Conscience non-duelle et intégration psychologique (article de recherche en anglais)
Les articles de recherche sur la conscience non-duelle et « l’éveil » sont particulièrement rares. Il est vrai que ce n’est pas encore un phénomène de masse même si cela paraît en développement.
Notons ici l’existence d’un article contenant une échelle de mesure de « l’incarnation non-duelle », c’est-à-dire l’impact de la découverte de la conscience non-duelle et de son intégration dans la psychologie de l’individu :
Change in Sense of Nondual Awareness and Spiritual Awakening in Response to a Multidimensional Well-Being Program
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Online Ahead of Print: December 7, 2017
Paul J. Mills, PhD,1 Christine Tara Peterson, PhD,1,2 Meredith A. Pung, PhD,1 Sheila Patel, MD,1,3
Lizabeth Weiss, BA,3 Kathleen L. Wilson, MS,1 P. Murali Doraiswamy, MD,4
Jeffery A. Martin, PhD,5 Rudolph E. Tanzi, PhD,6 and Deepak Chopra, MD1–3
1Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.
2The Chopra Foundation, Carlsbad, CA.
3Mind–Body Medical Group, The Chopra Center for Wellbeing, Carlsbad, CA.
4Department of Psychiatry and Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University, Durham, NC.
5Sophia University, Transformative Technology Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA.
6Department of Neurology at Harvard University and Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Harvard Medical School,
Voici quelques extraits :
« Interindividual variation in the perception of self varies greatly, ranging from identification with the egoic structure of the mind–body and its associated social roles to recognition of self as transcending such limitations and identifying with a more nonpersonal awareness.1,2
Although there exists an incredibly wide range of meditative practices and philosophies in the context of numerous spiritual traditions, the majority emphasize cultivating such a perceptual shift away from a predominate ego self-identification. Insight into this pathway is provided by traditions such as Advaita Vedanta as well as more modern psychology disciplines,3,4 which provide perspectives on the nature of human awareness and subjective conscious experience.5,6 Humanistic and transpersonal psychology, for example, are subdisciplines of psychology that seek to move beyond seeing consciousness as simply a product of the brain and to integrate the spiritual and transcendent aspects of human experience, so called transpersonal states for optimal well-being.7 These perspectives
are in contrast to more traditional psychology and psychiatry, as well as modern neuroscience itself, which ascribe our consciousness and identity to the mind–body and brain activity alone.8,9
Baerentsen et al.10 and Josipovic11 emphasize that regardless of the tradition or meditative techniques, most types of meditation practice share the common ‘‘ultimate aim’’ of moving away from ego self-identification to a more unified experience of awareness, often termed ‘‘nondual’’ awareness (also called clear light, open presence, pristine or timeless awareness, transcendence, oneness, and mental silence).
Nondual awareness has been described as ‘‘an open, awake cognizance that precedes conceptualization and intention, and contextualizes and unifies both extrinsic task-positive and intrinsic self-referential mental processes, without fragmenting the field of experience into opposing dualities.’’11,12
In nondual awareness, the absence of primary identification with the mind–body transcends the subject– object dichotomy identification to where ordinary distinctions of subject and object do not exist. As such, polarities are collapsed and recontextualized; the knower, the known, and the process of knowing are experienced as one field of experience.
Although nondual awareness, itself a nonconceptual consciousness, can be considered a transpersonal state, transpersonal states may not necessarily include nondual awareness. That is, a transpersonal state can include any state where persons have transcended what their current perception of self has been but without encountering nondual awareness. In the nondual state, however, the previously experienced limited identity as a personal state is transcended and recognized to have been merely an impermanent pattern in the space (field) of nondual awareness (fundamental consciousness).
The experience of ‘‘spiritual awakening,’’ or sometimes referred to simply as ‘‘awakening,’’ can be considered a transpersonal experience and too may or may not include nondual awareness. In the literature, spiritual awakening typically refers to experiencing a great sense of love for self and others and freedom of thought and feeling.13,14
Common approaches to gaining insight into nondual awareness and spiritual awakening include self-inquiry, meditation practices, and psychedelics.12,15–18 Neuroscience research on nondual awareness seeks to understand the effects of nondual awareness on a variety of cognitive and affective processes, including mind wandering and neural networks, which are hypothesized to be related to changes in fragmented subject versus object experience. Studies indicate
better mental health in individuals who experience transpersonal states.19,20
Despite the central importance of nondual awareness, it has been largely overlooked in Western clinical psychology, in part, because of the typical requisite meditative experience necessary to obtain and maintain such an awareness and due to challenges in measuring this concept.
Moreover, although Western clinical psychology has increasingly emphasized meditative techniques as a means of alleviating suffering and promoting enhanced well-being, such efforts tend to promote more secular meditative practices taken out of their traditional context. Finally, Western clinical psychotherapeutic meditative techniques typically focus on training earlier ‘‘phases’’ or ‘‘modes of existential awareness’’ (MEA)21 such as nonattachment,22,23 decentering,24,25 self-awareness and regulation,21,23 and compassion26 to name just a few.
As Dorjee notes,21 ‘‘it is not clear whether secular
mindfulness-based approaches could enable a progression
beyond initial stages of MEA’’ as loss of subject–object duality
is rarely emphasized in meditation as taught by Western
With these considerations in mind, the objective of this
study was to examine the effects of a multidimensional wellbeing
program on cultivating the sense of nondual awareness
and spiritual awakening. The authors also took the
opportunity to further examine the construct validity of the
Nondual Embodiment Thematic Inventory (NETI), by administering
other relevant scales, including those for depressed
mood, anxiety, and spirituality. »
Thèmes du questionnaire « Nondual Embodiment Thematic Inventory »
« Nondual Embodiment Thematic Inventory. Although there
are a number of standardized questionnaires that assess spiritual
and transpersonal constructs,31–33 few specifically address
nondual awareness. For this study, the NETI, a 20-item
questionnaire that was developed by John Astin and David
A, was used. Butlein and a team of experts in nonduality
attempt to evaluate qualities of the nondual experience and
spiritual awakening.34–37 The NETI yields a single total
score that can range from 20 to 100 and attempts to differentiate
between individuals with transpersonal ideas
from individuals who live the transpersonal at the deepest
levels possible.34 The qualities that the scale assesses include
- propensity to surrender,
- interest in truth,
- capacity to tolerate cognitive dissonance and/or emotional discomfort,
- frequency of nondual experience,
- anxiety level,
- motivational paradigm,
- level of disidentification from the mind, and
Exemples de thèmes des 20 questions :
*Developed by John Astin and David A. Butlein. From Butlein.35
1. An inner contentment that is not contingent or dependent upon circumstances, objects, or the actions of other people.
Please choose only one of the following:
4. Most of the time
5. All of the time
2. Accepting (not struggling with) whatever experience I may be having.
3. An interest in clearly seeing the reality or truth about myself, the world, and others, rather than in feeling a particular way.
4. A sense that I am protecting or defending a self-image or concept I hold about myself.
5. Deep love and appreciation for everyone and everything I encounter in life.
6. Understanding that there is ultimately no separation between what I call my ‘‘self’’ and the whole of existence.
7. Feeling deeply at ease, wherever I am or whatever situation or circumstance I may find myself in.
8. A sense that my actions in life are motivated by fear or mistrust.
9. Conscious awareness of my nonseparation from (essential oneness with) a transcendent reality, source, higher power, spirit, god, etc.
10. Not being personally invested in or attached to my own ideas and concepts.
11. An unwavering awareness of a stillness/quietness, even in the midst of movement and noise.
12. Acting without assuming a role or identity based on my own or others’ expectations.
13. A sense of immense freedom and possibility in my moment-to-moment experience.
14. A desire to be understood by others.
15. Concern or discomfort about either the past or future.
16. A sense of fear or anxiety that inhibits my actions.
17. A feeling of profound aliveness and vitality.
18. Acting without a desire to change anybody or anything.
19. Feelings of gratitude and/or open curiosity about all experiences.
20. A sense of the flawlessness and beauty of everything and everyone, just as they are.
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