Diminuer les douleurs chroniques et l’inflammation avec la méditation de pleine conscience (notamment Marche en pleine conscience)

Une expérimentation a comparé l’impact d’une méditation de pleine conscience (MBSR) à une autre intervention de bien être qui serait structurellement équivalente avec de l’activité physique mais sans la méditation de pleine conscience.  Le premier groupe a fait ainsi de la marche en pleine conscience alors que le deuxième groupe a fait de la marche seule.

Le stress a été provoqué par le « test de stress social Trier » et l’inflammation par une crème appliquée sur la peau contenant de la capsaïcine, le composant actif du piment pour provoquer une réaction inflammatoire. Des mesures hormonales et immunitaires ont été effectuées avant et après chacun des deux programmes.

L’expérimentation montre que bien que les deux techniques soient efficaces pour gérer le stress, la méditation de pleine conscience a été plus efficace pour réduire l’inflammation.  Elle suggère un effet bénéfique pour les personnes touchées par des maladies inflammatoires ou des douleurs chroniques.

 

Référence : Melissa A. Rosenkranz, Richard J. Davidson, Donal G. MacCoon, John F. Sheridan, Ned H. Kalin, Antoine Lutz, A comparison of mindfulness-based stress reduction and an active control in modulation of neurogenic inflammation,
Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 27, January 2013, Pages 174-184, ISSN 0889-1591, 10.1016/j.bbi.2012.10.013. Article de recherche complet : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3518553/

 

Résumé en anglais :

Psychological stress is a major provocative factor of symptoms in chronic inflammatory conditions. In recent years, interest in addressing stress responsivity through meditation training in health-related domains has increased astoundingly, despite a paucity of evidence that reported benefits are specific to meditation practice.

We designed the present study to rigorously compare an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention to a well-matched active control intervention, the Health Enhancement Program (HEP) in ability to reduce psychological stress and experimentally-induced inflammation.

The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was used to induce psychological stress and inflammation was produced using topical application of capsaicin cream to forearm skin. Immune and endocrine measures of inflammation and stress were collected both before and after MBSR training.

Results show those randomized to MBSR and HEP training had comparable post-training stress-evoked cortisol responses, as well as equivalent reductions in self-reported psychological distress and physical symptoms. However, MBSR training resulted in a significantly smaller post-stress inflammatory response compared to HEP, despite equivalent levels of stress hormones.

These results suggest behavioral interventions designed to reduce emotional reactivity may be of therapeutic benefit in chronic inflammatory conditions. Moreover, mindfulness practice, in particular, may be more efficacious in symptom relief than the well-being promoting activities cultivated in the HEP program.

 

Détails sur le progamme non-MBSR (en anglais) :

In order to isolate mindfulness as the agent of change, we designed an active comparison intervention to control for the aspects of MBSR that are known to promote positive outcomes, but are not specific to mindfulness such as a supportive group atmosphere, expert instruction, and engaging in activities that are believed to provide benefit. Our active comparison condition – the Health Enhancement Program (HEP) – matched MBSR in structure, instructor expertise, and content (see MacCoon et al., 2012 for a detailed description).

Like MBSR, HEP consisted of four components: (1) physical activity (e.g. walking) (2) balance, agility, and core strength (3) nutritional education and (4) music therapy.

Each of these components was chosen to match the collateral benefits that MBSR may produce that are not unique to mindfulness. For example, physical activity with a focus on walking, was selected to control for the physical benefits of walking meditation. Each component was delivered by an expert in the respective practice, over 8 weekly 2.5 h sessions and one full-day session. Like those participating in MBSR training, HEP participants were assigned 45 to 60 m. of daily at-home practice.