by Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). During meditation,
increases were observed in fast theta power and slow alpha power on EEG
predominantly in the frontal area, whereas an increase in the normalized unit of
high-frequency (nuHF) power (as a parasympathetic index) and decreases in the
normalized unit of low-frequency (nuLF) power and LF/HF (as sympathetic indices)
were observed through analyses of heart rate variability. We analyzed the
possible correlations among these changes in terms of the percent change during
meditation using the control condition as the baseline. The percent change in
slow alpha EEG power in the frontal area, reflecting enhanced internalized
attention, was negatively correlated with that in nuLF as well as in LF/HF and
was positively correlated with the novelty seeking score (which has been
suggested to be associated with dopaminergic activity). The percent change in
fast theta power in the frontal area, reflecting enhanced mindfulness, was
positively correlated with that in nuHF and also with the harm avoidance score
(which has been suggested to be associated with serotonergic activity). These
results suggest that internalized attention and mindfulness as two major core
factors of behaviors of mind during meditation are characterized by different
combinations of psychophysiological properties and personality traits.

PMID: 15649551 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

315. Int J Behav Med. 2005;12(4):278-85.

Impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on sleep, mood, stress and
fatigue symptoms in cancer outpatients.

Carlson LE, Garland SN.

Department of Oncology, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary,
Alberta, Canada. l.carlson@ucalgary.edu

Sleep disturbance is a very common problem for cancer patients that has largely
not been addressed in the clinical intervention literature. Mindfulness
meditation has demonstrated clinical benefits for a variety of patient
populations in other areas of functioning. This study examined the effects of an
8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on the sleep quality of
a heterogeneous sample of 63 cancer patients. Overall sleep disturbance was
significantly reduced (p < .001) and participants reported that their sleep
quality had improved (p .001). There was also a significant reduction in stress
(p < .001), mood disturbance (p = .001), and fatigue (p < .001). The associations
among these changes and implications for improving quality of life of cancer
patients are discussed.

PMID: 16262547 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

316. Int J Behav Med. 2005;12(2):50-8.

Positive emotions: exploring the other hemisphere in behavioral medicine.

Chesney MA, Darbes LA, Hoerster K, Taylor JM, Chambers DB, Anderson DE.

Department of Medicine, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco,
CA, USA. chesneym@mail.nih.gov

The search for the psychological antecedents of medical disorders has focused on
the role of stress and negative emotional states. Previous research in this area
has investigated relations between negative emotions and physiological
adaptations (e.g., blood pressure elevations), adverse health behaviors (e.g.,
smoking), and social conditions (e.g., social isolation). In this discussion, we
argue that more attention is needed to understand the effects of positive
emotional states on health enhancement and disease prevention. In each of the
areas cited previously, evidence is beginning to emerge that indicates that
positive emotions can be associated with health promoting conditions.
Interventions using cognitive behavioral strategies or meditation can increase
positive emotional states that are maintained over time and that may benefit
health and well-being. Implications for behavioral medicine are discussed.

PMID: 15901213 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

317. Psychother Psychosom. 2005;74(2):108-12.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction as an adjunct to outpatient psychotherapy.

Weiss M, Nordlie JW, Siegel EP.

New York, NY 10025, USA. MW6223@aol.com

BACKGROUND: Research on Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) has supported
the utility of the technique in a number of clinical settings. This study
explored whether MBSR, used as an adjunct to individual psychotherapy, would
result in more rapid alleviation of symptoms, increased achievement of
therapeutic goals, and a decrease in number of therapy sessions sought by
clients. METHODS: A group undergoing psychotherapy coupled with training in MBSR
was compared with a group undergoing psychotherapy alone. RESULTS: At the
conclusion of MBSR training, the groups showed a comparable significant decrease
in psychological distress. However, the MBSR group’s gains on a novel measure of
goal achievement were significantly greater than those of the comparison group.
In addition, the MBSR group terminated therapy at a significantly greater rate
than the comparison group. CONCLUSION: The effects of introducing MBSR early in
psychotherapy, as well as its effect on self-directed goal attainment in
non-psychotherapy contexts, deserve further attention.

PMID: 15741760 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

318. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2004 Oct;52(4):434-55.

Facilitating memory with hypnosis, focused meditation, and eye closure.

Wagstaff GF, Brunas-Wagstaff J, Cole J, Knapton L, Winterbottom J, Crean V,
Wheatcroft J.

Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool, UK. gwf@Liverpool.ac.uk

Three experiments examined some features of hypnotic induction that might be
useful in the development of brief memory-facilitation procedures. The first
involved a hypnosis procedure designed to facilitate face identification; the
second employed a brief, focused-meditation (FM) procedure, with and without eye
closure, designed to facilitate memory for an emotional event. The third
experiment was a check for simple motivation and expectancy effects. Limited
facilitation effects were found for hypnosis, but these were accompanied by
increased confidence in incorrect responses. However, eye closure and FM were
effective in facilitating free recall of an event without an increase in errors.
FM reduced phonemic fluency, suggesting that the effectiveness of FM was not due
to simple changes in expectancy or motivation.

PMID: 15590510 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

319. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Oct;10(5):819-27.

A pilot study to examine the effects of a mindfulness-based stress-reduction and
relaxation program on levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, and
submaximal exercise responses.

Robert McComb JJ, Tacon A, Randolph P, Caldera Y.

Department of Health, Exercise, and Sport Sciences, Texas Tech University,
Lubbock, TX 79409-301, USA. jacalyn.mccomb@ttu.edu

OBJECTIVE: Stress has been cited as a causal factor in heart disease. The
objective of this study was to examine the effects of an 8-week mindfulness-based
stress-reduction program on the resting levels of stress hormones, physical
functioning, and submaximal exercise responses in women with heart disease.
SUBJECTS: Random selection with the numbers 1 and 2 were used to assign 18 women
(60 +/-6.3 years old) with documented histories of heart disease to a treatment
group (n = 9) or a control group (n = 9). Speilberger’s state anxiety scores for
the treatment (M = 37.88; standard deviation (SD) = 10.91) and control group (M =
43.22; SD = 12.26) were not significantly different prior to the start of the
study. However, their scores fell in the upper percentile rank for normal adults
in their age category. INTERVENTION: The intervention was provided one night each
week for 2 hours over a period of 8 weeks. The intervention included didactic,
inductive, and experiential modes of learning regarding stress responses and
mindfulness skill-development training. DESIGN: Pre-post test hormonal
measurements and physical function were analyzed using a 2 (group) by 2 (time)
analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures following the 8-week program.
Submaximal exercise responses were also compared between the treatment group and
the control group following the 8-week program. A 2 (group) by 3 (time) ANOVA
with repeated measures was used to analyze the data. SETTINGS/LOCATION: Weekly
meetings were held on a university medical school campus. Submaximal exercise
responses were recorded while participants cycled on a stationary bike in an
applied physiology laboratory following the 8-week program. RESULTS: There were
no significant main effects or interaction for the resting levels of stress
hormones or physical functioning. There were no significant interactions for the
submaximal exercise responses, however, there were significant main effects
between groups for ventilation [F(2,32) = 7.65, p < .01, f = 0.8], and between
group [F(1,16) = 8.84, p < .01, f = 0.8] and time [F(2,32) = 10.42, p < .01, f =
0.9], for breathing frequency. CONCLUSION: While the 8-week stress reduction
program for women with heart disease did not show significant interactions
between groups for resting levels of stress hormones, physical functioning, or
submaximal exercise responses, there was a significant difference in breathing
patterns between the 2 groups during exercise following the mindfulness-based
stress-reduction program. There was also a trend for change in the intervention
group in the resting levels of cortisol and physical function scores that was not
seen in the control group. Future studies could use the effect size generated
from this pilot study to calculate the number of subjects needed for adequate
power to detect significant differences between groups.

PMID: 15650471 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

320. Addict Behav. 2004 Sep;29(7):1359-72.

Beating the urge: implications of research into substance-related desires.

Kavanagh DJ, Andrade J, May J.

School of Medicine, University of Queensland, K Floor, Mental Health Centre,
Royal Brisbane Hospital, Herston Qld 4029, Australia. d.Kavanagh@uq.edu.au

Despite the advent of improved pharmacological treatments to alleviate
substance-related desires, psychological approaches will continue to be required.
However, the current psychological treatment that most specifically focuses on
desires and their management–cue exposure (CE)–has not lived up to its original
promise. This paper argues that current psychological approaches to desire do not
adequately incorporate our knowledge about the factors that trigger, maintain,
and terminate episodes of desire. It asserts that the instigation and maintenance
of desires involve both associative and elaborative processes. Understanding the
processes triggering the initiation of intrusive thoughts may assist in
preventing some episodes, but occasional intrusions will be inevitable. A
demonstration of the ineffectiveness of thought suppression may discourage its
use as a coping strategy for desire-related intrusions, and mindfulness
meditation plus cognitive therapy may help in accepting their occurrence and
letting them go. Competing tasks may be used to reduce elaboration of desires,
and competing sensory images may have particular utility. The application of
these procedures during episodes that are elicited in the clinic may allow the
acquisition of more effective strategies to address desires in the natural
environment.

PMID: 15345270 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

321. Adv Mind Body Med. 2004 Summer;20(2):20-9.

Mindfulness meditation to reduce symptoms after organ transplant: a pilot study.

Gross CR, Kreitzer MJ, Russas V, Treesak C, Frazier PA, Hertz MI.

College of Pharmacy and School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, USA.

CONTEXT: Solid organ transplant patients require life-long immune suppression
that can produce distressing side effects and complications. OBJECTIVE: To
evaluate the potential of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) to reduce
symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance and improve quality of
life after solid organ transplantation. DESIGN: Longitudinal with evaluations at
baseline, postcourse and 3-month follow-up. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Kidney,
lung, or pancreas transplant recipients (N=20), aged 35 to 59 years, living in
the community. INTERVENTION: An MBSR class (2.5 hours weekly, for 8 weeks),
modeled after the program of Jon Kabat-Zinn. Home practice (goal: 45 minutes, 5
days weekly) was monitored. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-report scales for
depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI-Y1), and sleep dysfunction (PSQI). RESULTS:
Nineteen participants completed the course. Findings suggest improvement from
baseline symptom scores for depression (P=.006) and sleep (P=.011) at the
completion of the MBSR program. At 3 months, improvement in sleep continued
(P=.002), and a significant improvement in anxiety scores was seen (P=.043);
scores for both symptoms demonstrated a linear trend and dose-response
relationship with practice time. In contrast, depression scores showed a
quadratic trend, and at 3 months were no longer different from baseline. A
composite symptom measure was significantly improved at 3-month follow-up
(P=.007). Global and health-related quality of life ratings were not improved.
Effects of group support and instructor attention were not controlled, and sample
size and follow-up time were limited. A randomized trial to overcome these
shortcomings should be done, as symptom distress in transplant recipients appears
responsive to MBSR.

PMID: 15356953 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

322. J Nurs Educ. 2004 Jul;43(7):305-12.

Does mindfulness decrease stress and foster empathy among nursing students?

Beddoe AE, Murphy SO.

San Jose State University School of Nursing, San Jose, California 95192-0057,
USA. abeddoe@baymoon.com

This pilot study of baccalaureate nursing students explored the effects of an
8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course on stress and empathy.
The course was intended to provide students with tools to cope with personal and
professional stress and to foster empathy through intrapersonal knowing. A
convenience sample of 16 students participated in the course, used guided
meditation audiotapes at home, and completed journal assignments. Stress and
empathy were measured using paired sample t tests. Participation in the
intervention significantly reduced students’ anxiety (p > .05). Favorable trends
were observed in a number of stress dimensions including attitude, time pressure,
and total stress. Two dimensions of empathy–personal distress and fantasy–also
demonstrated favorable downward trends. Regular home meditation was correlated
with additional benefit. Participants reported using meditation in daily life and
experiencing greater well-being and improved coping skills as a result of the
program. Findings suggest that being mindful may also decrease tendencies to take
on others’ negative emotions. Coping with stress and fostering the affective
domain are important facets of nursing education that may be facilitated by
mindfulness training.

PMID: 15303583 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

323. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2004 Jul;42(7):22-9.

Mindfulness meditation: a path of transformation & healing.

Ott MJ.

Pain and Palliative Care Program, and Pediatric Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer
Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. maryjane_ott@dfci.harvard.edu

As nurses, we have the unique privilege of witnessing and nurturing the healing
process of the whole person–mind, body, and spirit. Teaching mindfulness
meditation is a nursing intervention that can foster healing. The consistent
practice of mindfulness meditation has been shown to decrease the subjective
experience of pain and stress in a variety of research settings. Formal and
informal daily practice fosters development of a profound inner calmness and
nonreactivity of the mind, allowing individuals to face, and even embrace, all
aspects of daily life, regardless of circumstances. By emphasizing being, not
doing, mindfulness meditation provides a way through suffering for patients,
families, and staff. This practice allows individuals to become compassionate
witnesses to their own experiences, to avoid making premature decisions, and to
be open to new possibilities, transformation, and healing.

PMID: 15295915 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

324. J Psychosom Res. 2004 Jul;57(1):35-43.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits. A meta-analysis.

Grossman P, Niemann L, Schmidt S, Walach H.

Freiburg Institute for Mindfulness Research, Konradstr. 32, 79100 Freiburg,
Germany. breathingspace@t-online.de

OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured group
program that employs mindfulness meditation to alleviate suffering associated
with physical, psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. The program, nonreligious
and nonesoteric, is based upon a systematic procedure to develop enhanced
awareness of moment-to-moment experience of perceptible mental processes. The
approach assumes that greater awareness will provide more veridical perception,
reduce negative affect and improve vitality and coping. In the last two decades,
a number of research reports appeared that seem to support many of these claims.
We performed a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of published and
unpublished studies of health-related studies related to MBSR. METHODS:
Sixty-four empirical studies were found, but only 20 reports met criteria of
acceptable quality or relevance to be included in the meta-analysis. Reports were
excluded due to (1) insufficient information about interventions, (2) poor
quantitative health evaluation, (3) inadequate statistical analysis, (4)
mindfulness not being the central component of intervention, or (5) the setting
of intervention or sample composition deviating too widely from the
health-related MBSR program. Acceptable studies covered a wide spectrum of
clinical populations (e.g., pain, cancer, heart disease, depression, and
anxiety), as well as stressed nonclinical groups. Both controlled and
observational investigations were included. Standardized measures of physical and
mental well-being constituted the dependent variables of the analysis. RESULTS:
Overall, both controlled and uncontrolled studies showed similar effect sizes of
approximately 0.5 (P<.0001) with homogeneity of distribution. CONCLUSION:
Although derived from a relatively small number of studies, these results suggest
that MBSR may help a broad range of individuals to cope with their clinical and
nonclinical problems.

PMID: 15256293 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

325. Chang Gung Med J. 2004 Jun;27(6):464-9.

Mindfulness meditation training combined with eye movement desensitization and
reprocessing in psychotherapy of an elderly patient.

Sun TF, Wu CK, Chiu NM.

Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 123, Dabi Road, Niaosung
Shiang, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 833, ROC. suntf77@yahoo.com

We present our experiences with an elderly patient with depression that was
attributed to a surge of physical ailments who also had trauma-derived fear of
having to undergo a tracheotomy. He refused pharmacotherapy and was offered
intensive training in Mindfulness Meditation (MM) plus Eye Movement
Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy during the 2 weeks of
hospitalization. This treatment combination had not been used previously. We
suggest that EMDR eliminated his fear of surgery, whereas MM relieved his
depression and attendant anxiety. However, the two techniques appeared to work
synergistically. Following his discharge, he continued to practice MM, which
prevented the recurrence of emotional distress, and even helped to reduce its
causative physical symptoms. We offer an explanation for the success of our
combined treatments and discuss the potential usefulness in specific
psychotherapeutic situations. We also propose a place for MM within general
geriatric care, and point out the reluctance to consider the therapeutic value of
meditation.

PMID: 15455549 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

326. Cancer. 2004 May 15;100(10):2253-60.

Psychological adjustment and sleep quality in a randomized trial of the effects
of a Tibetan yoga intervention in patients with lymphoma.

Cohen L, Warneke C, Fouladi RT, Rodriguez MA, Chaoul-Reich A.

Department of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer
Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. lcohen@mdanderson.org

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that stress-reduction programs tailored to the
cancer setting help patients cope with the effects of treatment and improve their
quality of life. Yoga, an ancient Eastern science, incorporates stress-reduction
techniques that include regulated breathing, visual imagery, and meditation as
well as various postures. The authors examined the effects of the Tibetan yoga
(TY) practices of Tsa lung and Trul khor, which incorporate controlled breathing
and visualization, mindfulness techniques, and low-impact postures in patients
with lymphoma. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with lymphoma who were undergoing
treatment or who had concluded treatment within the past 12 months were assigned
to a TY group or to a wait-list control group. Patients in the TY group
participated in 7 weekly yoga sessions, and patients in the wait-list control
group were free to participate in the TY program after the 3-month follow-up
assessment. RESULTS: Eighty nine percent of TY participants completed at least
2-3 three yoga sessions, and 58% completed at least 5 sessions. Patients in the
TY group reported significantly lower sleep disturbance scores during follow-up
compared with patients in the wait-list control group (5.8 vs. 8.1; P < 0.004).
This included better subjective sleep quality (P < 0.02), faster sleep latency (P
< 0.01), longer sleep duration (P < 0.03), and less use of sleep medications (P <
0.02). There were no significant differences between groups in terms of intrusion
or avoidance, state anxiety, depression, or fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: The
participation rates suggested that a TY program is feasible for patients with
cancer and that such a program significantly improves sleep-related outcomes.
However, there were no significant differences between groups for the other
outcomes.

PMID: 15139072 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

327. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 May-Jun;10(3):58-66.

Mindfulness meditation to reduce symptoms after organ transplant: a pilot study.

Gross CR, Kreitzer MJ, Russas V, Treesak C, Frazier PA, Hertz MI.

College of Pharmacy and School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, USA.

CONTEXT: Solid organ transplant patients require life-long immune suppression
that can produce distressing side effects and complications. OBJECTIVE: To
evaluate the potential of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) to reduce
symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance and improve quality of
life after solid organ transplantation. DESIGN: Longitudinal with evaluations at
baseline, postcourse and 3-month follow-up. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Kidney,
lung, or pancreas transplant recipients (N = 20), aged 35 to 59 years, living in
the community. INTERVENTION: An MBSR class (2.5 hours weekly, for 8 weeks),
modeled after the program of Jon Kabat-Zinn. Home practice (goal: 45 minutes, 5
days weekly) was monitored. Main outcome measures: Self-report scales for
depression (CES-D), anxiety (STAI-Y1), and sleep dysfunction (PSQI). RESULTS:
Nineteen participants completed the course. Findings suggest improvement from
baseline symptom scores for depression (P = .006) and sleep (P = .011) at the
completion of the MBSR program. At 3 months, improvement in sleep continued (P =
.002), and a significant improvement in anxiety scores was seen (P = .043);
scores for both symptoms demonstrated a linear trend and dose-response
relationship with practice time. In contrast, depression scores showed a
quadratic trend, and at 3 months were no longer different from baseline. A
composite symptom measure was significantly improved at 3-month follow-up (P =
.007). Global and health-related quality of life ratings were not improved.
Effects of group support and instructor attention were not controlled, and sample
size and follow-up time were limited. A randomized trial to overcome these
shortcomings should be done, as symptom distress in transplant recipients appears
responsive to MBSR.

PMID: 15154154 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

328. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 May;99(5):889-93.

Predictors of alternative and complementary medicine use in inflammatory bowel
disease: do measures of conventional health care utilization relate to use?

Burgmann T, Rawsthorne P, Bernstein CN.

Department of Internal Medicine, and University of Manitoba Inflammatory Bowel
Disease Clinical and Research Center, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

OBJECTIVE: Alternative and complementary therapies (ACM) have gained increasing
attention in the past few years. It was our purpose to determine whether
increased ACM use is associated with increased use of conventional health care
resources. Additionally, demographics of use, subjective benefit, and cost were
analyzed. METHODS: We enrolled 150 inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients from
a tertiary care center and performed a phone survey of their ACM use in the past
year. A population-based administrative database was accessed to extract data
regarding use of conventional medicine (hospitalizations, doctor visits, and GI
specific doctor visits). Patients were divided into three groups: (i) no ACM (n =
60) (ii) users of exercise, diet, and prayer (EDP) exclusively (n = 47) (iii)
other ACM use (n = 43) which included those who may have used EDP as well as any
of acupuncture, chiropractic, homeopathy, naturopathy, herbology, massage,
relaxation, reflexology, hypnotherapy, aromatherapy, meditation, or support
group. RESULTS: ACM was used by 60% (EDP 31%, other ACM 29%). There were no
significant differences in use between the three groups by disease diagnosis,
education level, employment status, use of IBD medications, number of
hospitalizations, doctor visits, or GI specific doctor visits. The EDP group was
more likely to be married (p = 0.006) and female (p = 0.04) compared to no ACM.
The EDP group tended to be older than the no ACM (p = 0.001) and other ACM (p =
0.01). The other ACM had shorter disease duration than EDP (p = 0.04) and no ACM
(p = 0.04). The most commonly used therapies were diet (45%), herbal (17%),
exercise (15%), prayer (11%), and relaxation (10%). ACM was sought for
pain/cramps (64%), diarrhea (60%), and gas/bloating (21%). Seventy-three percent
of EDP interventions incurred no cost compared to 33% with other ACM (p <
0.0001). The median annual amount spent on other ACM was $56 (range $0-$4800).
Subjectively, patients felt helped by trials of EDP 95% of the time whereas other
ACM helped 67% of the time (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: ACM use could not be
predicted by either greater or less hospitalizations, conventional doctor visits,
or GI specific visits. ACM was sought mostly to palliate pain or diarrhea. Those
using EDP are more likely to be older married women. Subjectively other ACM is of
less benefit (67%) than EDP (95%). If doctor visits or hospitalizations represent
degree of increased disease activity then this too is not predictive of using
ACM.

PMID: 15128356 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

329. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 May;29(4):448-74.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms
of stress and levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and
melatonin in breast and prostate cancer outpatients.

Carlson LE, Speca M, Patel KD, Goodey E.

Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Alberta Cancer
Board, 1331 29 Street NW, Calgary, Alta, Canada T2N 4N2. lcarlso@ucalgary.ca

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationships between a mindfulness-based
stress reduction meditation program for early stage breast and prostate cancer
patients and quality of life, mood states, stress symptoms, and levels of
cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) and melatonin. METHODS:
Fifty-nine patients with breast cancer and 10 with prostate cancer enrolled in an
eight-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program that incorporated
relaxation, meditation, gentle yoga, and daily home practice. Demographic and
health behavior variables, quality of life, mood, stress, and the hormone
measures of salivary cortisol (assessed three times/day), plasma DHEAS, and
salivary melatonin were assessed pre- and post-intervention. RESULTS: Fifty-eight
and 42 patients were assessed pre- and post-intervention, respectively.
Significant improvements were seen in overall quality of life, symptoms of
stress, and sleep quality, but these improvements were not significantly
correlated with the degree of program attendance or minutes of home practice. No
significant improvements were seen in mood disturbance. Improvements in quality
of life were associated with decreases in afternoon cortisol levels, but not with
morning or evening levels. Changes in stress symptoms or mood were not related to
changes in hormone levels. Approximately 40% of the sample demonstrated abnormal
cortisol secretion patterns both pre- and post-intervention, but within that
group patterns shifted from « inverted-V-shaped » patterns towards more « V-shaped »
patterns of secretion. No overall changes in DHEAS or melatonin were found, but
nonsignificant shifts in DHEAS patterns were consistent with healthier profiles
for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: MBSR program enrollment was associated with
enhanced quality of life and decreased stress symptoms in breast and prostate
cancer patients, and resulted in possibly beneficial changes in
hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. These pilot data represent
a preliminary investigation of the relationships between MBSR program
participation and hormone levels, highlighting the need for better-controlled
studies in this area.

PMID: 14749092 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

330. Adv Mind Body Med. 2004 Spring;20(1):6-16.

The power of the human heart: a story of trauma and recovery and its implications
for rehabilitation and healing.

Meili T, Kabat-Zinn J.

The Bridge Fund of New York Inc., New York City, USA.

Ms Trisha Meili revealed her identity as the Central Park Jogger in a
presentation at Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital in Boston in May 2003. Her
co-presenter was Dr Jon Kabat-Zinn, whose teachings on mindfulness and meditation
had been important in Ms Meili’s rehabilitation process. This transcript of that
conversation describes the various phases she underwent in her recovery, and
documents the role of her self-discovered practice of mindfulness in restoring
her emotional and physical functioning. Dr Kabat-Zinn reflects on the deeper
meaning of the term « rehabilitation, » and demonstrates its natural connections to
the practice of meditation. A final question and answer section with audience
members (clinicians, brain injury survivors and their families) documents the
role of emotional support and inspiration in recovery from devastating injury.

PMID: 15068105 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

331. Sante Ment Que. 2004 Spring;29(1):137-45.

[Does approach using « mindfulness » meditative exercises have a role to play?]

[Article in French]

Bondolfi G.

Hôpitaux universitaires de Genève, Département de psychiatrie, Service de
psychiatrie adulte, Genève.

Mindfulness is the fundamental attentional stance underlying all streams of
Buddhist meditative practice. It has been described as « paying attention in a
particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally. » During
the last years, mindfulness practice has been evaluated and introduced into
several mental health treatments (Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction; Dialectical
Behavior Therapy; Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy). In this paper, the author
considers the mechanisms that may explain how mindfulness skills can lead to
symptom reduction and behavior change in different emotional disorders and in
anxiety disorders.

PMID: 15470569 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

332. Sante Ment Que. 2004 Spring;29(1):9-22.

[A few unresolved and frequent questions concerning anxiety and anxiety
disorders]

[Article in French]

Borgeat F, Zullino D.

Université de Lausanne, Département Universitaire de Psychiatrie Adulte,
Lausanne.

The field of anxiety disorders shows a considerable evolution in the last decades
concerning the overall conceptualization of the disorders and concerning their
treatment. However many questions remain open. For instance, what is the
importance of anxiety disorders in terms of public health? What is their
influence on other factors affecting populations’ health, e.g. substance abuse,
and especially smoking? Questions also remain concerning the underlying
mechanisms, whether biological or psychological. For instance, is it possible to
identify cognitive schemas leading to pathological anxiety? What are the
physiological manifestations of the hypervigilance and hyperreactivity that are
described clinically? Despite the successive classifications, some issues are
unsettled concerning the delimitation of anxiety disorders. For instance, do
obsessive-compulsive disorders belong to anxiety disorders or preferably to a
different family of mental disorders constituting a spectrum of
obsessive-compulsive disorders? Several practical issues remain open for
clinicians: what is the importance of specific therapeutic factors in
cognitive-behavioral therapies? Is there a psychoanalytical method and a
psychopharmacological therapy specific to anxiety disorders? Concrete questions
also deserve attention in relation with therapeutic modalities. Are group
treatments superior to individual ones? What is the role of emotion in
cognitive-behavioral treatment? Is it useful to associate self-regulation
strategies like meditation? Do self-help organizations, that are numerous and
helpful in that field, have a role concerning psychotherapy?

PMID: 15470558 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

333. ScientificWorldJournal. 2004 Mar 18;4:216-27.

In search of inner wisdom: guided mindfulness meditation in the context of
suicide.

Birnbaum L, Birnbaum A.

Department of Social Work, College of Judea and Samaria, Ariel, Israel.
labirnbaum@bezeqint.net

Spiritual concerns are highly relevant, but often ignored, in psychotherapy in
general and in suicide in particular. This article presents Internet data and
clinical case material bearing on the topic, and describes an innovative
therapeutic intervention administered in a group-workshop format with suicide
survivors and mental health professionals. The technique incorporates relaxation
and mindfulness meditation, with the addition of guided meditation in search of
inner wisdom. Results of the group intervention are described and illustrated.
Many participants reported a significant positive experience including connection
to knowledge that was highly relevant to them in their current state of life.
Whether such insights were experienced as coming from within (a deeper part of
the self) or from an external source (a guiding figure or presence), indications
are that guided meditation can be a powerful resource for therapists and their
clients, suicidal and otherwise. Possible applications in diverse populations and
settings, as well as the need for further research, are discussed.

PMID: 15105961 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

334. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2004 Feb;44(1):24-9.

Use of complementary therapies in pregnancy: the perceptions of obstetricians and
midwives in South Australia.

Gaffney L, Smith CA.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, South
Australia, Australia.

OBJECTIVE: To examine South Australian obstetricians and midwives attitude’s
towards the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) during
pregnancy, to examine their referral patterns and their views on the usefulness
and safety of these therapies during pregnancy. DESIGN: All members of the South
Australian branch of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of
Obstetricians and Gynaecologists and a 50% sample of midwives belonging to the
South Australian Branch of The Australian College of Midwives, were sent a postal
self-completion questionnaire. RESULTS: A response rate of 78% was obtained. Only
14% of doctors considered CAM was a threat to public health. Over 90% of midwives
and obstetricians thought they should have some knowledge about CAM. A greater
proportion of obstetricians (72%) held a view there needs to be an evidence base
for CAM compared with 26% of midwives. The majority of obstetricians (68%) and
midwives (78%) had formally referred a patient for use of one of the
complementary therapies. Over 70% of obstetricians and midwives considered
massage, acupuncture, vitamins, yoga, meditation and hypnosis to be useful and
safe to use during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: The majority of clinician’s held
positive views towards CAM and considered some complementary therapies to be
useful and safe for use during pregnancy. Limited evidence exists on the safety
and efficacy of these therapies and attention needs to be given to undertaking
high quality randomised controlled trials.

PMID: 15089864 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

335. Harv Womens Health Watch. 2004 Feb;11(6):1-3.

The benefits of mindfulness. Learning to focus the mind can be a healthful
antidote to the stresses and strains of our on-the-go lives.

[No authors listed]

PMID: 14980859 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

336. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Feb;10(1):91-101.

An introduction to Kundalini yoga meditation techniques that are specific for the
treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Shannahoff-Khalsa DS.

The Research Group for Mind-Body Dynamics, Institute for Nonlinear Science,
University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, 92093-0402, USA. dsk@ucsd.edu

The ancient system of Kundalini yoga includes a vast array of meditation
techniques and many were discovered to be specific for treating the psychiatric
disorders as we know them today. One such technique was found to be specific for
treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the fourth most common psychiatric
disorder, and the tenth most disabling disorder worldwide. Two published clinical
trials are described here for treating OCD using a specific Kundalini yoga
protocol. This OCD protocol also includes techniques that are useful for a wide
range of anxiety disorders, as well as a technique specific for learning to
manage fear, one for tranquilizing an angry mind, one for meeting mental
challenges, and one for turning negative thoughts into positive thoughts. Part of
that protocol is included here and published in detail elsewhere. In addition, a
number of other disorder-specific meditation techniques are included here to help
bring these tools to the attention of the medical and scientific community. These
techniques are specific for phobias, addictive and substance abuse disorders,
major depressive disorders, dyslexia, grief, insomnia and other sleep disorders.

PMID: 15025884 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

337. Altern Ther Health Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;10(1):44-50.

Ayurveda for diabetes mellitus: a review of the biomedical literature.

Elder C.

Oregon Health and Science University, USA.

Diabetes mellitus is a condition that is extremely serious from both clinical and
public health standpoints. The traditional healthcare system of India, Ayurveda,
offers a balanced and holistic multi-modality approach to treating this disorder.
Many Ayurvedic modalities have been subjected to empirical scientific evaluation,
but most such research has been done in India, receiving little attention in
North America. This paper offers a review of the English language literature
related to Ayurveda and diabetes care, encompassing herbs, diet, yoga, and
meditation as modalities that are accessible and acceptable to Western clinicians
and patients. There is a considerable amount of data from both animal and human
trials suggesting efficacy of Ayurvedic interventions in managing diabetes.
However, the reported human trials generally fall short of contemporary
methodological standards. More research is needed in the area of Ayurvedic
treatment of diabetes, assessing both whole practice and individual modalities.

PMID: 14727499 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

338. J Altern Complement Med. 2004;10 Suppl 1:S15-23.

Transformative practices for integrating mind-body-spirit.

Luskin F.

Stanford Center for Research in Disease Prevention, Stanford University School of
Medicine, Redwood City, CA 94061, USA. fredl@stanford.edu

This paper explores the clinical use of transformative practices that arose from
the varied religious traditions of the world. Examples include prayer,
meditation, mantra, affirmation, tai chi, and yoga. The purpose of these
practices was to lead the practitioner to long term spiritual transformation
toward an enhanced awareness of spirit, and a corresponding diminishment of
identification with the mental and physical aspects of life. Unfortunately, the
vagueness of the definition of transformation demonstrates that it is a broad and
diffuse multidimensional concept difficult to quantify and resistant to rigorous
research. However, these spiritual practices, offered as interventions separate
from their spiritual tradition, have begun to be evaluated to document their
effect on psychological and physical well-being. Currently, there are a number of
well-designed studies that attest to the health-enhancing and suffering-reducing
benefits derived from religiously transformative practices. There also is
research, although sporadic and mostly on forgiveness, slowly emerging to show
that prosocial positive emotion skills can be taught, and when measured,
demonstrate benefit. Randomized trials of transformative practices are needed to
help all levels of the health care system focus their attention on the
manifestations and effect of the care delivered.

PMID: 15630819 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

339. Neuropsychobiology. 2004;50(2):189-94.

Individual trait anxiety levels characterizing the properties of zen meditation.

Murata T, Takahashi T, Hamada T, Omori M, Kosaka H, Yoshida H, Wada Y.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Fukui,
Fukui, Japan. tmurata@fmsrsa.fukui-med.ac.jp

Meditation is a specific consciousness state in which deep relaxation and
increased internalized attention coexist. There have been various
neurophysiological studies on meditation. However, the personal
predispositions/traits that characterize the properties of meditation have not
been adequately studied. We analyzed changes in neurophysiological parameters
[EEG coherence and autonomic nervous activity using heart rate variability (HRV)
as an index] during Zen meditation, and evaluated the results in association with
trait anxiety (assessed by Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) in 22
healthy adults who had not previously practiced any form of meditation. During
meditation, in terms of mean values in all subjects, an increase in slow alpha
interhemispheric EEG coherence in the frontal region, an increase in
high-frequency (HF) power (as a parasympathetic index of HRV), and a decrease in
the ratio of low-frequency to HF power (as a sympathetic index of HRV) were
observed. Further evaluation of these changes in individuals showed a negative
correlation between the percent change (with the control condition as the
baseline) in slow alpha interhemispheric coherence reflecting internalized
attention and the percent change in HF reflecting relaxation. The trait anxiety
score was negatively correlated with the percent change in slow alpha
interhemispheric coherence in the frontal region and was positively correlated
with the percent change in HF. These results suggest that lower trait anxiety
more readily induces meditation with a predominance of internalized attention,
while higher trait anxiety more readily induces meditation with a predominance of
relaxation.

PMID: 15292676 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

340. Psychosom Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;66(1):148-52; author reply 148-52.

Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation:
three caveats.

Smith JC.

Comment on:
Psychosom Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;65(4):564-70.

PMID: 14747650 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

341. Psychosom Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;66(1):147-8; author reply 147-8.

EEG asymmetry and mindfulness meditation.

Travis F, Arenander A.

Comment on:
Psychosom Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;65(4):564-70.

PMID: 14747649 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

342. Holist Nurs Pract. 2003 Nov-Dec;17(6):309-19.

Meditation’s impact on chronic illness.

Bonadonna R.

College of Nursing, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
holisticnursing@bellsouth.net

Meditation is becoming widely popular as an adjunct to conventional medical
therapies. This article reviews the literature regarding the experience of
chronic illness, theories about meditation, and clinical effects of this
self-care practice. Eastern theories of meditation include Buddhist psychology.
The word Buddha means the awakened one, and Buddhist meditators have been called
the first scientists, alluding to more than 2500 years of precise, detailed
observation of inner experience. The knowledge that comprises Buddhist psychology
was derived inductively from the historical figure’s (Prince Siddhartha Gautama)
diligent self-inquiry. Western theories of meditation include Jungian, Benson’s
relaxation response, and transpersonal psychology. Clinical effects of meditation
impact a broad spectrum of physical and psychological symptoms and syndromes,
including reduced anxiety, pain, and depression, enhanced mood and self-esteem,
and decreased stress. Meditation has been studied in populations with
fibromyalgia, cancer, hypertension, and psoriasis. While earlier studies were
small and lacked experimental controls, the quality and quantity of valid
research is growing. Meditation practice can positively influence the experience
of chronic illness and can serve as a primary, secondary, and/or tertiary
prevention strategy. Health professionals demonstrate commitment to holistic
practice by asking patients about use of meditation, and can encourage this
self-care activity. Simple techniques for mindfulness can be taught in the
clinical setting. Living mindfully with chronic illness is a fruitful area for
research, and it can be predicted that evidence will grow to support the role of
consciousness in the human experience of disease.

PMID: 14650573 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

343. Science. 2003 Oct 3;302(5642):44-6.

Buddhism and neuroscience. Studying the well-trained mind.

Barinaga M.

PMID: 14526055 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

344. Am J Clin Hypn. 2003 Oct;46(2):109-28.

The science of meditation and the state of hypnosis.

Holroyd J.

University of California, Los Angeles, USA. holroyd@ucla.edu

Two aspects of Buddhist meditation–concentration and mindfulness–are discussed
in relationship to hypnosis. Mindfulness training facilitates the investigation
of subjective responses to hypnosis. Concentration practice leads to altered
states similar to those in hypnosis, both phenomenologically and neurologically.
The similarities and differences between hypnosis and meditation are used to shed
light on perennial questions: (1) Does hypnosis involve an altered state of
consciousness? (2) Does a hypnotic induction increase suggestibility? I conclude
that a model for hypnosis should include altered states as well as capacity for
imaginative involvement and expectations.

PMID: 14609297 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

345. J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Oct;9(5):683-94.

Psycho-endocrine-immune response to mindfulness-based stress reduction in
individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: a quasiexperimental
study.

Robinson FP, Mathews HL, Witek-Janusek L.

College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612-7350,
USA. prphd@uic.edu

Comment in:
J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Oct;9(5):603-5.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a structured,
8-week, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on perceived stress,
mood, endocrine function, immunity, and functional health outcomes in individuals
infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). DESIGN: This study used a
quasiexperimental, nonrandomized design. METHODS: Subjects were specifically
recruited (nonrandom) for intervention (MBSR) or comparison group. Data were
collected at pretest and post-test in the MBSR group and at matched times in the
comparison group. t Tests where performed to determine within-group changes and
between-group differences. RESULTS: Natural killer cell activity and number
increased significantly in the MBSR group compared to the comparison group. No
significant changes or differences were found for psychological, endocrine, or
functional health variables. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide tentative
evidence that MBSR may assist in improving immunity in individuals infected with
HIV.

PMID: 14629846 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

346. J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Oct;9(5):603-5.

The complications of meditation trials and research: issues raised by the
Robinson, Mathews, and Witek-Janusek paper-« Psycho-endocrine-immune response to
mindfulness-based stress reduction in individuals infected with the human
immunodeficiency virus: a quasiexperimental study ».

Shannahoff-Khalsa D.

Comment on:
J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Oct;9(5):683-94.

PMID: 14629835 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

347. J Rheumatol. 2003 Oct;30(10):2257-62.

The efficacy of mindfulness meditation plus Qigong movement therapy in the
treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

Astin JA, Berman BM, Bausell B, Lee WL, Hochberg M, Forys KL.

California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, 2300 California Street,
Room 207, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA. jastin@cooper.cpmc.org

Comment in:
J Rheumatol. 2003 Oct;30(10):2088-9.

OBJECTIVE: To test the short and longterm benefits of an 8 week mind-body
intervention that combined training in mindfulness meditation with Qigong
movement therapy for individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FM). METHODS: A
total of 128 individuals with FM were randomly assigned to the mind-body training
program or an education support group that served as the control. Outcome
measures were pain, disability (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), depression,
myalgic score (number and severity of tender points), 6 minute walk time, and
coping strategies, which were assessed at baseline and at 8, 16, and 24 weeks.
RESULTS: Both groups registered statistically significant improvements across
time for the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Total Myalgic Score, Pain, and
Depression, and no improvement in the number of feet traversed in the 6 minute
walk. However, there was no difference in either the rate or magnitude of these
changes between the mind-body training group and the education control group.
Salutary changes occurring by the eighth week (which corresponded to the end of
the mind-body and education control group sessions) were largely maintained by
both groups throughout the 6 month followup period. CONCLUSION: While both groups
showed improvement on a number of outcome variables, there was no evidence that
the multimodal mind-body intervention for FM was superior to education and
support as a treatment option. Additional randomized controlled trials are needed
before interventions of this kind can be recommended for treatment of FM.

PMID: 14528526 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

348. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2003 Oct;50(5):1049-92, vi.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents:
interventions for a complex costly clinical conundrum.

Greydanus DE, Pratt HD, Sloane MA, Rappley MD.

Department of Pediatrics & Human Development, Michigan State University College
of Human Medicine, A110 East Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.
greydanus@kcms.msu.edu

Management of a child or adolescent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD) is reviewed, including psychological and pharmacologic approaches.
Psychological treatment includes psychotherapy, cognitive-behavior therapy,
support groups, parent training, educator/teacher training, biofeedback,
meditation, and social skills training. Medications are reviewed that research
has revealed can improve the core symptomatology of a child or adolescent with
ADHD. These medications include stimulants, antidepressants, alpha-2 agonists,
and a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. Management of ADHD should include a
multi-modal approach, involving appropriate educational interventions,
appropriate psychological management of the patient (child or adolescent), and
judicious use of medications. Parents, school officials, and clinicians must work
together to help all children and adolescents with ADHD achieve their maximum
potential.

PMID: 14558681 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

349. Disabil Rehabil. 2003 Jul 8;25(13):722-31.

Pilot evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention to improve quality of life
among individuals who sustained traumatic brain injuries.

Bédard M, Felteau M, Mazmanian D, Fedyk K, Klein R, Richardson J, Parkinson W,
Minthorn-Biggs MB.

Department of Psychology, Lakehead University, Lakehead Psychiatric Hospital, 955
Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1, Canada. michel.bedard@lakeheadu.ca

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential efficacy of a mindfulness-based
stress reduction approach to improve quality of life in individuals who have
suffered traumatic brain injuries. RESEARCH DESIGN: Pre-post design with
drop-outs as controls. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We recruited individuals with mild
to moderate brain injuries, at least 1 year post-injury. We measured their
quality of life, psychological status, and function. Results of 10 participants
who completed the programme were compared to three drop-outs with complete data.
EXPERIMENTAL INTERVENTION: The intervention was delivered in 12-weekly group
sessions. The intervention relied on insight meditation, breathing exercises,
guided visualization, and group discussion. We aimed to encourage a new way of
thinking about disability and life to bring a sense of acceptance, allowing
participants to move beyond limiting beliefs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The
treatment group mean quality of life (SF-36) improved by 15.40 (SD = 9.08)
compared to – 1.67 (SD = 16.65; p = 0.036) for controls. Improvements on the
cognitive-affective domain of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) were
reported (p = 0.029), while changes in the overall BDI-II (p = 0.059) and the
Positive Symptom Distress Inventory of the SCL-90R (p = 0.054) approached
statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention was simple, and improved
quality of life after other treatment avenues for these participants were
exhausted.

PMID: 12791557 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

350. Holist Nurs Pract. 2003 Jul-Aug;17(4):201-8.

Integrating mindfulness-based stress reduction.

Proulx K.

School of Nursing, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass 01003, USA.
kaproulx@verizon.net

Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) programs may mitigate the effects of
stress and disease. This integrative review identified 21 clinical studies on
MBSR interventions. Although preliminary findings suggest health enhancement from
MBSR, controlled, randomized studies, the operationalization of constructs, and
qualitative research are needed.

PMID: 12889548 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

351. Psychosom Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;65(4):571-81.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction in relation to quality of life, mood, symptoms
of stress, and immune parameters in breast and prostate cancer outpatients.

Carlson LE, Speca M, Patel KD, Goodey E.

Department Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta,
Canada. lcarlso@ucalgary.ca

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationships between a mindfulness-based
stress reduction meditation program for early stage breast and prostate cancer
patients and quality of life, mood states, stress symptoms, lymphocyte counts,
and cytokine production. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with breast cancer and 10
with prostate cancer participated in an 8-week MBSR program that incorporated
relaxation, meditation, gentle yoga, and daily home practice. Demographic and
health behavior variables, quality of life (EORTC QLQ C-30), mood (POMS), stress
(SOSI), and counts of NK, NKT, B, T total, T helper, and T cytotoxic cells, as
well as NK and T cell production of TNF, IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10 were assessed
pre- and postintervention. RESULTS: Fifty-nine and 42 patients were assessed pre-
and postintervention, respectively. Significant improvements were seen in overall
quality of life, symptoms of stress, and sleep quality. Although there were no
significant changes in the overall number of lymphocytes or cell subsets, T cell
production of IL-4 increased and IFN-gamma decreased, whereas NK cell production
of IL-10 decreased. These results are consistent with a shift in immune profile
from one associated with depressive symptoms to a more normal profile.
CONCLUSIONS: MBSR participation was associated with enhanced quality of life and
decreased stress symptoms in breast and prostate cancer patients. This study is
also the first to show changes in cancer-related cytokine production associated
with program participation.

PMID: 12883107 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

352. Psychosom Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;65(4):564-70.

Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation.

Davidson RJ, Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, Rosenkranz M, Muller D, Santorelli SF,
Urbanowski F, Harrington A, Bonus K, Sheridan JF.

Laboratory for Affective Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of
Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA. rjdavids@facstaff.wisc.edu

Comment in:
Psychosom Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;66(1):147-8; author reply 147-8.
Psychosom Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;66(1):148-52; author reply 148-52.

OBJECTIVE: The underlying changes in biological processes that are associated
with reported changes in mental and physical health in response to meditation
have not been systematically explored. We performed a randomized, controlled
study on the effects on brain and immune function of a well-known and widely used
8-week clinical training program in mindfulness meditation applied in a work
environment with healthy employees. METHODS: We measured brain electrical
activity before and immediately after, and then 4 months after an 8-week training
program in mindfulness meditation. Twenty-five subjects were tested in the
meditation group. A wait-list control group (N = 16) was tested at the same
points in time as the meditators. At the end of the 8-week period, subjects in
both groups were vaccinated with influenza vaccine. RESULTS: We report for the
first time significant increases in left-sided anterior activation, a pattern
previously associated with positive affect, in the meditators compared with the
nonmeditators. We also found significant increases in antibody titers to
influenza vaccine among subjects in the meditation compared with those in the
wait-list control group. Finally, the magnitude of increase in left-sided
activation predicted the magnitude of antibody titer rise to the vaccine.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that a short program in mindfulness
meditation produces demonstrable effects on brain and immune function. These
findings suggest that meditation may change brain and immune function in positive
ways and underscore the need for additional research.

PMID: 12883106 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

353. Res Dev Disabil. 2003 May-Jun;24(3):158-69.

Soles of the Feet: a mindfulness-based self-control intervention for aggression
by an individual with mild mental retardation and mental illness.

Singh NN, Wahler RG, Adkins AD, Myers RE; Mindfulness Research Group.

ONE Research Institute, P.O. Box 4657, Midlothian, VA 23112, USA.
nirbsingh52@aol.com

Uncontrolled low frequency, high intensity aggressive behavior is often a barrier
to community living for individuals with developmental disabilities. Aggressive
behaviors are typically treated with psychotropic medication, behavioral
interventions or their combination; but often the behaviors persist at a level
that is problematic for the individual as well as care providers. We developed a
mindfulness-based, self-control strategy for an adult with mental retardation and
mental illness whose aggression had precluded successful community placement. He
was taught a simple meditation technique that required him to shift his attention
and awareness from the anger-producing situation to a neutral point on his body,
the soles of his feet. After practice he applied this technique fairly
consistently in situations that would normally have elicited an aggressive
response from him. The data show that he increased self-control over his
aggressive behaviors, met the community provider’s requirement for 6 months of
aggression-free behavior in the inpatient facility before being transitioned to
the community, and then successfully lived in the community without readmission
to a facility. No aggressive behavior was seen during the 1-year follow-up after
his community placement. Mindfulness-based intervention may offer a viable
alternative to traditional interventions currently being used to treat behavioral
challenges in children and adults with mild mental retardation.

PMID: 12742385 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

354. Depress Anxiety. 2003;18(4):177-86.

Fear of loss of vigilance: development and preliminary validation of a
self-report instrument.

Tsao JC, Craske MG.

NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32610-0165, USA. jtsao@ufl.edu

We describe the development and initial validation of the Fear of Loss of
Vigilance Questionnaire (FLOVQ). Recent investigations indicate that individuals
with nocturnal panic (NP) demonstrate increased anxiety and panic in response to
meditative relaxation and imagined hypnosis, compared to those with daytime panic
(DP) only, suggesting that NP individuals fear situations that involve a loss of
vigilance (e.g., relaxation, fatigue and altered states of consciousness). The
FLOVQ was designed to assess this construct and was tested in five non-clinical
samples and one clinical sample. The 14-item instrument demonstrated good
internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Non-clinical respondents who
experienced NP endorsed greater fear of loss of vigilance than non-panickers;
those who only experienced DP did not differ from the other groups. By contrast,
on measures of trait and state anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity, both panic
groups scored higher than non-panickers, suggesting that these latter measures
were related to broader factors pertaining to a general tendency to panic versus
a specific factor associated with NP. No group differences were found between NPs
and DPs in either the non-clinical or the clinical sample, suggesting that fear
of loss of vigilance may be a vulnerability factor for the development of NP and
that the FLOVQ has more utility as a research rather than as a clinical
instrument.

PMID: 14661187 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

355. Fam Community Health. 2003 Jan-Mar;26(1):25-33.

Mindfulness meditation, anxiety reduction, and heart disease: a pilot study.

Tacón AM, McComb J, Caldera Y, Randolph P.

The Department of Health, Exercise, and Sport Sciences, Texas Tech University,
USA.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death among Americans each year, yet the
misperception still exists that cardiovascular disease is not a serious health
problem for women. Evidence indicates that anxiety contributes to the development
of heart disease. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the
effectiveness of Kabat-Zinn’s mindfulness-based stress reduction program to
reduce anxiety in women with heart disease. Anxiety, emotional control, coping
styles, and health locus of control were compared in a treatment and control
group of women with heart disease. Post-intervention analyses provide initial
support for beneficial effects of this program.

PMID: 12802125 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

356. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Dec;8(6):719-30; discussion 731-5.

Does mindfulness meditation contribute to health? Outcome evaluation of a German
sample.

Majumdar M, Grossman P, Dietz-Waschkowski B, Kersig S, Walach H.

Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Department of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology, Freiburg, Germany.

OBJECTIVES: This exploratory study is the first systematic outcome evaluation to
examine the effects of an 8-week meditation-based program in mindfulness in a
German sample. DESIGN: Twenty-one (21) participants with chronic physical,
psychologic, or psychosomatic illnesses were examined in a longitudinal pretest
and post-treatment design with a 3-month follow-up. OUTCOME MEASURES: Both
quantitative and qualitative data were gathered. Emotional and general physical
well-being, sense of coherence, overall psychologic distress, and satisfaction
with life were measured with standardized instruments. RESULTS: Overall, the
interventions led to high levels of adherence to the meditation practice and
satisfaction with the benefits of the course, as well as effective and lasting
reductions of symptoms (especially in psychologic distress, well-being, and
quality of life). Changes were of moderate-to-large effect sizes. Positive
complementary effects with psychotherapy were also found. CONCLUSIONS: These
findings warrant controlled studies to evaluate the efficacy and cost
effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction as an intervention for
chronic physical and psychosomatic disorders in Germany.

PMID: 12614525 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

357. Neurosci Lett. 2002 Sep 20;330(2):143-6.

Non-linear dynamic complexity of the human EEG during meditation.

Aftanas LI, Golocheikine SA.

Psychophysiology Laboratory, State-Research Institute of Physiology, Siberian
Branch, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Timakova str. 4, 630117,
Novosibirsk, Russia. aftanas@iph.ma.nsc.ru

We used non-linear analysis to investigate the dynamical properties underlying
the EEG in the model of Sahaja Yoga meditation. Non-linear dimensional complexity
(DCx) estimates, indicating complexity of neuronal computations, were analyzed in
20 experienced meditators during rest and meditation using 62-channel EEG. When
compared to rest, the meditation was accompanied by a focused decrease of DCx
estimates over midline frontal and central regions. By contrast, additionally
computed linear measures exhibited the opposite direction of changes: power in
the theta-1 (4-6 Hz), theta-2 (6-8 Hz) and alpha-1 (8-10 Hz) frequency bands was
increased over these regions. The DCx estimates negatively correlated with
theta-2 and alpha-1 and positively with beta-3 (22-30 Hz) band power. It is
suggested that meditative experience, characterized by less complex dynamics of
the EEG, involves ‘switching off’ irrelevant networks for the maintenance of
focused internalized attention and inhibition of inappropriate information.
Overall, the results point to the idea that dynamically changing inner experience
during meditation is better indexed by a combination of non-linear and linear EEG
variables.

PMID: 12231432 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

358. Pediatr Nurs. 2002 Sep-Oct;28(5):487-90.

Mindfulness meditation in pediatric clinical practice.

Ott MJ.

Pain and Palliative Care Program, Zakim Center for Integrated Therapies,
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Complementary therapies are used in addition to conventional treatments;
alternative therapies are generally used instead of conventional treatments. In
the Five Domains of complementary and alternative therapies, patient education
and cognitive-behavioral approaches are listed as mainstream interventions.
Meditation is listed within the mind-body domain as a complementary intervention
used to facilitate the mind’s ability to affect bodily functions and symptoms.

PMID: 12424984 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

359. Chang Gung Med J. 2002 Aug;25(8):538-41.

Mindfulness meditation in the control of severe headache.

Sun TF, Kuo CC, Chiu NM.

Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.

In the West, the use of the methods of alternative medicine, including
meditation, has been on the rise. In the US, Kabat-Zinn and associates have
pioneered the extensive use of mindfulness meditation (MM) for the treatment of
people facing pain and illness. Among the essentials of MM is the observation of
bodily sensations, including pain. In Taiwan, despite the deep cultural roots of
meditation, its therapeutic use has received little attention from
institutionalized medicine. We report on the case of a man who was prone to
developing severe headaches due to activities requiring extreme concentration. He
learned to control his pain and discomfort through mindfulness meditation,
although this practice in fact induced headaches initially. It is suggested that
training in MM may be a medically superior and cost-effective alternative to pain
medication for the control of headaches with no underlying organic causes in
highly motivated patients.

PMID: 12392366 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

360. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2002 Apr;13(2):255-9.

Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness.

Kjaer TW, Bertelsen C, Piccini P, Brooks D, Alving J, Lou HC.

John F. Kennedy Institute, Gl. Landevej 7, 2600, Glostrup, Denmark.
kjaer@nordita.dk

This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous
neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we
demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during
Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized by a depressed level of desire
for action, associated with decreased blood flow in prefrontal, cerebellar and
subcortical regions, structures thought to be organized in open loops subserving
executive control. In the striatum, dopamine modulates excitatory glutamatergic
synapses of the projections from the frontal cortex to striatal neurons, which in
turn project back to the frontal cortex via the pallidum and ventral thalamus.
The present study was designed to investigate whether endogenous dopamine release
increases during loss of executive control in meditation. Participants underwent
two 11C-raclopride PET scans: one while attending to speech with eyes closed, and
one during active meditation. The tracer competes with endogenous dopamine for
access to dopamine D2 receptors predominantly found in the basal ganglia. During
meditation, 11C-raclopride binding in ventral striatum decreased by 7.9%. This
corresponds to a 65% increase in endogenous dopamine release. The reduced
raclopride binding correlated significantly with a concomitant increase in EEG
theta activity, a characteristic feature of meditation. All participants reported
a decreased desire for action during meditation, along with heightened sensory
imagery. The level of gratification and the depth of relaxation did not differ
between the attention and meditation conditions. Here we show increased striatal
dopamine release during meditation associated with the experience of reduced
readiness for action. It is suggested that being in the conscious state of
meditation causes a suppression of cortico-striatal glutamatergic transmission.
To our knowledge this is the first time in vivo evidence has been provided for
regulation of conscious states at a synaptic level.

PMID: 11958969 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

361. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002 Apr;46(2):136-58.

Neurophysiological mechanisms of induction of meditation: a hypothetico-deductive
approach.

Deepak KK.

Department of Physiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110
029.

A detailed analysis of methods of induction of meditation and meditative
experience encountered therein implicates involvement of several mechanisms in
inducing ‘meditative effect’. ‘Efferent attenuation’, ‘sensory attenuation’ and
‘cognitive restructuring’ appear three possible mechanisms employed in varying
degree of combinations to produce the ‘meditative effect’ during different types
of meditations. Using hypothetico-deductive approach, it is possible to generate
a neural model for explaining the ‘meditative effect’. Primarily, the meditation
is produced by disengaged association cortices driven by thalamus or other older
group of reticular nuclei. Secondarily, there may be involvement of some more
phylogenetically older structures depending upon depth and types of meditation.
This model explains induction, maintenance and long-term effects of meditation.

PMID: 12500489 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

362. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Feb 1;65(3):380, 384.

Use of mindfulness meditation for fibromyalgia.

von Weiss D.

Comment on:
Am Fam Physician. 2000 Oct 1;62(7):1575-82, 1587.
Am Fam Physician. 2000 Oct 1;62(7):1492, 1494.

PMID: 11858621 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

363. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Jan-Feb;8(1):60-2, 64-6.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction and healthcare utilization in the inner city:
preliminary findings.

Roth B, Stanley TW.

Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic and the Department of Public Health in San
Francisco, Calif, USA. bethroth@snet.net

CONTEXT: Research on mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has focused on
measuring symptom reduction in middle-class and working-class populations. The
present study examined inner-city patients’ healthcare utilization before and
after an MBSR intervention. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether completion of an MBSR
program resulted in changes in healthcare utilization in an inner-city
population. DESIGN: Medical chart review compared the number and diagnoses of
health center visits during the year before patients entered the MBSR program
with the year following completion of the program. SETTING: The Community Health
Center in Meriden, Conn. PATIENTS: The chart review process examined healthcare
utilization patterns for 73 patients: 54 who completed the MBSR program in
Spanish and 19 who completed the program in English. The focus of this study is a
subgroup of 47 patients for whom a complete year of data were available before
and after the intervention. INTERVENTION: An 8-week course in MBSR. MAIN OUTCOME
MEASURES: The number and diagnoses of patients’ health center visits before and
after completion of the MBSR program. RESULTS: A significant decrease in the
number of chronic care visits was found among the 47 patients for whom complete
data were available. The 36 patients who completed the Spanish courses
demonstrated a significant decrease in total medical visits and chronic care
visits. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that MBSR may help contain
healthcare costs by decreasing the number of visits made by inner-city patients
to their primary care providers after completing the MBSR program.

PMID: 11795623 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

364. Psychosom Med. 2002 Jan-Feb;64(1):71-83.

What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction?

Bishop SR.

Princess Margaret Hospital and the Department of Psychiatry, University of
Toronto, Ontario, Canada. scott.bishop@uhn.on.ca

Erratum in:
Psychosom Med 2002 May-Jun;64(3):449.

OBJECTIVE: Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a clinical program,
developed to facilitate adaptation to medical illness, which provides systematic
training in mindfulness meditation as a self-regulatory approach to stress
reduction and emotion management. There has been widespread and growing use of
this approach within medical settings in the last 20 years, and many claims have
been made regarding its efficacy. This article will provide a critical evaluation
of the available state of knowledge regarding MBSR and suggestions for future
research. METHODS: A review of the current literature available within the
medical and social sciences was undertaken to provide an evaluation regarding
what we know about the construct of mindfulness, the effectiveness of MBSR, and
mechanisms of action. RESULTS: There has been a paucity of research and what has
been published has been rife with methodological problems. At present, we know
very little about the effectiveness of this approach. However, there is some
evidence that suggests that it may hold some promise. CONCLUSIONS: The available
evidence does not support a strong endorsement of this approach at present.
However, serious investigation is warranted and strongly recommended.

PMID: 11818588 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

365. J Altern Complement Med. 2001 Dec;7(6):689-96.

Barriers to acceptance: an exploratory study of complementary/alternative
medicine disuse.

Jain N, Astin JA.

University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, NY 14642, USA.
neeta.jain@stanfordalumni.org

BACKGROUND: Previous research indicates wide use of complementary and alternative
medicine (CAM). While understanding this trend is certainly important, an equally
meaningful although largely unexamined research question is: why do the majority
of patients and individuals fail to avail themselves of such therapies?
Understanding these factors may be particularly important given the increasing
evidence suggesting that certain of these therapies may be efficacious. METHODS:
A two-page survey that examined demographic characteristics, attitudes toward
CAM, and rates of use of specific CAM therapies was mailed to a randomly selected
sample of 1680 Stanford University alumni. A total of 601 responses were received
(response rate, 35.8%). Multiple regression analyses were carried out to examine
predictors of general CAM disuse and disuse of specific therapies. RESULTS: The
following variables predicted disuse of CAM in general (p < 0.05): (1) being male
(odds ratio [OR] 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44-0.98); (2) being healthy
(OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.91-0.99); (3) lack of physician support for CAM use (OR 1.82;
95% CI 1.42-2.29); and (4) believing CAM treatments are ineffective or inferior
(OR 0.27; 95% CI 0.19-0.38). Lack of knowledge about CAM approached significance
(p = 0.068). With regards to specific therapies, the following patterns were
seen: disuse of massage was associated with being male and younger; lack of
physician support predicted disuse for all treatments except acupuncture and
homeopathy; the belief that CAM treatments in general are ineffective predicted
disuse of all therapies except chiropractic while the belief that chiropractic
was ineffective predicted its disuse; the perception that CAM produced negative
side-effects predicted disuse of chiropractic; lack of knowledge of CAM predicted
disuse of herbs, chiropractic, and homeopathy; positive health status was
associated with disuse of chiropractic; and finally, the perception that
providers were not in accessible locations predicted disuse of all CAM therapies
except homeopathy and meditation. CONCLUSIONS: Study findings indicate people are
less likely to use CAM if they are male, are in good health, believe that the
therapies are in general ineffective or inferior to conventional methods,
perceive that conventional medical doctors are not supportive, and to a lesser
extent feel they do not have adequate knowledge of CAM. Specifically, avoidance
of chiropractic is associated with concerns for safety and side-effects. For
treatments that are more provider-based as opposed to self-care based, lack of
accessibility-to providers may explain disuse. As researchers continue to
demonstrate the clinical efficacy of CAM therapies, these preliminary findings
deserve attention because they highlight potential reasons why patients and
physicians may be biased against or unable to avail themselves of such therapies.

PMID: 11822617 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

366. J Clin Psychol. 2001 Dec;57(12):1551-7.

Progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, and ABC relaxation theory.

Matsumoto M, Smith JC.

Roosevelt University Stress Institute, Chicago, IL 60605, USA.

This study compared the psychological effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation
(PMR) and breathing exercises. Forty-two students were divided randomly into two
groups and taught PMR or breathing exercises. Both groups practiced for five
weeks and were given the Smith Relaxation States Inventory before and after each
session. As hypothesized, PMR practitioners displayed greater increments in
relaxation states (R-States) Physical Relaxation and Disengagement, while
breathing practitioners displayed higher levels of R-State Strength and
Awareness. Slight differences emerged at Weeks 1 and 2; major differences emerged
at Weeks 4 and 5. A delayed and potentially reinforcing aftereffect emerged for
PMR only after five weeks of training–increased levels of Mental Quiet and Joy.
Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

PMID: 11745596 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

367. Neurosci Lett. 2001 Sep 7;310(1):57-60.

Human anterior and frontal midline theta and lower alpha reflect emotionally
positive state and internalized attention: high-resolution EEG investigation of
meditation.

Aftanas LI, Golocheikine SA.

Psychophysiology Laboratory, State-Research Institute of Physiology, Siberian
Branch, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, Timakova str 4, 630117, Novosibirsk,
Russia. aftanas@iph.ma.nsc.ru

EEG spectral power and coherence estimates in the individually defined delta,
theta, alpha-1, alpha-2, and alpha-3 bands were used to identify and characterize
brain regions involved in meditative states, in which focused internalized
attention gives rise to emotionally positive « blissful » experience. Blissful
state was accompanied by increased anterior frontal and midline theta
synchronization as well as enhanced theta long-distant connectivity between
prefrontal and posterior association cortex with distinct « center of gravity » in
the left prefrontal region (AF3 site). Subjective scores of emotional experience
significantly correlated with theta, whereas scores of internalized attention
with both theta and alpha lower synchronization. Our results propose selective
associations of theta and alpha oscillating networks activity with states of
internalized attention and positive emotional experience.

PMID: 11524157 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

368. Psychosom Med. 2001 Sep-Oct;63(5):765-77.

Gender differences in psychophysiological responses to speech stress among older
social phobics:: congruence and incongruence between self-evaluative and
cardiovascular reactions.

Grossman P, Wilhelm FH, Kawachi I, Sparrow D.

Breathing Space: Institute for Yoga, Meditation, and Health, Freiburg, Germany.
grossman@eures.de

OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests increased cardiovascular risk and autonomic
impairment among individuals with chronic anxiety. Little attention, however, has
been paid to the anxiety disorder of social phobia despite its high prevalence.
Additionally, gender- and age-related cardiovascular profiles have not been
examined in relation to social phobia. This study investigated cardiovascular
responses to a socially threatening situation among older men and women with
social phobia and control subjects. METHODS: Thirty subjects with social phobia
and 30 control subjects (mean age = 65 years) were assessed during baseline,
paced breathing, speech preparation, and speech presentation.
Electrocardiographic variables, blood pressure, respiration, and emotional state
(self-reported) were monitored. Hemodynamic variables included heart rate, blood
pressure, cardiac output, and systemic vascular resistance; autonomic measures
were respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity, both markers of
cardiac vagal control, and 0.10-Hz systolic blood pressure variability, an index
of sympathetic vasomotor tone. RESULTS: Subjects with social phobia, in contrast
to nonanxious control subjects, manifested more anxiety, embarrassment, and
somatic complaints in response to stress; however, physiological measures
generally did not distinguish groups. Interaction effects indicated that socially
phobic women were hyperresponsive to the stressor with respect to self-reported,
hemodynamic, and autonomic parameters. Socially phobic men manifested no
physiological differences in comparison with control subjects, but they reported
more psychological and somatic complaints. CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences in
subjective and physiological responses to a socially threatening situation
indicate congruence between perceived social anxiety and physiological responses
in older women but not men. We found no evidence of impaired cardiovascular
autonomic regulation among socially phobic men despite other reports that
phobically anxious men are at greater cardiovascular risk.

PMID: 11573025 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

369. Am J Health Promot. 2001 Jul-Aug;15(6):422-32.

Evaluation of a Wellness-Based Mindfulness Stress Reduction intervention: a
controlled trial.

Williams KA, Kolar MM, Reger BE, Pearson JC.

Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 9820,
Morgantown, WV 26506-9820, USA.

PURPOSE: To determine if participation in a Wellness-Based Mindfulness Stress
Reduction intervention decreases the effect of daily hassles, psychological
distress, and medical symptoms. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial of a stress
reduction intervention with a 3-month follow-up. SETTING: A university setting in
West Virginia. SUBJECTS: A total of 103 adults, with 59 in the intervention group
and 44 in the control group. Eight-five percent of subjects completed the
intervention. Fifty-nine percent and 61% of the intervention and control subjects
completed the study, respectively. INTERVENTION: The intervention consisted of an
8-week group stress reduction program in which subjects learned, practiced, and
applied « mindfulness meditation » to daily life situations. The control group
received educational materials and were encouraged to use community resources for
stress management. MEASURES: The Daily Stress Inventory assessed the effect of
daily hassles, the Revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist measured psychological
distress, the Medical Symptom Checklist measured number of medical symptoms, and
a Follow-up Questionnaire measured program adherence. RESULTS: Intervention
subjects reported significant decreases from baseline in effect of daily hassles
(24%), psychological distress, (44%), and medical symptoms (46%) that were
maintained at the 3-month follow-up compared to control subjects (repeated
measures analysis of variance [ANOVA]; p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Self-selected
community residents can improve their mental and physical health by participating
in a stress reduction intervention offered by a university wellness program.

PMID: 11523499 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

370. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2001 Jul-Aug;23(4):183-92.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health-related quality of life in a
heterogeneous patient population.

Reibel DK, Greeson JM, Brainard GC, Rosenzweig S.

Center for Integrative Medicine, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA,
USA. diane.reibel@mail.tju.edu

This study examined the effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on
health-related quality of life and physical and psychological symptomatology in a
heterogeneous patient population. Patients (n=136) participated in an 8-week MBSR
program and were required to practice 20 min of meditation daily. Pre- and
post-intervention data were collected by using the Short-Form Health Survey
(SF-36), Medical Symptom Checklist (MSCL) and Symptom Checklist-90 Revised
(SCL-90-R). Health-related quality of life was enhanced as demonstrated by
improvement on all indices of the SF-36, including vitality, bodily pain, role
limitations caused by physical health, and social functioning (all P<.01).
Alleviation of physical symptoms was revealed by a 28% reduction on the MSCL
(P<.0001). Decreased psychological distress was indicated on the SCL-90-R by a
38% reduction on the Global Severity Index, a 44% reduction on the anxiety
subscale, and a 34% reduction on the depression subscale (all P<.0001). One-year
follow-up revealed maintenance of initial improvements on several outcome
parameters. We conclude that a group mindfulness meditation training program can
enhance functional status and well-being and reduce physical symptoms and
psychological distress in a heterogeneous patient population and that the
intervention may have long-term beneficial effects.

PMID: 11543844 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

371. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Jun;931:310-41.

Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD).

Arnold LE.

Department of Psychiatry, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
arnold.6@osu.edu

A previous review of alternative treatments (Tx) of ADHD–those other than
psychoactive medication and behavioral/psychosocial Tx–was supplemented with an
additional literature search focused on adults with ADHD. Twenty-four alternative
Tx were identified, ranging in scientific documentation from discrediting
controlled studies through mere hypotheses to positive controlled double-blind
clinical trials. Many of them are applicable only to a specific subgroup.
Although oligoantigenic (few-foods) diets have convincing double-blind evidence
of efficacy for a properly selected subgroup of children, they do not appear
promising for adults. Enzyme-potentiated desensitization, relaxation/EMG
biofeedback, and deleading also have controlled evidence of efficacy. Iron
supplementation, magnesium supplementation, Chinese herbals, EEG biofeedback,
massage, meditation, mirror feedback, channel-specific perceptual training, and
vestibular stimulation all have promising prospective pilot data, many of these
tests reasonably controlled. Single-vitamin megadosage has some intriguing pilot
trial data. Zinc supplementation is hypothetically supported by systematic
case-control data, but no systematic clinical trial. Laser acupuncture has
promising unpublished pilot data and may be more applicable to adults than
children. Essential fatty acid supplementation has promising systematic
case-control data, but clinical trials are equivocal. RDA vitamin
supplementation, non-Chinese herbals, homeopathic remedies, and antifungal
therapy have no systematic data in ADHD. Megadose multivitamin combinations are
probably ineffective for most patients and are possibly dangerous. Simple sugar
restriction seems ineffective. Amino acid supplementation is mildly effective in
the short term, but not beyond 2-3 months. Thyroid treatment is effective in the
presence of documented thyroid abnormality. Some alternative Tx of ADHD are
effective or probably effective, but mainly for certain patients. In some cases,
they are the Tx of choice, and initial evaluation should consider the relevant
etiologies. A few have failed to prove effective in controlled trials. Most need
research to determine whether they are effective and/or to define the applicable
subgroup. Some of them, although not safer than standard Tx, may be preferable
for an etiologic subgroup.

PMID: 11462750 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

372. Br J Med Psychol. 2001 Jun;74 Part 2:197-212.

A qualitative study of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression.

Mason O, Hargreaves I.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, UK.

Psychotherapeutic interventions containing training in mindfulness meditation
have been shown to help participants with a variety of somatic and psychological
conditions. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a meditation-based
psychotherapeutic intervention designed to help reduce the risk of relapse of
recurrent depression. There is encouraging early evidence from multi-centre
randomized controlled trials. However, little is known of the process by which
MBCT may bring therapeutic benefits. This study set out to explore participants’
accounts of MBCT in the mental-health context. Seven participants were
interviewed in two phases. Interview data from four participants were obtained in
the weeks following MBCT. Grounded theory techniques were used to identify
several categories that combine to describe the ways in which mental-health
difficulties arose as well as their experiences of MBCT. Three further
participants who have continued to practise MBCT were interviewed so as to
further validate, elucidate and extend these categories. The theory suggested
that the preconceptions and expectations of therapy are important influences on
later experiences of MBCT. Important areas of therapeutic change (‘coming to
terms’) were identified, including the development of mindfulness skills, an
attitude of acceptance and ‘living in the moment’. The development of mindfulness
skills was seen to hold a key role in the development of change. Generalization
of these skills to everyday life was seen as important, and several ways in which
this happened, including the use of breathing spaces, were discussed. The study
emphasized the role of continued skills practice for participants’ therapeutic
gains. In addition, several of the concepts and categories offered support to
cognitive accounts of mood disorder and the role of MBCT in reducing relapse.

PMID: 11802836 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

373. Br J Med Psychol. 2001 Jun;74(Pt 2):197-212.

A qualitative study of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression.

Mason O, Hargreaves I.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, UK.

Psychotherapeutic interventions containing training in mindfulness meditation
have been shown to help participants with a variety of somatic and psychological
conditions. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a meditation-based
psychotherapeutic intervention designed to help reduce the risk of relapse of
recurrent depression. There is encouraging early evidence from multi-centre
randomized controlled trials. However, little is known of the process by which
MBCT may bring therapeutic benefits. This study set out to explore participants’
accounts of MBCT in the mental-health context. Seven participants were
interviewed in two phases. Interview data from four participants were obtained in
the weeks following MBCT. Grounded theory techniques were used to identify
several categories that combine to describe the ways in which mental-health
difficulties arose as well as their experiences of MBCT. Three further
participants who have continued to practise MBCT were interviewed so as to
further validate, elucidate and extend these categories. The theory suggested
that the preconceptions and expectations of therapy are important influences on
later experiences of MBCT. Important areas of therapeutic change (‘coming to
terms’) were identified, including the development of mindfulness skills, an
attitude of acceptance and ‘living in the moment’. The development of mindfulness
skills was seen to hold a key role in the development of change. Generalization
of these skills to everyday life was seen as important, and several ways in which
this happened, including the use of breathing spaces, were discussed. The study
emphasized the role of continued skills practice for participants’ therapeutic
gains. In addition, several of the concepts and categories offered support to
cognitive accounts of mood disorder and the role of MBCT in reducing relapse.

PMID: 11453171 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

374. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2001 Apr;11(2):281-7.

Frontal midline theta rhythm is correlated with cardiac autonomic activities
during the performance of an attention demanding meditation procedure.

Kubota Y, Sato W, Toichi M, Murai T, Okada T, Hayashi A, Sengoku A.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University,
Shogoin-Kawaharacho, 606-8507, Kyoto, Japan. yka@pluto.dti.ne.jp

Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm theta), recognized as distinct theta activity on
EEG in the frontal midline area, reflects mental concentration as well as
meditative state or relief from anxiety. Attentional network in anterior frontal
lobes including anterior cingulate cortex is suspected to be the generator of
this activity, and the regulative function of the frontal neural network over
autonomic nervous system (ANS) during cognitive process is suggested. However no
studies have examined peripheral autonomic activities during Fm theta induction,
and interaction of central and peripheral mechanism associated with Fm theta
remains unclear. In the present study, a standard procedure of Zen meditation
requiring sustained attention and breath control was employed as the task to
provoke Fm theta, and simultaneous EEG and ECG recordings were performed. For the
subjects in which Fm theta activities were provoked (six men, six women, 48% of
the total subjects), peripheral autonomic activities were evaluated during the
appearance of Fm theta as well as during control periods. Successive inter-beat
intervals were measured from the ECG, and a recently developed method of analysis
by Toichi et al. (J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 62 (1997) 79-84) based on heart rate
variability was used to assess cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic functions
separately. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic indices were increased during
the appearance of Fm theta compared with control periods. Theta band activities
in the frontal area were correlated negatively with sympathetic activation. The
results suggest a close relationship between cardiac autonomic function and
activity of medial frontal neural circuitry.

PMID: 11275489 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

375. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2001 Mar;25(2):175-91.

Defining the states of consciousness.

Tassi P, Muzet A.

Centre d’Etudes de Physiologie Appliquée du CNRS, 21, rue Becquerel, 67087 cedex,
Strasbourg, France. tassip@nerochem.u-strasbg.fr

Consciousness remains an elusive concept due to the difficulty to define what has
been regarded for many years as a subjective experience, therefore irrelevant for
scientific study. Recent development in this field of research has allowed to
provide some new insight to a possible way to define consciousness. Going through
the extensive literature in this domain, several perspectives are proposed to
define this concept. (1) Consciousness and Attention may not reflect the same
process. (2) Consciousness during wake and sleep may not involve the same
mechanisms. (3) Besides physiological states of consciousness, human beings can
experience modified states of consciousness either by self-training
(transcendental meditation, hypnosis, etc.) or by drug intake (hallucinogens,
anaesthetics, etc.). Altogether, we address the question of a more precise
terminology, given the theoretical weight words can convey. To this respect, we
propose different definitions for concepts like consciousness, vigilance, arousal
and alertness as candidates to separate functional entities.

PMID: 11323082 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

376. Nurs Clin North Am. 2001 Mar;36(1):47-56.

Meditation, yoga, and guided imagery.

Pettinati PM.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Tufts
University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. pettiferg@aol.com

The author presents an introduction to insight or mindfulness meditation, yoga,
and guided imagery from theoretical and practical perspectives. She provides
clear, easy-to-follow steps to begin using sitting meditation, walking
meditation, and yoga for the health care provider and for the patient. She
presents the material first for self-knowledge and self-care and secondarily for
connecting to others in healing relationships.

PMID: 11342401 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

377. Support Care Cancer. 2001 Mar;9(2):112-23.

The effects of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood
and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients: 6-month follow-up.

Carlson LE, Ursuliak Z, Goodey E, Angen M, Speca M.

Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Alberta Cancer
Board, 1331 29 St. N.W., Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 4N2.
lindacar@cancerboard.ab.ca

The goals of this work were to assess the effects of participation in a
mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood disturbance and
symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients immediately after and 6 months after
program completion. A convenience sample of eligible cancer patients were
enrolled after they had given informed consent. All patients completed the
Profile of Mood States (POMS) and Symptoms of Stress Inventory (SOSI) both before
and after the intervention and 6 months later. The intervention consisted of a
mindfulness meditation group lasting 1.5 h each week for 7 weeks, plus daily home
meditation practice. A total of 89 patients, average age 51, provided
pre-intervention data. Eighty patients provided post-intervention data, and 54
completed the 6-month follow-up The participants were heterogeneous with respect
to type and stage of cancer. Patients’ scores decreased significantly from before
to after the intervention on the POMS and SOSI total scores and most subscales,
indicating less mood disturbance and fewer symptoms of stress, and these
improvements were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. More advanced stages of
cancer were associated with less initial mood disturbance, while more home
practice and higher initial POMS scores predicted improvements on the POMS
between the pre- and post-intervention scores. Female gender and more education
were associated with higher initial SOSI scores, and improvements on the SOSI
were predicted by more education and greater initial mood disturbance. This
program was effective in decreasing mood disturbance and stress symptoms for up
to 6 months in both male and female patients with a wide variety of cancer
diagnoses, stages of illness, and educational background, and with disparate
ages.

PMID: 11305069 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

378. Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Dec;91(3 Pt 1):1021-6.

Perception of visual illusions by novice and longer-term meditators.

Tloczynski J, Santucci A, Astor-Stetson E.

Department of Psychology, Bloomsburg University, PA 17815, USA.

Undergraduate volunteers were divided into Control (n= 18) and Novice Meditators
(n = 8). Residents of an American Zen monastery who volunteered as subjects,
having 1 year or more experience in meditation, formed a Longer-term Meditation
group. All subjects were tested over five trials on the Poggendorff and
Müller-Lyer illusions and completed the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale and the
Beck Depression Inventory. Significant mean differences were found only for
algebraic errors on the Poggendorff illusion, and significant decrement in
illusion was noted for all subjects. A significant interaction was also found as
the Longer-term Meditators showed less initial illusion and less dramatic
decrement over five trials than the other groups. Finally, Longer-term Meditators
exhibited significantly less anxiety and depression than the other two groups.

PMID: 11153836 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

379. Biol Psychol. 2000 Nov;55(1):41-55.

Cortical plasticity, contingent negative variation, and transcendent experiences
during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique.

Travis F, Tecce JJ, Guttman J.

Psychology Department, Maharishi University of Management, Fairfield, IA, 52557,
USA. ftravis@mum.edu

This study investigated effects of transcendent experiences on contingent
negative variation (CNV) amplitude, CNV rebound, and distraction effects. Three
groups of age-matched subjects with few (<1 per year), more frequent (10-20 per
year), or daily self-reported transcendent experiences received 31 simple RT
trials (flash (S(1))/tone (S(2))/button press) followed by 31 divided-attention
trials – randomly intermixed trials with or without a three-letter memory task in
the S(1)-S(2) interval). Late CNV amplitudes in the simple trials were smallest
in the group with fewest, and largest in the group with most frequent
transcendent experiences. Conversely, CNV distraction effects were largest in the
group with fewest and smallest in the group with most frequent transcendent
experiences (the second group’s values were in the middle in each case). These
data suggest cumulative effects of transcendent experiences on cortical
preparatory response (heightened late CNV amplitude in simple trials) and
executive functioning (diminished distraction effects in letter trials).

PMID: 11099807 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

380. Psychosom Med. 2000 Sep-Oct;62(5):613-22.

A randomized, wait-list controlled clinical trial: the effect of a mindfulness
meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in
cancer outpatients.

Speca M, Carlson LE, Goodey E, Angen M.

Department of Psychosocial Resources, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Alberta Cancer
Board, Canada. michael.speca@cancerboard.ab.ca

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of participation
in a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood disturbance
and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients. METHODS: A randomized, wait-list
controlled design was used. A convenience sample of eligible cancer patients
enrolled after giving informed consent and were randomly assigned to either an
immediate treatment condition or a wait-list control condition. Patients
completed the Profile of Mood States and the Symptoms of Stress Inventory both
before and after the intervention. The intervention consisted of a weekly
meditation group lasting 1.5 hours for 7 weeks plus home meditation practice.
RESULTS: Ninety patients (mean age, 51 years) completed the study. The group was
heterogeneous in type and stage of cancer. Patients’ mean preintervention scores
on dependent measures were equivalent between groups. After the intervention,
patients in the treatment group had significantly lower scores on Total Mood
Disturbance and subscales of Depression, Anxiety, Anger, and Confusion and more
Vigor than control subjects. The treatment group also had fewer overall Symptoms
of Stress; fewer Cardiopulmonary and Gastrointestinal symptoms; less Emotional
Irritability, Depression, and Cognitive Disorganization; and fewer Habitual
Patterns of stress. Overall reduction in Total Mood Disturbance was 65%, with a
31% reduction in Symptoms of Stress. CONCLUSIONS: This program was effective in
decreasing mood disturbance and stress symptoms in both male and female patients
with a wide variety of cancer diagnoses, stages of illness, and ages. cancer,
stress, mood, intervention, mindfulness.

PMID: 11020090 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

381. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2000 Jul;14(4):239-40.

Participatory medicine.

Kabat-Zinn J.

Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society, UMass Medical
School & UMass Memorial Health Care, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.
jon.kabat-zinn@umassmed.edu

PMID: 11204505 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

382. JAMA. 2000 Jun 7;283(21):2763.

A piece of my mind: paying attention.

Prose NS.

PMID: 10838619 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

383. Neuroreport. 2000 May 15;11(7):1581-5.

Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation.

Lazar SW, Bush G, Gollub RL, Fricchione GL, Khalsa G, Benson H.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General
Hospital-East, NMR Center, Charlestown 02129, USA.

Meditation is a conscious mental process that induces a set of integrated
physiologic changes termed the relaxation response. Functional magnetic resonance
imaging (fMRI) was used to identify and characterize the brain regions that are
active during a simple form of meditation. Significant (p<10(-7)) signal
increases were observed in the group-averaged data in the dorsolateral prefrontal
and parietal cortices, hippocampus/parahippocampus, temporal lobe, pregenual
anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and pre- and post-central gyri during
meditation. Global fMRI signal decreases were also noted, although these were
probably secondary to cardiorespiratory changes that often accompany meditation.
The results indicate that the practice of meditation activates neural structures
involved in attention and control of the autonomic nervous system.

PMID: 10841380 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

384. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2000 Winter;9(1):6-16.

The absent patient: a meditation on a Chardin painting.

Kane F.

Salisbury State University, Maryland, USA.

PMID: 10721465 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

385. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):13-22.

The treatment of addictive disorders by brain wave biofeedback: a review and
suggestions for future research.

Trudeau DL.

University of Minnesota, Academic Health Center, Department of Family Practice
and Community Health and Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, USA.

PMID: 10638348 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

386. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):V-VII.

The state of EEG biofeedback therapy (EEG operant conditioning) in 2000: an
editor’s opinion.

Duffy FH.

PMID: 10638345 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

387. CNS Spectr. 1999 Dec;4(12):34-47.

Randomized controlled trial of yogic meditation techniques for patients with
obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Shannahoff-Khalsa DS, Ray LE, Levine S, Gallen CC, Schwartz BJ, Sidorowich JJ.

The Research Group for Mind-Body Dynamics, the Institute for Nonlinear Science,
University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of two meditation protocols
for treating patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients were
randomized to two groups-matched for sex, age, and medication status-and blinded
to the comparison protocol. They were told the trial would last for 12 months,
unless one protocol proved to be more efficacious. If so, groups would merge, and
the group that received the less efficacious treatment would also be afforded 12
months of the more effective one. The study was conducted at Children’s Hospital,
San Diego, Calif. Patients were selected according to Diagnostic and Statistical
Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria and
recruited by advertisements and referral. At baseline, Group 1 included 11 adults
and 1 adolescent, and Group 2 included 10 adults. Group 1 employed a kundalini
yoga meditation protocol and Group 2 employed the Relaxation Response plus
Mindfulness Meditation technique. Baseline and 3-month interval testing was
conducted using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Symptoms
Checklist-90-Revised Obsessive Compulsive (SCL-90-R OC) and Global Severity Index
(SCL-90-R GSI) scales, Profile of Moods scale (POMS), Perceived Stress Scale
(PSS), and Purpose in Life (PIL) test. Seven adults in each group completed 3
months of therapy. At 3 months, Group 1 demonstrated greater improvements
(Student’s independent groups t-test) on the Y-BOCS, SCL-90-R OC and GSI scales,
and POMS, and greater but nonsignificant improvements on the PSS and PIL test. An
intent-to-treat analysis (Y-BOCS) for the baseline and 3-month tests showed that
only Group 1 improved. Within-group statistics (Student’s paired t-tests) showed
that Group 1 significantly improved on all six scales, but Group 2 had no
improvements. Groups were merged for an additional year using Group 1 techniques.
At 15 months, the final group (N=11) improved 71%, 62%, 66%, 74%, 39%, and 23%,
respectively, on the Y-BOCS, SCL-90-R OC, SCL-90-R GSI, POMS, PSS, and PIL;
P<0.003 (analysis of variance). This study demonstrates that kundalini yoga
techniques are effective in the treatment of OCD.

PMID: 18311106 [PubMed – in process]

388. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1999 Sep;24(3):147-65.

Concentration and mindfulness meditations: unique forms of consciousness?

Dunn BR, Hartigan JA, Mikulas WL.

Department of Psychology, University of West Florida, Pensacola 32514, USA.
bdunn@ai.uwf.edu

Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from 19 scalp recording sites were used
to differentiate among two posited unique forms of mediation, concentration and
mindfulness, and a normal relaxation control condition. Analyzes of all
traditional frequency bandwidth data (i.e., delta 1-3 Hz; theta, 4-7 Hz; alpha,
8-12 Hz; beta 1, 13-25 Hz; beta 2, 26-32 Hz) showed strong mean amplitude
frequency differences between the two meditation conditions and relaxation over
numerous cortical sites. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained
between concentration and mindfulness states at all bandwidths. Taken together,
our results suggest that concentration and mindfulness « meditations » may be
unique forms of consciousness and are not merely degrees of a state of
relaxation.

PMID: 10652635 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

389. J Nurse Midwifery. 1999 May-Jun;44(3):310-9.

Alternative healing in nurse-midwifery practice.

Raisler J.

Nurse-Midwifery Education Program, University of Michigan School of Nursing, USA.

This Clinical Practice Exchange focuses on alternative healing in nurse-midwifery
practice. It features interviews with six certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) who
practice complementary therapies (CTs). The healing modalities they use include
homeopathy, Healing Touch, hypnosis, herbal healing, mindfulness meditation, and
water healing. The CNMs discuss their training to practice CTs, how they use
alternative healing with clients, and how they integrate this with midwifery
practice. The interviews are followed by an Alternative Healing Directory
composed of 37 CNMs who responded to a Call, which appeared several times in
Quickening and JNM. Each midwife’s listing includes contact information, CTs
practices, and special interests in networking with other CNMs about alternative
healing. The JNM hopes that this Directory will be a catalyst for networking and
communication that will move forward the discussion, practice, and research of
alternative healing within the midwifery community.

PMID: 10380449 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

390. Semin Urol Oncol. 1999 May;17(2):111-8.

Meditation and prostate cancer: integrating a mind/body intervention with
traditional therapies.

Coker KH.

Robert W. Woodruff Health Sciences Center, Emory University, The Emory Clinic
Inc., Atlanta, GA 30022, USA.

There is growing attention to the health benefits of mind/body interventions,
particularly relaxation and meditation. Biomedical research has provided
undeniable evidence of the interconnectedness of the mind and body. The field of
psychoneuroimmunology has defined the role of stress in reducing effectiveness of
the immune system in combating infection and growth of malignant tumors. This
article explains the development of meditation practice and explores the
indications that the practice of meditation is effective reducing the harmful
effects of stress. In addition, there are encouraging reports of studies citing
the influence of melatonin on breast and prostate tumors. A preliminary study
finds an association between meditation practice and levels of melatonin produced
by the pineal gland.

PMID: 10332925 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

391. Semin Gastrointest Dis. 1999 Jan;10(1):14-9.

Stress and mind-body impact on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Anton PA.

UCLA Department of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

At present, the medical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including
Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are focused on topical, locally active
antiinflammatories and systemic immunosuppressives, which are thought to exert
their targeted effects in the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is a paucity of
controlled trials assessing the impact of mind, central nervous system (CNS), and
neuromodulation on the overly active immune response in the intestinal mucosa.
Patients and their physicians have long been aware of a strong association
between attitude, stress, and flares of their IBD. Although reports to date
remain mostly anecdotal, the degree to which mind-body influences and stress
impact levels of local inflammation deserves closer attention with the aim of
identifying contributing mechanisms, which may highlight new therapeutic
interventions, as well as assist in identifying particular subsets of patients
that may respond to novel forms of adjunctive treatments for IBD, including
hypnosis, meditation, neuropeptide receptor modulation, and cortisol-releasing
factor (CRF) modulation.

PMID: 10065768 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

392. J Behav Med. 1998 Dec;21(6):581-99.

Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on medical and premedical students.

Shapiro SL, Schwartz GE, Bonner G.

Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85719, USA.

The inability to cope successfully with the enormous stress of medical education
may lead to a cascade of consequences at both a personal and professional level.
The present study examined the short-term effects of an 8-week meditation-based
stress reduction intervention on premedical and medical students using a
well-controlled statistical design. Findings indicate that participation in the
intervention can effectively (1) reduce self-reported state and trait anxiety,
(2) reduce reports of overall psychological distress including depression, (3)
increase scores on overall empathy levels, and (4) increase scores on a measure
of spiritual experiences assessed at termination of intervention. These results
(5) replicated in the wait-list control group, (6) held across different
experiments, and (7) were observed during the exam period. Future research should
address potential long-term effects of mindfulness training for medical and
premedical students.

PMID: 9891256 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

393. Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Sep;4(5):44-52, 54-60, 62.

Heart-focused attention and heart-brain synchronization: energetic and
physiological mechanisms.

Song LZ, Schwartz GE, Russek LG.

Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.

CONTEXT: Many relaxation, meditation, and imagery techniques that implicitly or
explicitly involve focused attention on the body, including qigong, massage, and
noncontact therapeutic touch, purportedly employ energetic and physiological
mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To show that, from a perspective of dynamical energy
systems, relaxed self-attention enhances connectivity between the brain and body.
This enhanced connectivity may be achieved by at least 2 mechanisms: (1)
physiological mechanisms employing peripheral negative feedback loops, and (2)
bioelectromagnetic mechanisms involving direct energetic resonance between the
peripheral organ and the brain. DESIGN: 19 channels of electroencephalogram, 1
electrocardiogram, and 2 channels of electro-oculogram were recorded from 22
subjects who focused their attention on their heartbeats or eye movements, with
and without kinesthetic (touch) biofeedback to increase somatic awareness.
RESULTS: Analyses of the electroencephalogram synchronized with the
electrocardiogram revealed significant effects for heart-focused attention,
primarily with touch biofeedback, following the contraction of the ventricles
(possibly reflecting increased baroreceptor and somatosensory feedback); and
significant effects for heart-focused attention, with and without touch
biofeedback, preceding the contraction of the ventricles (possibly reflecting
direct electromagnetic interactions between the heart and the brain).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that energetic and physiological mechanisms
may be involved in techniques in which the goal is to promote mind-body
integration and health.

PMID: 9737031 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

394. Psychosom Med. 1998 Sep-Oct;60(5):625-32.

Influence of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention on
rates of skin clearing in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis undergoing
phototherapy (UVB) and photochemotherapy (PUVA).

Kabat-Zinn J, Wheeler E, Light T, Skillings A, Scharf MJ, Cropley TG, Hosmer D,
Bernhard JD.

Stress Reduction Clinic, Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and
Society, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center,
Worcester 01655-0267, USA. jon.kabat-zinn@banyan.ummed.edu

OBJECTIVE: This study tests the hypothesis that stress reduction methods based on
mindfulness meditation can positively influence the rate at which psoriasis
clears in patients undergoing phototherapy or photochemotherapy treatment.
METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with psoriasis about to undergo ultraviolet
phototherapy (UVB) or photochemotherapy (PUVA) were randomly assigned to one of
two conditions: a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention
guided by audiotaped instructions during light treatments, or a control condition
consisting of the light treatments alone with no taped instructions. Psoriasis
status was assessed in three ways: direct inspection by unblinded clinic nurses;
direct inspection by physicians blinded to the patient’s study condition (tape or
no-tape); and blinded physician evaluation of photographs of psoriasis lesions.
Four sequential indicators of skin status were monitored during the study: a
First Response Point, a Turning Point, a Halfway Point, and a Clearing Point.
RESULTS: Cox-proportional hazards regression analysis showed that subjects in the
tape groups reached the Halfway Point (p = .013) and the Clearing Point (p =
.033) significantly more rapidly than those in the no-tape condition, for both
UVB and PUVA treatments. CONCLUSIONS: A brief mindfulness meditation-based stress
reduction intervention delivered by audiotape during ultraviolet light therapy
can increase the rate of resolution of psoriatic lesions in patients with
psoriasis.

PMID: 9773769 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

395. Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Mar;4(2):67-70.

A pilot study of cognitive behavioral therapy in fibromyalgia.

Singh BB, Berman BM, Hadhazy VA, Creamer P.

University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.
bsingh@compmed.ummc.ab.umd.edu

Comment in:
Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Sep;4(5):114, 116.

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by widespread
musculoskeletal pain and multiple tender points as well as high levels of
self-reported disability and poor quality of life. OBJECTIVES: In this pilot
study, a mind-body approach (cognitive-behavioral therapy) was tested that has
been successful in treating chronic back pain patients to determine whether it
would improve function, decrease perceived pain, and improve mood state for
fibromyalgia patients. PARTICIPANTS: 28 patients recruited from the greater
Baltimore area. INTERVENTION: Eight weekly sessions, 2 1/2 hours each, with three
components: an educational component focusing on the mind-body connection, a
portion focusing on relaxation response mechanisms (primarily mindfulness
meditation techniques), and a qigong movement therapy session. MAIN OUTCOME
MEASURES: Data collection instruments were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire,
the Health Assessment Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Coping
Strategies Questionnaire, the helplessness subscale of the Arthritis Attitudes
Index, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form General Health Survey, and a
double-anchored 100-mm visual analog scale to assess sleep. RESULTS: Twenty
patients completed the study. Standard outcome measures showed significant
reduction in pain, fatigue, and sleeplessness; and improved function, mood state,
and general health following an 8-week intervention. CONCLUSION: A mind-body
intervention including patient education, meditation techniques, and movement
therapy appears to be an effective adjunctive therapy for patients with
fibromyalgia.

PMID: 9682514 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

396. Altern Ther Health Med. 1998 Mar;4(2):32-3.

The center for mindfulness in medicine: meditation training for the body’s innate
wisdom.

Moore NG.

Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester
01655-0267, USA.

PMID: 9682509 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

397. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 1998 Mar-Apr;8(2):73-7.

The use of complementary/alternative medicine for the treatment of asthma in the
United States.

Davis PA, Gold EB, Hackman RM, Stern JS, Gershwin ME.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of California at Davis, USA.

Despite our advances in the diagnosis and treatment of asthma, the incidence of
mortality is increasing in developed countries. As patients and health care
providers seek new options for the treatment and prevention of asthma, various
complementary and alternative medical therapies are being used. With funding from
the Office of Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, our goal was
to identify the type and prevalence of complementary and alternative treatments
for asthma in use in the United States in order to establish a research agenda
for the study of the most promising therapies. A survey was developed by an
expert panel. After undergoing a preliminary round of testing and improvement,
the survey was then sent along with a postage-paid return envelope as inserts in
the May 1996 issue of Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, a
peer-reviewed periodical of complementary and alternative medical research and
scholarly activity; 10,000 surveys were distributed. We asked that only those who
treated asthma respond. The surveys were designed to identify characteristics of
the respondent, their particular practice type, use of complementary and
alternative medicine, or conventional medicine in general, patient
characteristics and numbers, and their use of 20 specific potential therapies to
treat asthma. A total of 564 surveys were returned. The 5.64% response rate was
low but was reflective of the demographics of the readership of this journal of
complementary and alternative medicine. The survey population was 46% male and
43% female; 11% did not specify gender. They ranged in age from under 31 years
old to over 70. The largest group (37%) of respondents held degrees as medical
doctors, 27% held doctorates in complementary and alternative medicine related
disciplines, 11% had registered nursing degrees, 4% were acupuncturists and 18%
did not specify their training. Practice characteristics between MD and non-MD
asthma care providers did not differ. The majority had general practices (75%)
seeing all ages of patients. MDs were less likely to employ complementary and
alternative medicine techniques for asthma compared to non-MDs. Both groups
identified dietary and nutritional approaches as their most prevalent and useful
asthma treatment option. Use of botanicals, meditation and homeopathy were
frequently cited; statistically significant differences appeared in the rankings
of treatment usefulness and prevalence between MD and non-MDs. Non-MD asthma care
providers were more likely to ask patients about their use of complementary and
alternative treatments for asthma than MDs (92% vs. 70%), while both groups
showed statistically significant increases in their levels of patient inquiries
compared to 2 years previously (up 9% and 8% for MDs and non-MDs respectively).
The predominance of diet and nutrition supplementation used by MDs and non-MDs
suggests that further attention and research efforts should be directed toward
this area of complementary and alternative practice. Other complementary and
alternative medicine practices such as botanicals, meditation and homeopathy
appear to warrant research efforts. Differences between MDs and non-MDs in their
use of such therapies may reflect different philosophies as well as training.

PMID: 9615298 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

398. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1997 Sep;37(3):213-7.

Knowledge and reported use of sport science by elite New Zealand Olympic class
sailors.

Legg SJ, Smith P, Slyfield D, Miller AB, Wilcox H, Gilberd C.

Centre for Sport Performance, University of Auckland, New Zealand.

OBJECTIVE: This study enquired about the knowledge and reported use of sport
science in elite Olympic class sailors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The sailors
responded to a simple questionnaire. SETTING: The questionnaire was administered
as part of an introductory seminar on sport science during a training camp.
PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 28 (22 male, 6 female) elite New Zealand
Olympic class sailors. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASURES: The questionnaire asked
whether or not they used a training race diary, enquired about their current and
past injuries and their knowledge and use of sport science in the areas of
nutrition, psychology and physical training. RESULTS: Only ten (36%) of the
sailors kept a training/race diary. Whilst only four (14%) had a current injury,
sixteen (57%) reported an injury in the previous three years. The injuries were
in the lower back (45%), knee (22%), shoulder (18%), and arm (15%). Although
nineteen (68%) of the sailors had experienced dehydration during racing, the
average volume of fluid reported to be taken on a four hour sail was only 0.9
litre, of which only an average of 0.7 litres (77%) was reported to be drunk. All
the sailors reported being sometimes (46%) to very often (3%) anxious before
races and sometimes (43%) to always (7%) being frustrated with their own
mistakes. Only one sailor reported never having negative thoughts whilst fifteen
(53%) reported having them sometimes, and seven (25%) often or very often.
Twenty-four (86%) of the sailors reported that they sometimes had a loss of
concentration near the end of the race. Whilst eighteen (64%) reported practising
relaxation and seventeen (61%) reported practising visualisation as a mental
skill, only five (18%) practised progressive mental relaxation, two (7%)
practised meditation and none practised yoga. Seventeen (61%) undertook
strength/circuit training, ten (36%) flexibility and twenty-one (75%) off water
aerobic training. Twenty-four (86%) reported undertaking on-water aerobic
training. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there is considerable scope for
improvement in the knowledge and use of sports science amongst elite New Zealand
Olympic class sailors.

PMID: 9407753 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

399. Sante. 1997 Sep-Oct;7(5):330-4.

[Mental health and cultural issues: the return of Khmers from France to Cambodia
for healing purposes]

[Article in French]

Bertrand D.

Centre d’anthropologie Chine du Sud et péninsule Indochinoise, CNRS, Paris,
France.

There are many kinds of traditional healers in Cambodia, mostly in the rural
areas. People often seek advice from monks at the pagoda, traditional doctors
(kru khmer) or mediums when they are ill, and consult medical practitioners only
as a last resort. Each of these healers provides a different solution and form of
care. Traditional healers are difficult to find in France and they often work in
secret. Monks teach meditation rather than magic, brahmanism and superstition.
There are now Khmer in Cambodia who have returned after long and complex
treatments in general and psychiatric hospitals in France, seeking a release from
suffering in their motherland. They seek an alternative understanding of their
problems and a different kind of care, based largely on witchcraft and spiritual
possession, which is not available in France. Returning to Cambodia is important
because they are allowed to live according to their beliefs without being seen as
insane. However, this return also involves confrontation with the lost country
and the past, with war and the Killing Fields, in the same place as the trauma
itself occurred. Several cases illustrate the healing nature of the return and
emphasize the importance of a culturally sensitive interpretation of the
patient’s symptoms, which may express cultural bereavement and do not fit easily
into international psychiatric categories. This requires much careful attention
and listening to the patient.

PMID: 9480040 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

400. Schmerz. 1997 Apr 18;11(2):116-9.

[Pain management in patients with chronic rheumatic pain–a model for primary
medical care]

[Article in German]

Häuser W, Biewer W.

Krankenhaus Völklingen.

A rheumatologist and a medical psychotherapist collaborate in offering
periodically a cognitive behavioral treatment program for pain control for the
patients of a rheumatological practice. The program consists of a biopsychosocial
model of chronic pain, individualized relaxation training combining progressive
muscle relaxation and some elements of autogenous training and meditation,
several attention-related techniques and cognitive restructuring. From 1993 to
1995, 50 patients took part in five training courses. The compliance of the
patients was satisfactory and the drop-out rate low (8%). In a post hoc interview
4 weeks later and another 2 years after the end of the training most of the
patients assessed the program as useful for reduction of pain, increase of
activity and enhancement of mood. Psychotherapeutic experience in group therapy
or special training for non-psychotherapeutic physicians with continuous
supervision is necessary in order to conduct a qualified treatment program.
Within medical primary care, rheumatologists can motivate their patients towards
active pain management, which can help to prepare patients for further
psychotherapy in cases with psychiatric disorders and/or severe psychosocial
strains.

PMID: 12799829 [PubMed]

401. Nurse Pract. 1997 Mar;22(3):150-2, 154, 157 passim.

Mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction: experience with a bilingual
inner-city program.

Roth B, Creaser T.

Stress Reduction Program, Community Health Center, CT, USA.

Erratum in:
Nurse Pract 1997 May;22(5):215.

This article describes a bilingual mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction
program in an inner-city setting. Mindfulness meditation is defined, and the
practices of breathing meditation, eating meditation, walking meditation, and
mindful yoga are described. Data analysis examined compliance, medical and
psychologic symptom reduction, and changes in self-esteem, of English- and
Spanish-speaking patients who completed the 8-week Stress Reduction and
Relaxation Program at the Community Health Center in Meriden, Conn. Statistically
significant decreases in medical and psychologic symptoms and improvement in
self-esteem were found. Many program completers reported dramatic changes in
attitudes, beliefs, habits, and behaviors. Despite the limitations of the
research design, these findings suggest that a mindfulness meditation course can
be an effective health care intervention when utilized by English- and
Spanish-speaking patients in an inner-city community health center. The article
includes a discussion of factors to be considered when establishing a mindfulness
meditation-based stress reduction program in a health care setting.

PMID: 9078521 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

402. Psychother Psychosom. 1997;66(2):97-106.

Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation. Effects on psychological
symptomatology, sense of control, and spiritual experiences.

Astin JA.

Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine,
USA.

BACKGROUND: This study examined the effects of an 8-week stress reduction program
based on training in mindfulness meditation. Previous research efforts suggesting
this program may be beneficial in terms of reducing stress-related symptomatology
and helping patients cope with chronic pain have been limited by a lack of
adequate comparison control group. METHODS: Twenty-eight individuals who
volunteered to participate in the present study were randomized into either an
experimental group or a nonintervention control group. RESULTS: Following
participation, experimental subjects, when compared with controls, evidenced
significantly greater changes in terms of: (1) reductions in overall
psychological symptomatology; (2) increase in overall domain-specific sense of
control and utilization of an accepting or yielding mode of control in their
lives, and (3) higher scores on a measure of spiritual experiences. CONCLUSIONS:
The techniques of mindfulness meditation, with their emphasis on developing
detached observation and awareness of the contents of consciousness, may
represent a powerful cognitive behavioral coping strategy for transforming the
ways in which we respond to life events. They may also have potential for relapse
prevention in affective disorders.

PMID: 9097338 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

403. J Voice. 1995 Sep;9(3):308-11.

Alternative medicine: does it play a role in the management of voice disorders?

D’Antoni ML, Harvey PL, Fried MP.

Voice Center, Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

Alternative medicine has begun to receive the attention of the legitimate medical
community. Recent evidence reveals that 34% of American adults interviewed
reported using at least one unconventional therapy during 1994. A 3-month survey
of patient inquiries, conducted at The Voice Center, Beth Israel Hospital,
Boston, MA, U.S.A. revealed that 41% of patients made inquiries about the
potential use of « unconventional approaches » in the management of their voice
disorders. Alternative medicine, while largely unproven for efficacy, represents
a rapidly growing approach. The present article defines several alternative
medical practices, describes their theories and potential impact on the
management of voice disorders, and calls for empirical studies to follow. The
alternative practices discussed are limited to behavioral therapies such as
massage therapy, creative visualization, Alexander, mindfulness, and mediatation.

PMID: 8541975 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

404. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1995 May;17(3):192-200.

Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based
stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

Miller JJ, Fletcher K, Kabat-Zinn J.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester
01655, USA.

A previous study of 22 medical patients with DSM-III-R-defined anxiety disorders
showed clinically and statistically significant improvements in subjective and
objective symptoms of anxiety and panic following an 8-week outpatient
physician-referred group stress reduction intervention based on mindfulness
meditation. Twenty subjects demonstrated significant reductions in Hamilton and
Beck Anxiety and Depression scores postintervention and at 3-month follow-up. In
this study, 3-year follow-up data were obtained and analyzed on 18 of the
original 22 subjects to probe long-term effects. Repeated measures analysis
showed maintenance of the gains obtained in the original study on the Hamilton
[F(2,32) = 13.22; p < 0.001] and Beck [F(2,32) = 9.83; p < 0.001] anxiety scales
as well as on their respective depression scales, on the Hamilton panic score,
the number and severity of panic attacks, and on the Mobility Index-Accompanied
and the Fear Survey. A 3-year follow-up comparison of this cohort with a larger
group of subjects from the intervention who had met criteria for screening for
the original study suggests generalizability of the results obtained with the
smaller, more intensively studied cohort. Ongoing compliance with the meditation
practice was also demonstrated in the majority of subjects at 3 years. We
conclude that an intensive but time-limited group stress reduction intervention
based on mindfulness meditation can have long-term beneficial effects in the
treatment of people diagnosed with anxiety disorders.

PMID: 7649463 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

405. Behav Res Ther. 1995 Jan;33(1):25-39.

How does cognitive therapy prevent depressive relapse and why should attentional
control (mindfulness) training help?

Teasdale JD, Segal Z, Williams JM.

MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Cambridge, England.

There is encouraging evidence that structured psychological treatments for
depression, in particular cognitive therapy, can reduce subsequent relapse after
the period of initial treatment has been completed. However, there is a
continuing need for prophylactic psychological approaches that can be
administered to recovered patients in euthymic mood. An information-processing
analysis of depressive maintenance and relapse is used to define the requirements
for effective prevention, and to propose mechanisms through which cognitive
therapy achieves its prophylactic effects. This analysis suggests that similar
effects can be achieved using techniques of stress-reduction based on the skills
of attentional control taught in mindfulness meditation. An
information-processing analysis is presented of mindfulness and mindlessness, and
of their relevance to preventing depressive relapse. This analysis provides the
basis for the development of Attentional Control Training, a new approach to
preventing relapse that integrates features of cognitive therapy and mindfulness
training and is applicable to recovered depressed patients.

PMID: 7872934 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

406. Med Hypotheses. 1995 Jan;44(1):39-46.

Meditation, melatonin and breast/prostate cancer: hypothesis and preliminary
data.

Massion AO, Teas J, Hebert JR, Wertheimer MD, Kabat-Zinn J.

University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Worcester,
USA.

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that the regular practice
of mindfulness meditation is associated with increased physiological levels of
melatonin. Melatonin may be related to a variety of biologic functions important
in maintaining health and preventing disease, including breast and prostate
cancer. Previous studies have shown melatonin production is photosensitive and we
suggest here that it also may be psychosensitive. A cross-sectional study of
12-hour (20:00-08:00) urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin was conducted from which we
analyzed data from 8 women who regularly meditate (RM) and 8 women who do not
meditate (NM). All samples were collected in the homes of study participants.
Volunteers were recruited to provide 12-hour overnight samples of urine. All
subjects collected the samples on one night during the same 1-week period. There
was no explicit intervention. However, all RM were either graduates of, or
teachers in, the University of Massachusetts Stress Reduction and Relaxation
Program. The main outcome measure was the total excretion of urinary
6-sulphatoxymelatonin. Multiple linear regression (Proc GLM in SAS) was performed
to test the effect of meditation (RM vs NM) on 6-sulphatoxymelatonin. The results
of the study were that after controlling for the non-significant effect of
menstrual period interval, we found an effect of meditation group (RM vs NM: b =
1.983; F = 6.78; p = 0.02) and age (for each integer year: b = 0.169; F = 8.41; p
= 0.01). The conclusion is that study results are consistent with our hypothesis
and indicate that melatonin might be a useful parameter in testing similar
psycho-social interventions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

PMID: 7776900 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

407. Int J Psychosom. 1994;41(1-4):4-10.

A rationale for a multilevel model of relaxation.

Kokoszka A.

Copernicus School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Krakow, Poland.

A Three dimensional evolutionary leveled model of the main states of
consciousness is offered as a rationale for relaxation. « Relaxing states » and
« relaxation response states–Differentiated Waking States of Consciousness » are
distinguish on the horizontal plane according to the integrated model of the main
states of consciousness. It is proposed that states of consciousness in
relaxation could be considered also on vertical evolutionary dimension described
according to neo-Jacksonian theory in terms of the metabolism of information. The
model opens perspectives for the description of dynamic fluctuations of states of
consciousness during relaxation in terms of the main states of consciousness,
i.e., REM-sleep, NREM-sleep, Ordinary Waking States of Consciousness,
Differentiated Waking States of Consciousness, as well as in terms of dissolution
(regression) and evolution on the vertical developmental dimension. It is
illustrated by the discussion on meditation and hyponosis.

PMID: 7843865 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

408. Rev Soc Venez Hist Med. 1993 Jun;42(63):58-74.

[The importance of the history of culture.]

[Article in Spanish]

Yáber Pérez M.

A call to meditation and action. A review about the concepts of culture as
« behaviour rules of a people » and history as « master of life » so its relation
with philosophy and other disciplines, calling attention to errors in the present
teaching of the national history and history of medicine, with its negative
formative effects. Finally the author highlights the outstanding role of the
Venezuelan Society of the History of Medicine at this point.

PMID: 11640681 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

409. Am J Psychiatry. 1992 Jul;149(7):936-43.

Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of
anxiety disorders.

Kabat-Zinn J, Massion AO, Kristeller J, Peterson LG, Fletcher KE, Pbert L,
Lenderking WR, Santorelli SF.

Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester
01605.

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of a group
stress reduction program based on mindfulness meditation for patients with
anxiety disorders. METHOD: The 22 study participants were screened with a
structured clinical interview and found to meet the DSM-III-R criteria for
generalized anxiety disorder or panic disorder with or without agoraphobia.
Assessments, including self-ratings and therapists’ ratings, were obtained weekly
before and during the meditation-based stress reduction and relaxation program
and monthly during the 3-month follow-up period. RESULTS: Repeated measures
analyses of variance documented significant reductions in anxiety and depression
scores after treatment for 20 of the subjects–changes that were maintained at
follow-up. The number of subjects experiencing panic symptoms was also
substantially reduced. A comparison of the study subjects with a group of
nonstudy participants in the program who met the initial screening criteria for
entry into the study showed that both groups achieved similar reductions in
anxiety scores on the SCL-90-R and on the Medical Symptom Checklist, suggesting
generalizability of the study findings. CONCLUSIONS: A group mindfulness
meditation training program can effectively reduce symptoms of anxiety and panic
and can help maintain these reductions in patients with generalized anxiety
disorder, panic disorder, or panic disorder with agoraphobia.

PMID: 1609875 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

410. Behav Res Ther. 1992 Mar;30(2):175-89.

Two controlled evaluations of multicomponent psychological treatment of irritable
bowel syndrome.

Blanchard EB, Schwarz SP, Suls JM, Gerardi MA, Scharff L, Greene B, Taylor AE,
Berreman C, Malamood HS.

Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, State University of New York, Albany
12203.

We report two controlled comparisons of a previously validated multicomponent
(relaxation, thermal biofeedback, and cognitive therapy) treatment for irritable
bowel syndrome (IBS) to an ostensible attention-placebo control
(pseudo-meditation and EEG alpha suppression biofeedback) and to a
symptom-monitoring control. In Study 1 (n = 10 per condition) there were
nonsignificant trends for the multicomponent treatment to be superior to the
attention-placebo condition. In Study 2 (n = 30 per condition), we found no
advantage for the multicomponent treatment over the attention-placebo condition.
Subjects in both treatment conditions showed significant reductions in GI
symptoms, as measured by daily symptom diaries, and significant reductions in
trait anxiety and depression. The GI symptom reductions held up over a 6 month
follow-up. Possible explanations for the results are explored.

PMID: 1567347 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

411. Health Care Superv. 1992 Mar;10(3):1-11.

The education of health care professionals in the year 2000 and beyond: Part 1:
The consumer’s view.

Yura-Petro H, Scanelli BR.

Old Dominion University, School of Nursing, Norfolk, VA.

In summary, consumers desire health care professionals with interpersonal
communication skills; with ability to interpret nonverbal communication or body
language beyond gross facial gestures; and with effective questioning techniques
for taking family histories quickly and accurately yet uncovering some client
feelings and life-style difficulties in the process. Consumers want health care
professionals who know how to mobilize clients’ personal healing resources
through greater understanding of how the immune system functions and who know how
to deliver difficult diagnoses to clients in a positive, challenging manner and
involve the clients in the course of their own body’s healing. They desire
significantly more information and guidelines about nutrition, weight management,
and the complex biochemical interactions associated with food, medication, and
the combination of the two. Consumers want health care professionals with greater
understanding of sleep and its effect on health and of biofeedback, hypnosis,
exercise, meditation, relaxation, and support groups as disease-fighting tools.
The genetic components of illness and wellness and how clients cope with some of
the built-in genetic weaknesses must receive greater attention. The influence of
the environment and pollutants on human health must be addressed. How to maintain
health among an aging population, and utilizing norm data that is age specific,
gender specific, and developmentally and socioculturally specific is essential to
address. An emphasis shift is necessary towards healing and wellness. When we do
all this, we still have to make it cost effective. What a challenge! How then can
health care professionals be where the consumer wants them to be? How can
professionals be responsive to their own human needs as well as those of the
consumer? How can the faculty preparing health care professionals incorporate the
dimensions outlined by futurists and by consumers by the year 2000? The answer
lies in the curriculum solution to be developed in Part II of this presentation.
The curriculum solution will explicate a human need theory/process-oriented
approach to professional education and practice, assuring the consumer of a
person-/family-/community-centered approach to health care and engendering for
the carer a healthy, valued self and improved services. Trust your heart …
Never deny it a hearing. It is the kind of house oracle that often foretells the
most important.

PMID: 10117107 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

412. Am J Psychother. 1991 Jul;45(3):383-412.

The use of meditation in psychotherapy: a review of the literature.

Bogart G.

Saybrook Institute, San Francisco, CA.

This article has explored research to date concerning the efficacy of introducing
meditation into the therapeutic setting. I have presented the views of proponents
and critics of the relaxation model of meditation and of theories describing the
cognitive changes brought about by meditation–for example, Deikman’s theory of
the deautomatization of consciousness and Delmonte’s view that meditation may be
utilized to bring about « ascendence, » « descendence, » and « transcendence. » After
summarizing psychoanalytic and Jungian arguments against meditation, the writings
of several transpersonal psychologists have been cited to demonstrate the
differences in how psychotherapy and meditative disciplines conceptualize
personal identity, work with unconscious material, and view the experience of
emptiness. I conclude that the question of whether meditation should be used in
therapy can be answered only by considering what therapeutic goals are being
sought in a particular instance and whether or not meditation can reasonably be
expected to facilitate achievement of those goals. Meditation may, in some cases,
be compatible with, and effective in, promoting the aims of psychotherapy–for
example, cognitive and behavioral change, or access to the deep regions of the
personal unconscious. In other cases, it may be strongly contraindicated,
especially when the therapeutic goal is to strengthen ego boundaries, release
powerful emotions, or work through complex relational dynamics–ends which may be
more effectively reached through standard psychotherapeutic methods than through
meditation. Meditation may be of great value, however, through its capacity to
awaken altered states of consciousness that may profoundly reorient an
individual’s identity, emotional attitude, and sense of wellbeing and purpose in
life.

PMID: 1951788 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

413. WorldAIDS. 1991 Jul;(16):7-11.

Is old medicine new medicine?

Montaocean K.

PIP: By the year 2000, over 90% of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
(AIDS) are expected in Third World countries where Western medicine is often
unavailable, unaffordable, or culturally unacceptable. Thus, there is a need for
greater attention to the potential role of traditional medicine and healers in
the prevention and treatment of AIDS. A US-based nongovernmental organization,
Green Cross Inc, is examining cross-cultural healing traditions and seeking areas
of convergence between scientific bio-medicine and indigenous traditional healing
systems. At a street clinic operated by Green Cross in Washington DC, both
Western medicine and traditional Chinese practices such as acupuncture, herbal
remedies, and meditation are offered to AIDS patients at those at risk of
infection. Although the individualized nature of Chinese medicine makes it
difficult to evaluate through use of Western research methods, there is anecdotal
evidence that it reduces the stress, anxiety, depression, and fatigue that
accompany AIDS. Health care systems in all parts of the world could benefit from
the concept that illness cannot be treated in isolation from individuals and
communities.

PMID: 12284192 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

414. J Psychol. 1991 Jan;125(1):71-81.

Motivational processes and behavioral inhibition in breath holding.

Alpher VS, Blanton RL.

Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University.

Large individual differences in breathing performance have made it difficult to
investigate the effects of psychological variables on respiratory parameters.
This study uses an experimental approach to investigating the effects of
attentional and motivational factors on breath-holding span in humans. The
effects of shock threat (negative incentive), monetary reward (positive
incentive), and mantra meditation (attentional control) on breath-holding span at
functional residual capacity (FRC) were compared. Based on Jeffrey Gray’s (1975,
1987) theory of behavioral inhibition, it was predicted that shock threat would
extend FRC breath holding. Breath holding was increased under the shock threat
condition but not under the monetary reward or mantra meditation conditions.

PMID: 2033561 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

415. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1990 Apr;58(2):216-24.

A controlled evaluation of thermal biofeedback and thermal biofeedback combined
with cognitive therapy in the treatment of vascular headache.

Blanchard EB, Appelbaum KA, Radnitz CL, Morrill B, Michultka D, Kirsch C,
Guarnieri P, Hillhouse J, Evans DD, Jaccard J, et al.

Center for Stress and Anxiety Disorders, State University of New York, Albany
12203.

One-hundred-sixteen patients suffering from vascular headache (migraine or
combined migraine and tension) were, after 4 weeks of pretreatment baseline
headache monitoring, randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (a) thermal
biofeedback with adjunctive relaxation training (TBF); (b) TBF plus cognitive
therapy; (c) pseudomediation as an ostensible attention-placebo control; or (d)
headache monitoring. The first three groups received 16 individual sessions over
8 weeks, while the fourth group continued to monitor headaches. All groups then
monitored headaches for a 4-week posttreatment baseline. Analyses revealed that
all treated groups improved significantly more than the headache monitoring group
with no significant differences among the three treated groups. On a measure of
clinically significant improvement, the two TBF groups had slightly higher (51%)
degree of improvement than the meditation group (37.5%). It is argued that the
attention-placebo control became an active relaxation condition.

PMID: 2186067 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

416. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1989 Dec;57(6):950-64.

Transcendental meditation, mindfulness, and longevity: an experimental study with
the elderly.

Alexander CN, Langer EJ, Newman RI, Chandler HM, Davies JL.

Department of Psychology, Maharishi International University, Fairfield, Iowa
52556.

Can direct change in state of consciousness through specific mental techniques
extend human life and reverse age-related declines? To address this question, 73
residents of 8 homes for the elderly (mean age = 81 years) were randomly assigned
among no treatment and 3 treatments highly similar in external structure and
expectations: the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program, mindfulness training
(MF) in active distinction making, or a relaxation (low mindfulness) program. A
planned comparison indicated that the « restful alert » TM group improved most,
followed by MF, in contrast to relaxation and no-treatment groups, on paired
associate learning; 2 measures of cognitive flexibility; mental health; systolic
blood pressure; and ratings of behavioral flexibility, aging, and treatment
efficacy. The MF group improved most, followed by TM, on perceived control and
word fluency. After 3 years, survival rate was 100% for TM and 87.5% for MF in
contrast to lower rates for other groups.

PMID: 2693686 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

417. Int J Psychosom. 1989;36(1-4):45-52.

Meditation, the unconscious, and psychosomatic disorders.

Delmonte MM.

In this article, two basic meditation techniques are described–namely,
concentration and mindfulness. The relationship between mindfulness and health is
discussed in the context of findings linking repression to physical disorders.
Parallels between meditation and psychoanalysis as methods for uncovering the
unconscious, using both Freudian and Kellian constructs, are described. It is
concluded that meditation, like free association, can be used to facilitate the
emergence of unconscious (sub-verbal) material and allow for its integration at a
higher (more cognitive) level of awareness.

PMID: 2689373 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

418. Am J Psychother. 1987 Apr;41(2):286-98.

Constructivist view of meditation.

DelMonte M.

Meditation experiences are viewed from a constructivist perspective.
Concentrative and mindfulness approaches are compared. It is concluded that,
although these meditative techniques differ (and often are used in conjunction),
they both yield insight into how the mind processes experience at both the
preverbal and verbal levels.

PMID: 3300381 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

419. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 1986 Sep-Oct;36(9-10):301-6.

[Concentrated meditation and cognitive behavior therapy: possibilities for
integration and differences]

[Article in German]

Seer P.

PMID: 3534921 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

420. J Behav Med. 1985 Jun;8(2):163-90.

The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic
pain.

Kabat-Zinn J, Lipworth L, Burney R.

Ninety chronic pain patients were trained in mindfulness meditation in a 10-week
Stress Reduction and Relaxation Program. Statistically significant reductions
were observed in measures of present-moment pain, negative body image, inhibition
of activity by pain, symptoms, mood disturbance, and psychological
symptomatology, including anxiety and depression. Pain-related drug utilization
decreased and activity levels and feelings of self-esteem increased. Improvement
appeared to be independent of gender, source of referral, and type of pain. A
comparison group of pain patients did not show significant improvement on these
measures after traditional treatment protocols. At follow-up, the improvements
observed during the meditation training were maintained up to 15 months
post-meditation training for all measures except present-moment pain. The
majority of subjects reported continued high compliance with the meditation
practice as part of their daily lives. The relationship of mindfulness meditation
to other psychological methods for chronic pain control is discussed.

PMID: 3897551 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

421. Am J Psychiatry. 1985 Jan;142(1):1-8.

Meditation and psychotherapy: a rationale for the integration of dynamic
psychotherapy, the relaxation response, and mindfulness meditation.

Kutz I, Borysenko JZ, Benson H.

A framework for the integration of meditation and psychotherapy is presented
through a consideration of the psychobiological nature of meditation (the
relaxation response) and discussion of a traditional meditation practice
(mindfulness meditation) as an effective cognitive technique for the development
of self-awareness. The mechanisms by which the emotional and cognitive changes of
meditation can be of therapeutic value are explored and the synergistic
advantages of the combination of psychotherapy and meditation are discussed.

PMID: 3881049 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

422. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1985 Jan;48(1):125-32.

Individual differences in phenomenological experience: states of consciousness as
a function of absorption.

Pekala RJ, Wenger CF, Levine RL.

State manifestations of the trait of absorption–a trait associated with
differential responsivity to hypnosis, meditation, marijuana intoxification, and
electromyograph (EMG) biofeedback–were assessed to determine (a) if absorption
correlates with various (sub)dimensions of phenomenological experience, and (b)
if individuals of differing absorption ability experience different states of
consciousness. In two experiments 249 and 304 participants completed Tellegen’s
absorption scale and experienced several stimulus conditions. Each condition’s
phenomenological state was assessed by means of a retrospective self-report
questionnaire and quantified in terms of intensity and pattern parameters. The
results indicated that absorption correlated with increased and more vivid
imagery, inward and absorbed attention, and positive affect; decreased
self-awareness; and increased alterations in state of consciousness and various
aspects of subjective experience. In addition, individuals of high absorption
ability, relative to lows, experienced a different state of consciousness during
ordinary, waking consciousness that became an altered state with eye closure and
an hypnoticlike induction. The usefulness of the results for understanding
altered-state induced procedures such as hypnosis is discussed.

PMID: 3884768 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

423. Psychoanal Rev. 1985 Winter;72(4):599-613.

Meditation and psychoanalytic listening.

Rubin JB.

PMID: 3938031 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

424. Int J Neurosci. 1984 Nov;24(3-4):217-31.

Electrocortical activity and related phenomena associated with meditation
practice: a literature review.

Delmonte MM.

The state effects of meditation appear to include decreased electrocortical
arousal. There is also evidence that meditators more readily demonstrate alpha
and theta activity than nonmeditators, even when not meditating. It is not clear
whether prospective meditators as a group already possessed this characteristic,
or whether the state effects of meditation practice eventually generalize to
become traits. However, certain individuals, namely the psychologically « healthy »
and those with a capacity for relaxed absorbed attention, appear to be more
favourably disposed to meditation. Meditators appear to show both stronger
orienting and recovery responses to stressors while meditating than controls.
Meditation practice may begin with left hemisphere type activity, which gives way
to functioning more characteristic of the right hemisphere. However, it appears
that during advanced meditation (« no thought ») both left and right hemisphere
activity are largely inhibited or suspended. Depending on the individual,
inexperienced meditators may report sleep, hypnogogic reverie, trance or
abreaction during practice. The evidence to date does not support the notion of
unique state effects associated with the practice of meditation.

PMID: 6392127 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

425. Percept Mot Skills. 1984 Jun;58(3):775-84.

Visual sensitivity and mindfulness meditation.

Brown D, Forte M, Dysart M.

Practitioners of the mindfulness form of Buddhist meditation were tested for
visual sensitivity before and immediately after a 3-mo. retreat during which they
practiced mindfulness meditation for 16 hr. each day. A control group composed of
the staff at the retreat center was similarly tested. Visual sensitivity was
defined in two ways: by a detection threshold based on the duration of simple
light flashes and a discrimination threshold based on the interval between
successive simple light flashes. All light flashes were presented
tachistoscopically and were of fixed luminance. After the retreat, practitioners
could detect shorter single-light flashes and required a shorter interval to
differentiate between successive flashes correctly. The control group did not
change on either measure. Phenomenological reports indicate that mindfulness
practice enables practitioners to become aware of some of the usually
preattentive processes involved in visual detection. The results support the
statements found in Buddhist texts on meditation concerning the changes in
perception encountered during the practice of mindfulness.

PMID: 6382145 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

426. Percept Mot Skills. 1984 Jun;58(3):727-33.

Differences in visual sensitivity among mindfulness meditators and
non-meditators.

Brown D, Forte M, Dysart M.

Tachistoscopic presentation of light flashes was used to test for differences in
visual sensitivity among 3 groups of practitioners of Buddhist mindfulness
meditation and non-meditator-controls. Meditation practitioners were able to
detect light flashes of shorter duration than the non-meditators. There were no
differences among the meditator groups. There were no differences among the
groups in ability to discriminate between closely spaced successive light
flashes. The lower detection threshold for single light flashes for the
meditators may reflect an enduring increase in sensitivity, perhaps the long-term
effects of the practice of mindfulness meditation on certain perceptual habit
patterns. The lack of significant differences in the discrimination of successive
light flashes probably reflects the resistance of other perceptual habit patterns
to modification. The results support the statements found in Buddhist texts on
meditation concerning the changes in perception encountered during the practice
of mindfulness.

PMID: 6382144 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

427. Percept Mot Skills. 1983 Dec;57(3 Pt 2):1160-2.

Some cognitive aspects of meditation practice.

Delmonte MM.

This article reviews the role of some cognitive factors in practice of
meditation. It is suggested that more attention should be given to such covert
aspects of meditation as expectations, attitudes, and imagery, etc.
Non-observable subjective experiences during meditation have not been adequately
researched.

PMID: 6364034 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

428. J UOEH. 1983 Jun 1;5(2):243-8.

[Pre-verbality in focusing and the need for self check. An attempt at « focusing
check »]

[Article in Japanese]

Masui T, Ikemi A, Murayama S.

Though the Focusing process is not entirely non-verbal, in Focusing, careful
attention is paid by the Focuser and the Listener to the pre-verbal experiential
process. In other words, Focusing involves attending to the felt sense that is
not easily expressed in words immediately. Hence, during the process of learning
to Focus, the Focusing teacher attempts to communicate the experiences of
Focusing to the student which are not easily done by words. Due to such
difficulties, the Focusing student may (and quite frequently does) mistake the
experiential process in Focusing with other processes. Often, the felt sense can
be confused with other phenomena such as « autogenic discharge ». Also the Focuser
may not stay with the felt sense and drift into « free association » or frequently,
certain processes in « meditation » can be confused with Focusing. Therefore, there
is a need for a « check » by which the Focusing student can confirm the Focusing
experience for himself. For the Focusing student, such a « check » serves not only
to confirm the Focusing process, but also an aid to learning Focusing. We will
report here a « Focusing Check » which we developed by translating Eugene Gendlin’s
« Focusing Check » and making several modifications in it so that it will be more
understandable to the Japanese. Along with the « Focusing Check » we developed, the
authors discuss the need for such a check.

PMID: 6679633 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

429. Ann Neurol. 1982 Nov;12(5):475-8.

Voluntary alteration of visual evoked potentials.

Bumgartner J, Epstein CM.

Fifteen normal adults had pattern-shift visual evoked potentials (PSVEPs) using
monocular checkerboard pattern reversal. Subjects were instructed to concentrate
on the pattern in the first set of trials and then to avoid perceiving it in the
second set. Direct, continuous visual observation ensured that the eye remained
open and fixed on the pattern. Nonetheless, a third of the subjects could
spontaneously alter or obliterate the PSVEP using several maneuvers, including
meditation, daydreaming, and convergence. Several could produce shifts in
apparent PSVEP latency. With explicit instruction, most subjects could learn to
alter their PSVEP by maneuvers that are inapparent even to an observent
technician.

PMID: 7181452 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

430. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1982 Apr;4(1):33-47.

An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on
the practice of mindfulness meditation: theoretical considerations and
preliminary results.

Kabat-Zinn J.

The practice of mindfulness meditation was used in a 10-week Stress Reduction and
Relaxation Program to train chronic pain patients in self-regulation. The
meditation facilitates an attentional stance towards proprioception known as
detached observation. This appears to cause an « uncoupling  » of the sensory
dimension of the pain experience from the affective/evaluative alarm reaction and
reduce the experience of suffering via cognitive reappraisal. Data are presented
on 51 chronic pain patients who had not improved with traditional medical care.
The dominant pain categories were low back, neck and shoulder, and headache.
Facial pain, angina pectoris, noncoronary chest pain, and GI pain were also
represented. At 10 weeks, 65% of the patients showed a reduction of greater than
or equal to 33% in the mean total Pain Rating Index (Melzack) and 50% showed a
reduction of greater than or equal to 50%. Similar decreases were recorded on
other pain indices and in the number of medical symptoms reported. Large and
significant reductions in mood disturbance and psychiatric symptomatology
accompanied these changes and were relatively stable on follow-up. These
improvements were independent of the pain category. We conclude that this form of
meditation can be used as the basis for an effective behavioral program in
self-regulation for chronic pain patients. Key features of the program structure,
and the limitations of the present uncontrolled study are discussed.

PMID: 7042457 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

431. Am J Psychiatry. 1982 Mar;139(3):267-74.

Overview: clinical and physiological comparison of meditation with other
self-control strategies.

Shapiro DH Jr.

In 1977 the American Psychiatric Association called for a critical examination of
the clinical effectiveness of meditation. The author provides a review of the
literature bearing on clinical and physiological comparisons of meditation with
other self-control strategies. He begins by providing a definition of mediation
and then cites the literature comparing mediation with such self-regulation
strategies as biofeedback, hypnosis, and progressive relaxation. He pays
particular attention to the « uniqueness » of mediation as a clinical intervention
strategy a well as the adverse effects of meditation. Finally, he offers
suggestions and guidelines for future research.

PMID: 7036760 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

432. Percept Mot Skills. 1980 Dec;51(3 Pt 1):767-75.

Effect of passive concentration as instructional set for training enhancement of
EEG alpha.

Knox SS.

The technique of passive concentration, employed by autogenic training and
Transcendental Meditation for achieving relaxation, was tested here as a
technique for enhancing EEG alpha. Of 30 subjects displaying between 15% and 74%
alpha in their resting EEGs recruited, 10 had to be eliminated. The remaining 20
constituted two groups. One was instructed only to attempt to maintain a tone
indicating alpha but given no information about technique (control group). The
other was given additional instructions in passive concentration (experimental
group). Both were given four 5-min. trials a day for 4 consecutive days. Heart
rate and skin conductance were measured to monitor autonomic arousal. The group
receiving instructions in passive concentration had significantly less alpha than
the control group, which did not increase amount of alpha above baseline. The
reduction of alpha in the experimental group was interpreted as resulting from
beginning long training periods (20 min. per day), a practice advocated by
Transcendental Meditation but discouraged by autogenic training. It was concluded
that the relevance of passive concentration for alpha enhancement is doubtful.

PMID: 7010297 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

433. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1980 Jul;28(3):244-51.

Meditation, expectation and performance on indices of nonanalytic attending.

Spanos NP, Stam HJ, Rivers SM, Radtke HL.

PMID: 6993377 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

434. Am J Psychiatry. 1980 Jun;137(6):663-73.

The consciousness disciplines and the behavioral sciences: questions of
comparison and assessment.

Walsh R.

In recent years a number of assessments of the non-Western consciousness
disciplines have been undertaken by Western behavioral scientists. The author
suggests that a variety of conceptual, methodological, experimential, and content
inadequacies render the conclusions of these investigations of doubtful validity.
He then describes the models of human nature postulated by these disciplines and
the Western behavioral sciences, suggesting that comparing them results in a
paradigm clash. The failure to recognize this clash seems to have resulted in
inappropriate pathologizing interpretations. Attention is drawn to the relevance
of recent findings in state-dependent learning, meditation studies, peak and
transcendental experiences, transpersonal psychology, and quantum physics to an
assessment of the consciousness disciplines, and suggestions for more adequate
investigation are provided.

PMID: 6990799 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

435. J Appl Psychol. 1980 Jun;65(3):333-40.

Positive effects of meditation: a limited generalization?

Yuille JC, Sereda L.

PMID: 6991472 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

436. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1979 Dec;4(4):313-22.

The effect of transcendental meditation on iconic memory.

Frumkin LR, Pagano RR.

Three experiments investigated the effects of transcendental meditation (TM) on
iconic memory. The task involved reporting of digits shown tachistoscopically,
using Sperling’s partial-report technique. Experiment 1 was a pilot study
involving a meditation group and a nonmeditation gropu. All subjects were run in
a pretest/treatment/posttest design. During the treatment phase the meditation
group practiced TM for a 20-minute period and the nonmeditation group relaxed
with eyes closed. The results showed that the treatment increased performance in
meditators, but not in nonmeditators. In this experiment important controls such
as individual administration of the task, extrinsic rewards, subject pacing, and
adequate practice were lacking. Experiment 2 was a replication of the first, with
these controls added. The results no longer showed a superiority for the
meditation treatment. In fact, the meditation group performed worse on each day
of running. Experiment 3 was a replication of Experiment 1, to assess whether the
meditation effect of Experiment 1 was due to (a) differential increased attention
of the meditators (minimized in subject-paced Experiment 2), (b) a gain early in
learning for the meditators that was eliminated due to practice in Experiment 2,
or (c) a lack of proper control procedures in Experiment 1. The performance of
the meditators was, again, significantly lower. This research illustrates the
importance of careful control when investigating the effects of meditation on
behavior. It also suggests that the effects of meditation may depend on which
hemisphere is dominant in performing the task.

PMID: 393303 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

437. Rev Electroencephalogr Neurophysiol Clin. 1979 Jul-Sep;9(3):221-7.

[Evoked potentials and vigilance states induced during the course of choice
reaction time tests]

[Article in French]

Banquet JP, Bourzeix JC, Lesèvre N.

Characteristics of Visual Evoked Potentials (N120, P200, P300) were investigated
during choice reaction time situations in a group of 10 subjects practising
meditation (E.S.) versus a matched control group (C.S.) During a series of visual
stimuli occuring at fixed intervals, with 10% random omissions, the subjects were
asked : 1) to respond by a finger displacement to each visual stimulus; 2) to
hold on the response to the stimulus and to respond to omission. Both tasks were
recorded before and after the practice of meditation or rest for the controls.
The intergroup comparison showed that the experimental subjects had faster RT’s
with less mistakes, and N120 and P200 of larger amplitude and shorter latency.
These differencies were significant before and after meditation. The transient
effects of meditation or rest, were opposite for the two groups : whereas after
meditation the RT’s became longer with less mistakes, and the amplitude of P300
larger, after rest there was a decrease of the P300 amplitude and no change in
the RT’s of the controls. These results are interpreted in terms of selective
attention capacity and information processing strategies, A.S.C. being used as a
model for the study of these processes.

PMID: 392646 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

438. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1978 Nov;45(5):671-3.

Auditory evoked potentials and transcendental meditation.

Barwood TJ, Empson JA, Lister SG, Tilley AJ.

Auditory evoked potentials to tone stimuli were recorded from 8 practised
meditators before, during, and after meditation, and also during light sleep. No
consistent changes were noted between baseline and meditating AEPs, or between
meditating and sleep AEPs.

PMID: 81770 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

439. Percept Mot Skills. 1978 Apr;46(2):371-8.

Transcendental meditation and mirror-tracing skill.

Williams LR.

Learning, performance and patterns of inter- and intra-individual variability of
32 experienced Transcendental Meditators were compared to those of 32
non-meditators. The data indicated that certain effects attributed to the
practice of Transcendental Meditation (such as increased alertness and
maintenance of attention, greater consistency and less anxiety) are not
manifested in terms of learning and performance of a novel perceptual-motor
skill.

PMID: 351540 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

440. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1977 Oct;25(4):291-308.

The role of attention in meditation and hypnosis: a psychobiological perspective
on transformations of consciousness.

Davidson RJ, Goleman DJ.

PMID: 330418 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

441. Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 1977 Oct;25(4):236-73.

A model for the levels of concentrative meditation.

Brown DP.

PMID: 330417 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

442. J Clin Psychol. 1977 Jul;33(3):842-4.

Transcendental mediatation: a psychological interpretation.

Avila D, Nummela R.

The authors suggest that Transcendental Meditation offers a great deal of promise
for use in helping relationships. They also suggest that the technique might
receive wider acceptance if it could be explained in other than a purely
philosophical or mystical way. For that reason, in their article they offer a
psychological interpretation of the TM process.

PMID: 330570 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

443. Percept Mot Skills. 1976 Oct;42(43):527-31.

Anxiety reduction associated with meditation: home study.

Puryear HB, Cayce CT, Thurston MA.

The effects of a new meditation technique were investigated; 159 A.R.E. members
were randomly assigned either to a treatment or control group with the former
learning the new technique using a home-study workbook manual and the latter
continuing their customary meditational techniques. Analysis of variance
(repeated measures) was used to compare group means of the scale scores yielded
by two instruments, the IPAT Anxiety Scale (Self-analysis Form) and the Mooney
Problem Check List, Adult Form (Mooney & Gordon, 1950). Unlike the control group,
the treatment group reported highly significant reduction on the IPAT Anxiety
Scale scores after 28 days of meditating with the new approach but no significant
differences were found on the check list variables for either the treatment or
control group. Implications of the findings for mental health professionals
(psychiatrists, clinical and counseling psychologists) are briefly discussed.

PMID: 790294 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

444. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1976 Aug;44(4):630-7.

Psychotherapeutic effects of transcendental meditation with controls for
expectation of relief and daily sitting.

Smith JC.

PMID: 939847 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

445. Percept Mot Skills. 1976 Aug;43(1):303-9.

Transcendental Meditation and fine perceptual-motor skill.

Williams LR, Herbert PG.

30 college male meditators had a 20-min. meditation followed by a 6-min. waking
phase prior to 5-min. continuous practice on the pursuit rotor task. This was
followed by a 4-min. rest then a further 2-min. of pursuit rotor practice. A
similar group of college males who were non-meditators (N = 30) followed the same
procedures except that instead of meditating they sat quietly for the initial
20-min. period. The expectations that Transcendental Meditation would (a)
facilitate learning and performance; (b) cause less within-subject variability;
and (C) cause less reactive inhibition, (c) cause less reactive inhinition, were
not upheld by the results. With the exception of performance, which was
significantly lower for the meditators, the two groups were no different. Thus,
it appears that certain reported physiological and psychological benefits that
are attributed to the practice of Transcendental Meditation (such as less
anxiety, greater consistency, more awareness, altertness, and attention) are not
manifested in the present behavioral test of perceptural-motor function. In fact,
in terms of performance, the meditators seemed to be at a disadvantage.

PMID: 958830 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

446. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1976 Jun;44(3):456-66.

Meditation as an intervention in stress reactivity.

Goleman DJ, Schwartz GE.

PMID: 777059 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

447. J Abnorm Psychol. 1976 Apr;85(2):235-8.

Attentional and affective concomitants of meditation: a cross-sectional study.

Davidson RJ, Goleman DJ, Schwartz GE.

PMID: 1254784 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

448. Confin Psychiatr. 1976;19(1):1-23.

Transformations of consciousness. A cartography, II. The perception-meditation
continuum.

Fischer R.

The Japanese Zen and Indian Yoga meditation techniques of zazen, dhārnā, dhyān,
savichār- and nirvichār-samādhi are cartographed on a perception-meditation
continuum of increasing trophotropic arousal. Certain psychophysiological
characteristics and experiential dimensions of these hypometabolic states are
discussed and it is proposed that observer-observed interactions or
trans-substantiation (commonly termed ‘reality’) may not be subject to Goedelian
restrictions if they proceed in hyper- and hypoaroused states. The meaning of
aroused, non-verbal and logically non-Aristotelean states cannot be conveyed to
individuals in a non-aroused state. The converse is also true when the
relationship of arousal levels is reversed.

PMID: 786546 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

449. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol. 1975 Nov;39(5):519-22.

EEG responses to photic stimulation in persons experienced at meditation.

Williams P, West M.

The EEG responses to intermittent photic stimulation were examined in a group of
subjects experienced in meditation, and compared with those of a control group.
The meditators exhibited a significantly smaller decrement in alpha activity and
alpha blocking over the course of the experiment than did the control group, and
alpha induction occurred earlier and more frequently in the meditators. These
findings support the hypothesis that experienced meditators spontaneously enter
the meditative state on closing the eyes, and also the view that physiologically
the meditative state is one of prolonged drowsiness. An alternative
interpretation, that meditation is a state of sustained attention, is discussed.

PMID: 52446 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

450. Psychol Bull. 1975 Jul;82(4):558-64.

Meditation as psychotherapy: a review of the literature.

Smith JC.

PMID: 1099602 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

451. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1975 Apr;45(3):484-9.

Meditation and the psychotherapist.

Keefe T.

While meditation derives from religious traditions, it is a behavior accessible
to investigation. Recent physiological and behavioral studies are surveyed, and
meditation behavior is described. Greater awareness of fellings, enhanced
interpersonal perception, and increased present-centeredness are behaviors
transferred from meditation, and facilitative both to the psychotherapist and to
interpersonal functioning.

PMID: 1146980 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

452. Acta Psiquiatr Psicol Am Lat. 1975 Mar;21(1):56-63.

[Recent medical research on yoga and states of concentration]

[Article in Spanish]

Lerner M.

Traditional oriental thinking attracts the growing scientific interest of
occidental practitioners. Dr. Pierre Etévenon, head of the Department of
Neuro-Psycho-Pharmacology at the French Institute for Health and Medical Research
(INSERM), held several conversations and scientific exchanges with the author,
and kindly provided copies of some of his works. They are at the basis of the
present paper. M. A. Descamps (Paris) found that asanas–yoga postures– are
generators of dynamic action when there is an extension of the spinal column,
whilst they lead to quiet states when there is a flexion of it. Claeys and Gones
(Belgium) proved that overall global relaxation, as well as differential
relaxation were far more effective and deep when obtained by yogis than those
attempted by University students majoring in Physical Education. Lonsdorfer and
Nussbaum (France) studied several parameters concerning hatha-yoga and concluded
that it provides a regular functioning of the main bodily functions fostering
thus a psycho-physical balance. Wallace and Benson (U.S.A.) proved that
transcendental meditation increases aerobic metabolism, counteracting anaerobic
metabolism which is related to mental distress. Etévenon (Paris) investigated
neurophysiological effects of yoga in connection to ancient Indian concepts
(Upanishads) on sleeping, meditation and degree of consciousness. Dr. Etévenon
has studied the phylogenetic evolution of waking-sleeping cycles, focusing on
phylogenetic and ontongenetic appearances of REM cycles (activated sleep). A
correlation has been made with EEG studies during states of concentration (yoga,
transcendental meditation, Zen). These states have been found to be specific
brain activities, and different from deep sleep, in spite of certain similarities
in the EEG. Several hypothesis are set forth to explain brain activities
underlying sites of concentration. The possibilities of developing a conscious
mastering of dreams are also under research, and special attention is paid to the
works of Saint Denys (1867), and hindu tradition. This paper discusses also the
psychological, therapeutic and anthropological implications of recent discoveries
in the field.

PMID: 169670 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

453. Respiration. 1975;32(1):74-80.

Transcendental meditation and asthma.

Wilson AF, Honsberger R, Chiu JT, Novey HS.

A 6-month study with crossover at 3 months was designed to evaluate the possible
beneficial effects of transcendental meditation upon bronchial asthma. 21
patients kept daily diaries of symptoms and medications and answered
questionnaires at the end of the study and 6 months later. Other measurements
included physician evaluation, pulmonary function testing, and galvanic skin
resistance. The results indicated that transcendental meditation is a useful
adjunct in treating asthma.

PMID: 1118672 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

454. J Chronic Dis. 1974 Mar;27(3):163-9.

Decreased blood pressure in borderline hypertensive subjects who practiced
meditation.

Benson H, Rosner BA, Marzetta BR, Klemchuk HP.

PMID: 4830843 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

455. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1973 Aug;41(1):139-43.

Practicing of meditation by school children and their levels of field
dependence-independence, test anxiety, and reading achievement.

Linden W.

PMID: 4726697 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]